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Full text of "A popular California flora : or, Manual of botany for beginners with illustrated introductory lessons, especially adapted to the Pacific Coast ; to which is added an analytical key to west coast botany, containing brief descriptions of over 1600 species of Pacific Coast plants"

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By VOLNEY rattan. 

Teaches of Natural Sciences in the State xNukm^i, Scuool, 

plintli I^evised Edition. 




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1882, 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, 


The first edition of this book was prepared for the press during the evenings and Satiu> 
days of the month of January, 1879. The hope that an abler hand would undertake the 
task deferred the beginning, and the needs of a class of over five hundred pupils hastened 
the completion of a work that would have been more slowly elaborated had the reputa- 
tion of the author been the only consideration. The errors incident to such rapid work 
were as far as possible corrected the following year, in a second edition, which was pre- 
faced as follows: 

"I have endeavored to prepare an inexpensive manual which will enable beginners in 
botany to determine the names of all plants with conspicuous flowers that may be found 
growing wild in the Central Valley of California from Visalia to Marysville, and through 
the Coast Ranges from Monterey to Ukiah. Over six hundred species of plants are 
characterized by descriptions condensed, for the most part, from Vol. I of the 'California 
Botany,' and Sereno Watson's 'Revision of the North American Liliaces.' Valuable 
material has also been obtained from a ' ReWsion of the Eriogoneee, ' by Torrey & Gray, 
Gray's ' Synoptical Flora of North America, ' and ' Gray's Manual of Botany. ' 

"Plants belonging to the Parsnip, Aster, Willow, Oak, and Pine Families, are not de- 
scribed, being mostly too difficult for beginners, or of little interest to them. The Intro- 
ductory Lessons are designed to show the learner how to study the growth of plants, as 
well as to give such knowledge of their structure as will enable him to understand the 
descriptions in the Flora. The 'Glossary of Generic and Specific Namea ' will enable the 
student to make appropriate common names for most plants. 

"To the authors whose works have furnished the materials for this book is due the 
credit for whatever of excellence it may possess; to the compiler, who may, in a few 
cases, have misrepresented these authors, attaches the blame for most of its defects. 

"I am indebted for suggestions and criticisms to Prof. E. W.Hilgard, Dr. C. L. Ander- 
son, Prof. W. H. Brewer and Dr. Asa Gray. To the latter I am especially grateful for 
his kind interest in my humble work." 

One third of the second edition was new matter, and only about half of the book in its 
present form is printed from the stereotype plates of the first edition. The newer half 
of the work, although necessarily partaking somewhat of the nature of patchwork, is as 
good as I can make it. My drawings upon wood have been faithfully engraved, and, 
though claiming no artistic merit, will, I trust, prove helpful to the learner. With few 
exceptions — always noted in the text — the plants, or parts of plants, are represented of 
the natural size. Besides the more obvious improvements, an entirely new Analytical 
Key replaces the old one; and our most common oaks are described. 

Aasuming tKat facts in natural history are useless if merely memorized from the book, 
and that the student must earn his knowledge by observing and experimenting, it is ob- 
viously best to encourage him at first by showing him how to try simple experiments 
whose results are easily interpreted. Seeds are the best material for such experiments, 
since the phenomena connected with their germination are not only easily observed, but 
deeply interesting. For this reason what may seem a disproportionate space in the Intro- 
ductory Lessons is devoted to "The Beginnings of Plant Life." There are no lessons of 
greater educational value than those given to observing eyes by the growth of a plant 
from the first quickening of the dry embryo to the putting forth of flowers and the ripen- 
ing of fruit. A sunny window in each school-room should be devoted to these beautiful 
object lessons of nature. It must not be forgotten, however, that since most young peo- 
ple are eager to learn the names of plants whose flowers they admire, it is best to devote 
most of the spring months to the study of Systematic Botany. The child's "What is 
it?" and the finger pointing to the plant in bloom, show plainly with what to begin the 
study of botany. Baron Frederick von Mueller says in his preface to an elementary 
work upon the botany of Victoria, Australia: "An experience of nearly forty years has 
convinced the author that the use of a grammar-like publication for initiating into a 
study of plants is alike wearisome to teacher and children, and that as a rule, subject to 
rare exceptions, the knowledge acquired from the ordinary first elementary works on 
botany is as quickly lost as gained. The only method of rendering such studies agreeable 
and lastingly fruitful consists in arousing an interest of the young scholars in the native 
plants of their locality, to afibrd them all possible facilities to recognize and discriminate 
all the various plants within reach, to lead them by observations thus started to com- 
prehend the limits of specific forms, of generic and ordinal groups, and to conduct them 
afterwards to the more difficult study of special anatomy and physiology of plants." 

Teachers and learners are here reminded of the importance of carefully writing out 
the details of experiments tried, as well as descriptions of what has been observed. In 
the words of Dr. Asa Gray: " The naturalist must not only observe that he may describe, 
but describe if he would observe." 

It will be noticed — and the fact has formed the basis of a criticism — that the descrip- 
tions of genera and species in this Flora are very brief; as a rule only the contrasting 
characteristics being given, since more is calculated to confuse rather than help the be- 
ginner. Dr. Gray says: "In floras, as in more general works, abridged descriptions or 
diagnoses suffice — indeed, are preferable in all cases where the region is pretty well 
explored, and where materials can be thoroughly elaborated." 

Although the Flora is designed especially for students in Central California, it will be 
found only a little less useful to those studying as far south as Los Angeles, or as far 
north as the Columbia. The Introductory Lessons are suited to the entire Pacific Coast. 

Saw Fbancisco, January, 1S82. V. E. 




1. If the first rain of the wet season is followed by warm, sunny 
weather, sjoecks of green will soon appear among the dry stems of last 
year's weeds; and in fence corners or other eddy nooks where summer 
winds have drifted seeds and covered them with dust, you may find per- 
fect mats of baby j^lants. "With a shovel skim off a few square inches of 
this plant-beariug soil, and carefully examine it. Except a few green 
needles, which you recognize as spears of grass, most of these little plants 
seem to consist of white stems, which split at the top into pairs of green 
leaves. Looking sharply, you may find between each pair of leaves a 

1 . Seed of Bur-clover just be- 
fore it appears above ground. 2. 
Same three days older. 3. Mus- 
tard. 4- Bur- clover showing the 
first and second plumule leaves; 
the former simple (apparently), 
the latter with three leaflets. 5 . 
Mallows ( Mai vaborealis I, show- 
ing the long-petioled seed leaves 
(Cotyledons', and one plumule 
leaf unfolded. 6. Filaria (Ero- 
dium), with lobed or sub-com- 
pound seed leaves. 

tiny bud; or, in the older plants, this may have grown other leaves, which 
curiously enough are not like the first two. (Figures 1 to 6). Searching 
through the shovelful of earth you will likely find plants in all stages of 
growth, from swollen and sprouting seeds to stems, which are just push- 
ing their bowed leaf-heads into the sunlight. Here, then, is material 
from which you may leai-n how plants grow; a lesson, remember, which 
no text-book or schoolmaster can teach you. It will be easier, however, 
since most of these early wild plants come from very small s^eds, to take 


your first lessons from plants which have larger beginnings. You should 
first study — 

2. The Plant in the seed. Get many kinds of large seeds, such as 
peas, beans, squash-seeds, buckeyes, castor beans, corn, etc. Put them 
in water that they may become soft enough to be readily separated into 
their parts. In a day or two starchy seeds, such as peas or beans, will be 
in good condition. 

3. First take a beau and make drawings showing the outlines as seen 
sidewise and edgewise. Any marks that seem to be found on all beans 
must be put down in the drawing, but do not bother about the shading. 
These attempts to represent what you see will lead to the discovery of 
certain marks on the concave edge of the bean, the meaning of which 
you may sometime learn by studying the growth of the seed in the pod. 
After 3'ou have thus studied the outside of the seed, slit it along the back 
with a sharp knife and take out the kernel. It readily splits into halves 
which are held together near one end by a short stem. Upon breaking 
them apart the stem sticks to one half, and you discover growing from the 
inner end a pair of tiny embracing-leaves. Make another drawing and 
compare it with Fig. 7. Presently it will be 
clear to j'ou that this entire kernel is a littlo 
plant. The plant in this dry apparently lifeless 
first stage of its existence is called — 

4. The Embryo, or Germ. This, as you have 
seen, is made up of the stem, or Radicle; the 
thick parts called Cotyledons, and the two-leaved 7 

IT n? 7 mi I c • • 7. One cotvledon of a bean with 

bud, or Fiumule. The embryo of a pea is Sim- the radicle and large plumule. 8. 
^^ 1 l.^ L e 1 1 J. J.1 "^ 1 1 • Embryo of a peanut, a. inner side 

liar to that oi a bean, but the plumule is more of one cotviedon with the radicle 
decidedly a bud. Fig. 8 represents the straight ^;;^e^'''"'^'' ^ "' °''*'' "'"" "' '""" 
embryo of a peanut. The radicle is not bent around against the cotyle- 
dons as in the pea and bean, and the plumule shows two divided leaflets. 
The cotyledons of the squash are thin and the plumule is scarcely visible. 
Lupine, though its seeds resemble beans, has a long radicle and a minute 
plumule. The buckeye seems to have a long radicle, but since it splits 
nearly to its point, where you will find a large plumule, it is evident that 
the apparent radicle is mostly made up of the cotyledon stems (petioles). 


5. Albuminous Seeds. Remove the shell-like coat of a castor beau, 
and carefully split it llatwise. What at first seems to be a large plumule 
proves to be free from the rest of the kernel, and with care 3'ou may be 

9. Seed of Willow or Dig. 
gfer Piue rut bo as to show 
the straight embryo In the 
center of thu oily albumen. 
a and b, embryo taken out, 
thecotyledous ('>) separated. 
10. Seedof the Castor-bean. 
a. the broad thin embryo 
neaily dividing the albu- 
mt-n; 6, the embryo removed 
and the leaf-like cotyledons 
11 12 separated. 11. Seed of Da- 

tura fBrugmansia', showing at " the bent embryo in the scanty albumen; b, the embryo taken out and 
the slender cotyledons separated. 12. A grain of coifee. a", the straight embryo. 

able to get it out whole (Fig. 10.) It is a straight embryo with beautifully 
veined, leaf-like cotyledons, embedded in a white, oily substance, which 
makes up the mass of the kernel. This substance is called Albumen, a 
name which applies to anything inclosed with the embrj'o by the seed 
coats. Peas, beans, acorns, nuts, and most large seeds have no albumen. 
Carefully cut thin slices from a well soaked coffee grain until its embryo 
appears as rejiresented in Fig. 12. The horny, folded albumen makes 
up most of the seed. A similar, but smaller embr^'o, may be found in 
the brain-shaped, fleshy albumen of the ivy seed. The embryo of the 
Tree-Datura, or Stramonium, is shown in Fig. 11. 
It has slender cotyledons, folded down against a 
thick radicle, the whole embedded in tough, fleshy 
albumen. Take the embryo of a Morning-Glory 
seed and pick the bits of transparent, jelly-like 
albumen out of the ])ockets in the crumpled coty- 
ledons. An attempt to flatten out the cotyledons 
v,ill probably result in something like b. Fig. 13, 
which may lead you to suppose that the coty- 
ledons are separately crumpled, which is not the 
case. They stick closely together by their inner 
faces, as do the cotyledons of other seeds you have 
esumined, and they are crumpled as one; but, being 
notched at the end, they readily split down the 
center. Buckwheat seeds will Gfive vou some trouble 

-13. Morning - Glory 
Just appearing above the 
ground with the seed coat 
sticking to the cotyle- 
dons, a, the swollen 
seed; b, embryo, with 
the crumpled cotyle- 
dons Si lit down the 
middle in the attempt 
to flatten them. 

Indeed, it will 


be much easier to make out the exact shapes and positions of the em- 
bryos in most albuminous seeds after they have begun to grow. 

Monocotyledonous Embryos. Corn, wheat, oats, and possibly a 
few other seeds in your collection, are different in plan from any yet 
described. In corn the soft portion called the chit is the embryo. Wheat 
and oats have smaller but similar embryos. You cannot easily distin- 
guish the parts of these embryos, but you can, at least, determine that 
they have not two cotyledons. Really they have one cotyledon, and are 
therefore said to be Monocotyledonous. When you study the growing 
seeds you will see how widely they differ from seeds which have — 

Dicotyledonous Embryos. These are embryos, which, like the bean, 
have two cotyledons. A few plants belonging to the Pine Family have 

Polycotyledonous Embryos. Fig. 12 shows the embryo of the 
common Willow or Digger Pine, which has more than two cotyledons in 
a whorl at the top of the radicle. 

The Germination of Seeds. Plant the remainder of your seeds — 
those of a kind together — in boxes or pots of sand, or any kind of loose 
soil you can get. Keep this little experimental garden in a warm place, 
where it can get a bit of sunshine, and water it daily. At intervals of 
three or four days dig up one of each kind of seed, and, after careful 
examination, make drawings to illustrate the successive stages of growth. 
It is of the greatest importance that you repeatedly attempt to draw 
what you see; it is of the least importance that your drawings are pretty. 
You will learn, among many interesting facts, that most seeds 
are pushed up to the surface of the ground by the growth of the radicle. 
There the seed-coats drop off (except that in seeds without albumen the 
cotyledons are apt to slip out of their coats on the way up); the cotyledons 
spread apart, become longer and broader, and turn green; lastly, the 
plumule becomes a leafy stem. Meanwhile, roots grow from the lower 
end of the radicle. Some cotyledons, like those of the pea, do not ap- 
pear above ground, but send the plumule up. The seeds of Big-root — 
a pest which grows in nearly every field — behave in a remarkable manner. 
The nut-like seeds drop from their prickly pods in June or July, and 
soon become covered with leaves. The rains of November and December 
cause them to sprout, as represented at d. The mimic radicle — really a 


tube formed by the united j^etioles, 
or stems, of the thick cotyledons, 
and only tipped by the radicle — 
penetrates the ground to a depth, 
usually, of four or five inches. The 
plumule meanwhile, as shown in f, 
remains dormant in the bottom of 
the tubular sprout. When the pe- 
tiole growth ceases, the radicle grows 
rapidly by absorbing the nourish- 
ment stored in the cotyledons, and 
becomes a tuber. Meanwhile the 
plumule begins its upward growth, :'' 
splitting the petioles apart, and usu- 
ally escaping from between them, as 
show^n in the figure below c. In this 
wonderful way the plumule bud is 
deeply planted together with nour- 
ishment(stored in the radicle) which, 
if necessary, can be used to aid its 
first growth. The reason for this curious behavior is obvious, when W\- 
know that ground squiri-els are fond of these seeds, and that a severe 
frost will kill the young i:)lant. If the seeds wait till warm weather to 
sprout, hungry rodents may find them; if they germinate early, and in 
the manner of other seeds. Jack Frost may nip them.* 

* Dr. Asa Gray, who first experimented -with these seeds, found them to grow as represented at a, ia 
the figure [reduced one fourth from Fig. 43, Botanical Test-book, edition of 1879]. Evidently on 
account of some obstruction, probably the bottom of a small pot, the seeds were elevated two or three 
inches above the surface of the soil [the dotted line S represents the surface of the ground for figures 
a, b, and c]. My experiments with seeds planted in shallow boxes gave very different results— shown 
at 6, which is a reduced copy of Fig. 14 of second edition. The plants came up about four inches from 
where the seeds were planted, the plumule being pushed laterally that distance by the elongaticn of the 
cotyledon petioles. Such inexplicable behavior stimulated to further observation, which resulted in 
the discovery that naturally planted seeds, unhampered by boxes cr pots, usually grow as represented 
at c and d. In one instance a sprout measured seven iuches Irom the plumule to the cotyledonsl Th« 
hairs at e probably help the sprout to penetrate the soil, by fastening on to the surface crust. Curiouslj 
enough, growing sprouts underground frequently avoid obstacles without touching them. 


a. Lupinusmicranthus; 
the first piumule leaf on 
the left. 6. Lupinus ar- 
boreus, as it appears when 
grown In sand; the root- 
hairs are latlenecl with 
sand. c. Lupinus densi- 
florus. d. The same, after 
the cotyledons are fully 
developed, and the plu- 
mule has appeared. 

Lupines or- 
dinarily grow as 
represented in the 
cut at a, but a com- 
mon white-flower- 
ed kind presents at the end of 
growth the queer appearance shown at d. 
first the sprouting seeds appear to be 

a month's 

those of other lupines (see Fig. c), but when 
the cotyledons open, they are seen to be united 
by their broad bases. For two or three weeks the 
cotyledons enlarge; not only becoming broader, bvit 
thicker; yet we look in vain for a trace of the plu- 
mule. Meanwhile a white pustule has been growing, 
which finally bursts and discloses the partly grown 
leaves of the missing bud, which has all this time 
been hidden in the thick stem below the cotyledons ! 
"Now, the tough leathery skin of these cotyledons is 
proof against the nightly frosts that prevail at this 
season of the year (December), so they go on pre- 
paring food from the air with Avhich to feed the 
tender plumule, until it also is strong enough to face c 

Jack Frost. If you carefully examine these seeds in various 
stages of their growth, you will learn that the plumule is at 
the bottom of a short tube formed by the united petioles of 
the cotyledons. S,ometimes the plumule breaks out through 


the side of this tube below the cotyledons, instead of 
bursting through between them. 

Do not fail to see for yourself how squash 
embryos pry open their tough coats. Soon after the 
sprout has gained a foothold in the soil, a little knob 
grows on the side of the radicle so as to split more 
widely open the point of the seed coat, as s'lown in Fig. c. 
Then the radicle stem between the knob q,nd the cotyledons, 
by growing, pries the seed still wider open, as seen at h below. 
Finally, by continued growth, the cotyledous are pulled out 
of the seed coat and upward to the surface of the ground, 
where they expand, and become pretty good leaves. Seeds 
planted edgewise, which of course could rarely happen in nature, can not 
thus free themselves of their seed coats, and it has been proved by a 
French botanist (M. Flahault) that seeds which come up with their coats 
on do not thrive. The seed at h in the figure was first planted the other 
side up. It was turned over when the knob on the right had begun to open 
the seed. The radicle, which then pointed directly uj)ward, gradually 
straightened, bent downward, and finally the second knob grew, by the 
help of which the seed leaves were in a fair way to get out when the draw- 
ing was made. Some native California plants get 
out of their coats in a similar manner. 

Germination of Albuminous Seeds. 
You Iiave observed that when seeds without al- 
bumen send their eotjdedons above ground, the 
seed coats are usually left behind, but the albu- 
minous seeds named in paragraph 5 retain their 
seed coats often for several days after they come 
up. Examine the coats after they are thrown off, 
and you will find none of the albumen which 
formed the larger part of their contents before 
germination. The enlarged cotyledons tell what 
has become of it, and it is now plain why the 
coats were retained. 



q ]i 

a. Section ot a seed of Paeonia Brownii, showing the small embryo at the right ,n the copious albu- 
men. 6. The embryo removed and the cotyledons separated, c. The germinating seed. d. The "ame, 
with the seed coats removed to show the leaf-like cotyledons, e. Plumule bud, or real end oi ne un. 
ward-growing stem. /. The first plumule leaf as it appears above ground, the terminal bud ye; dormant 
under ground, g. Peed of Pinus Sabiniana (Digger, Willow, or Nut Pine) soon after it acpears above 
ground, h. Same, with the seed coats removed to show the 14 cotyledons. See Fig, 9, p. vil 

You must have wondered why the cotyledons of a bean, which 
never become leaf -like, should aj^pear above ground. It is equally strange 
that the albuminous seeds of the peony should behave in the reverse 
way. As shown in the cut {a and b), the embryo is very small. In 
germination the plumule comes up while the cotyledons become decidedly 
leaf-like, and fill the shell which has been emptied of its albumen to feed 
them and the plumule. These thin, veiny seed leaves could certainly do 
better work above ground than those of most lupines, yet they never come 
up. There is another curious thing about the growth of peoay seeds, 
which you may try to discover. 

When the buckwheat and cotton seeds have begun to sprout, 
you can study their embryos. Note how the thin, broad cotyledons of 
the former are folded once and rolled up with a layer of snow-white 
starch; and how the speckled seed leaves of the latter are folded along 
the center, then outwardly back, and finally crumpled endwise to make 
them fit coats too short for them. Maple seeds have curiously ci'ampled 
and folded cotyledons. Indeed, all seeds have interesting lessons to 
teach us. 

Germination of Monocotyledonous Seeds. The seeds named 


18 IT 

15. aermlnstlngoorn. 16. Wheat. 17. Wild. 

in paragraph 6 do not clearly show 
their embryos in germination, but they 
are readily enough distinguished from 
dicotyledons. The downward growing 
sprouts are several instead of one, and 
the upward growing sprout is like a 
rolled grass leaf (Figs. 15 to 17). By 
tasting of the growing seeds you can 
discover what the starchy albumen is 
changed to before it is fit food for the 
young plant. It must be remembered 
that only the grass-like monoctyledons 
grow as here represented. If possible, 
get Lily seeds. Iris seeds, etc. 

If you examine seeds and study 
their growth as you have been directed, Ti^rrrriinr^lS'^ll'S; 

you will hive the evidence of your own means of which it la able to travel to cracta 

eyes that an embryo is a plant in a i° ti»« k™™* and thus plant itself . 
sort of sleeping state from which it may be aroused to activity by moist- 
ure and warmth. It will be evident that the radicle is a stem; that 
the cotyledons correspond to leaves, and that the plumule is a bud 
from which is to grow all the above-ground portion of the plant. Re- 
member, that if these, or any other statements concerning the structure 
and behavior of plants, are not confirmed by your own judgment upon 
what you have yourself observed, they are useless to you, except as guides 
pointing to what you are to find. To memorize these statements of facts 
is to secure the husks, not the kernels, of knowledge. Plants themselves 
must teach you how they grow. The book can only show you how to 
question them and how to interpret their answers. Do'not fail to care- 
fully compare the results of all your experiments; for in this way you 
can decide what are general or usual facts, and what are exceptional. 
The latter should be closely investigated, since it is probable that there 
is a reason for all unusual as well as usual behavior of plants. 



Steins. While awaiting the development of germs in your experi- 
mental garden, you can study plants which have already reached maturity 
in wild gardens. Go out and dig up the first plant — not too large — that 
you find in blossom. I will suppose that you have found the very com- 
mon Filaria (also called Pin-clover; and children call the curious seeds 
with twisted tails, clocks). Its parts are Boots, Stem, Leaves, and Flowers. 
(Some time, if you continue studying Botany, it will be proved to. you 
that flowers are forms of stems, or stem-branches.) 

Crush the stem. It is made up of stringy fibers and a soft sub- 
stance filled with juice. The former is generally called Fibrous l^issue 
or Wood ; the latter, Cellular Tissue. The lower part of the stem and 
the upper part of the root — the older portions of the plant — contain 
more wood than the branches and the rootlets, while the leaves have only 
net-like skeletons of wood. It would be interesting to study these tissues 
with the aid of a microscope, and thus become acquainted with the inner- 
most structure of plants; but for the present it will be sufficient if 3'ou 
can distinguish, in a general way, wood from cellular tissue. 

Cut the stem squarely across near the upper end, and from one 
piece take a thin slice. Stick this on a pin and hold it up to the light. 
It is nearly transparent, except a green ring of skin outside and a ring 
of white dots inside. The latter are cut ends of woody fibers which run 
lengthwise of the stem. Make a similar section of the lower part of the 
stem and you will find a continuous ring in place of the dots, showing 
that in the older part the fibers have become so numerous as to form a 
hollow cylinder of wood. The inclosed cellular tissue is called the Pilh. 

Esogens and Endogens. If the stem lives year after year there will 
be r.dded successive layers of wood outside of the first one. Such stems 
are woody, and if they grow many years become Bushes, Shrubs, or Trees. 
Plants that grow in this way are called Exogens. Examine Asparagus, 
Soap-root, Iris, or any Lily and you will find the wood fibers scattered 
irregularly through the stems. These plants are Endogens. All our native 


trees and most other plants are esogens. Palm-trees, Century-plants, 
grasses, and the "small grains," are endogens. 

Herbs are plauts whose stems die, at least to the ground, after 
they have blossomed and matured fruit. These are Annuals when their 
lives are limited to one season; Biennials when they die the second year 
— not producing fruit the first year; Perennials when they live on year 
after year, their stems dying annually down to the ground. The under- 
ground portions of such stems are called — 

Bootsiocks. This name applies more particularly to such stems as 
grow nearly horizontally under ground, or become thick and fleshy with 
nutritious matter, which enables the plant to make rapid first growths 
each year. A rootstock can usually be distinguished from a true root 
by its bearing buds. 

Bulbs are formed by a peculiar bud growth in which the leaves or 
their bases become very thick and fleshy, with a store of nourishment, 
while the stem grows in diameter, but scarcely at all in length. 

Coated or Tunicated Bulbs are those in which the leaves form a 
succession of envelopes, as in the onion. If the leaves or leaf-bases are 
narrow, as in the lily, the bulb is Scaly. 

Corrtis resemble bulbs, but are solid, and have more the nature of 
Tubers, which are the thickened ends of slender, branching, under- 
ground stems, as potatoes, ground artichokes, etc. 

Leaves. Collect the leafy stems of many kinds of plants. Ob- 
serve the arrangement of the leaves on the stems. A few like Erodium 
(Filaria), the Catchfly, Pink, Fuchsia, Mint, etc., have Opposite leaves. 
Possibly you may find a Collinsia, or stem of Cleavers, with the leaves in 
Whorls of three or more. Most plants have Alternate leaves. You will 
find some plants like Plantain, with a bunch of leaves growing from the 
ground, but no leafy stems. Such leaves come from rootstocks, and are 
said to be Radical. Plantain, Dodecatheon, Primrose, etc. have the leaves 
all radical. Many perennial herbs have radical leaves, as well as ordi- 
nary stem leaves, and these usually differ more or less from the stem 

Observe that stems and branches end in buds or flowers, and that 


there is usually a bud, or brauch, or a flower at the base of a leaf be- 
tween it aud the stem from which it grows. 

Buds and flowers at the ends of stems or branches, are Terminal ; 
when between the stems and leaves, Axillary. 

Examine the leaf of a Violet or Pansy. You can readily distin- 
guish three parts : A broad Blade ; a stem or Petiole, and a j)air of appen- 
dages at the base of the petiole called Stipules. The latter in the Pansy 
are leaf-like. Sometimes they are mere scales, and frequently there are 
none at all. The petiole may be wanting, also; the leaf is then said to 
be Sessile. Leaves with bub one blade are — 

Simple Leaves. The illustrations (Figures 18 to 32) show the 
principal forms of simple leaves or leaflets of compound leaves. Care- 
fully compare the blades of your leaves with these shapes. If the leaf 
in hand does not correspond with any of the figures, you may describe it 
by combining the descriptive words, or by adding a word. A leaf, for 
example, too broad to be lanceolate, and. narrower than ovate, if about 
half way between the two forms, is Ovate-lanceolate or Lance-ovate; the 
first, if nearer ovate; the latter, if nearer lanceolate. Or, if merely a lit- 
tle broader than lanceolate, we may say it is Broadly-lanceolate ; when more 
slender. Narrowly -lanceolate ; if slender and nearly as broad in the middle 
as nearer the base, it is Linear-lanceolate, etc. So, too, there are interme- 

18 19 

Forms of Leaves. 

(Shield-shaped). 28 

-18. Linear. 19. Oblong. 
Hastate (Spear-shaped). 24- 

Sagittate (Arrow-shaped) 

23 24 

21. Orbicular. 22. Peltate 

diate forms described by such terms as: Oblong-lanceolate ; Narrowly-ellip- 
tical ; Broadly-elliptical — which approaches orbicular; Broadly-cordate — 


which becomes reniform if the apex, is rounded, etc. Obovate ; Oblance~ 
olate ; Obcordate, etc., apply to forms the reverse of ovate, lanceolate, etc. 

25 26 27 28 29 30 

Forms of Leaves.— 25- Lanceolate. 26- Oblanceolate. 27. Spatulate. 28. Ovate (Egg. 
shaped). 29- Cordate (Heart-shaped). 30. Reniform (Kidney-shaped). 31. Falcate (Sickle- 
ghapedi. 32- Hastate (Spear-shaped) . 32a. Auriculate (Eared) base. 

Apexes of Leaves. There are terms descriptive of the apexes (the 
upper ends) of leaves. Fig-. 18 has a Cuspidate apex; Fig. 19, Notched or 
Ema-ginate ; Figures 23, 24, 29, Acute; Fig, 25, Acuminate; Fig. 26, 

Margins of Leaves. All these forms are represented as having 

34 35 36 37 38 39 

LeafMargins.— 33. Serrate. 34. Dentate. 35. Crenate. 36. Wavy. 37. Sinuate. 38. Incised. 
39. Erose. 

entire or nearly entire margins, but the margins may be notched or cut 
in various ways. Figures 33 to 39 will assist you in describing the mar- 
gins of your leaves. Here, also, you will find it necessary to combine ad- 


jectives or use adverbs. Leaves may be Finely-serrate or Coarsely-serrate ; 
and Dentate, Crenate, etc., may be similarly modified. 

40. Pinnately lobed leaf, of "White Oak (Quercus lobata). 41- Pinnately parted leaf of Nemo- 
phila aunta (Lobes retrorse). 42. Pinnate leaf of Erodium moschatum. 43. Palmately lobed 
leaf of Maple. 44. Palmately parted leaf of Viola lobata. 

Lobed Leaves. These may be Pinnately or Palmately lobed, de- 
pending upon whether there is more than one rib j)roceeding from the 


of the leaf. Fig. 40 repi-esents a jjinnately lobed leaf; Fig. 43, 
palmately lobed. When leaves are deeply lobed, as in Figures 41 and 44, 
they are said to be Parted. Divided leaves are cut quite to the midrib if 
pinnately divided, or to the end of the petiole when palmately divided. 
Cleft leaves have the sinuses between the lobes sharp as in Fig. 38. When 
leaves are pinnately cleft about half "way to the midrib they are said to be 
Pinnatifid. If the lobes are pinnatifid it is described as Bipinnatifid. It 
is common to give the number of lobes in the descriptive jDhrase, as pin- 
nately nine-lobed (Fig. 40); pinnately eleven-parted (Fig. 41); palmately 
five-lobed (Fig. 43); palmately five-parted (Fig. 44). 

Compound Leaves have distinctly separate leaflets usually jointed 
to a common petiole, just as simple leaves are jointed to the stem. A leaf 
is Pinnate, -when the leaflets grow 
along opposite sides of the petiole 
(Fig. 42); Palmate, if they all grow 
from the end of the petiole (Fig. 
46). Fig. 45 represents sl pinnately 
3-foliolate leaf; Fig. 46, palmately 
S-/oliolate. When there is no odd 
leaflet at the end the leaf is ab- 
ruptly pinnate. Leaves may be 
twice, thrice, etc., compound, that 
is, the leaflets may be compound 
as in some acacias. 

Bracts are leaves among flow- 
ers, or small undeveloped leaves 
anywhere on the stem. 

Stipules may be adnate to 45. Pinnately 3-foliolate leaf of Bur-clover, with 
, - J, .-, .. , • ,1 email stipules. 46. Palmately or dig) tatelvS-foliolate 

the base Ot the petiole, as in the leaf of a true clover, the broad adnate stipules lacerate. 

rose and clover (Figures 45, 46); they may grow on the stem; or, as in 
some plants of the Buckwheat Family the stipules form a sheath surround- 
ing the stem at the base of the petiole. Do not mistake the first leaves 
of a growing axillary bud for stipules. 

Venation of Leaves. All the leaves thus far described are said 
to be Netied-veined or Reticulated, because their skeletons of wood fiber 


resemble nets. Examine the leaves of Iris, Calla, or any that are grass- 
like, and you will see why they are called Parallel-veined. 

Netted-veined leaves grow on Exogenous stems. Parallel-veined leaves 
grow on Endogenous stems. The former belong to plants which grow from 
Dicotyledonous seeds; the latter to plants from Monocotyledonous seeds. 

Flowers. Get a bunch of Mustard flowers — "Wall-flowers, single 
Stock, or Kadish flowers will do as well. Pluck a single blossom and 
note these facts: The most conspicuous part consists of four yellow 
leaves; outside of these are four smaller greenish yellow leaves in pairs 
not quite alike. The latter are Sepals, and together form the Calyx ; the 
former are Petals, and together form the Corolla. Pull off the sepals, 
observing that they alternate with the petals. Nest remove the petals. 
The broad part of each petal is called the Made, the narrow part, the claio 
(corresponding to the petiole of an ordinary leaf). Inside of the petals 
you find six yellow-headed bodies with white stems, two of which are 
shorter than the remaining four. These are the Stamens. Their stems 
are Filaments ; the yellow heads are Anthers, and the yellow powder which 
they contain is Pollen. In the center of the flower is a club-shaped body 
called the Pistil. This is the young seed-pod, and by splitting it open 
you may see the minute Ovules, which are the beginnings of seed. The 
j^art containing the ovules is the Ovary ; the naked upper end of the jdIs- 
til is the Stigma, and the part connecting the stigma with the ovary is the 
Style. The end of the stem 
upon which the parts of the 
flower grow is the Receptacle, 
and the stem is called a Pe- 
duncle. Fig. 47 will assist 
you in learning these names. 

A Complete Flower 
must have calyx, corolla, 
stamens and pistils; but, since 
the office of a flower is to pro- 
duce seeds, and these grow 
from ovules, which pollen has 
reached by way of the stigma, 

if frillrwvo +!-> f '^'^- Magnified Mustard flower with four of the stamena, 

It lOllOWS mat three petals and throe sepals removed. 


A Perfect Flower may consist of pistils and stamens only, and of 
these the styles and filaments are not essential. 

Cohesion of Floral Organs. When sepals cohere or grow fast to 
each other (Figs. 48- 
51) the calyx is 6^amJ- T _ ^ ^ 

Gamopetalous. When 
stamens cohere they 
are Monadetphous if 
in one set, Diadel- 
phous if in two sets 
(usually 9 and 1), etc. 
Cohering pistils (car- 
pels) form a Com- 
pound Pistil. The de- 
grees of cohesion in 
calyx and corolla is 
described, as in leaves, 
by the terms entire, 

cleft or looed and 43. BucI of Eschseholtzia, with the mitriform calyx removed and 
iinrfprl Tlin«' "Rinrl shown above. 49- Open flower of the same, with two of the petals 
Ijuiicu. xnus. xjiuu. removed, one of these below with the stamens adhering to the claw. 
w-oorl ^TT"i(T '^^^ lifia on 50- Flower and leaf of Convolvulus arvensis; above is the corolla split 
^ eea {£ Ig. ou; nas an ^^^^_ displaying five unequal stamens. 

entire corolla limb; Zauschneria (Fig. 51) 
has a 4-lobed calyx; Nemophila has a 
o-parted or deeply 5-lobed corolla, etc. 
If the flower has a limb (border) dis- 
tinct from the tube, these terms apply to 
the limb. 

Adhesion of Floral Organs. The 
calyx may grow fast to the ovary (Fig. 51), 
then it is said to be Superior (ovary in- 
ferior). The corolla and stamens fre- 
quentl}' grow on the calyx, as in Fuch- 
sia, Strawberry, etc.;'^ then they are said 


to be Perigynous ; or the stamens may grow on the corolla (Fig. 50) as 
in most gamopetalous flowers, and in Eschscholtzia (Fig. 49). In the 
Orchis Family the stamens grow on the pistil. 

Irregular Flowers are those in which joarts of the same kind are 
unlike in form or size. 

Inflorescence. The forms of flower-clusters are almost as various 
as the shapes of the flowers, but they 
may all be referred to two plans, viz. : 
Ter-minal and Axillary. The Raceme 
(Fig. 52) is a simple form of axillary 
inflorescence in which the leaves are 
reduced to bracts. If the flowers are 
sessile (without jDcdicels) the raceme 
becomes a Spike (Fig. 53). If the 
older flowers are raised on long pedi- 
cels the flat-topped cluster is called a 
Corymb (Fig. 55). In an Umbel the 
pedicels all grow from the end of the 

53. Spike 

52. Raceme. 

peduncle (Fig, 56). If these are 
very short or obsolete a Head is 
formed. A Panicle is a loose com- 
pound raceme. A Thyrse is a dense 
panicle. Fig. 54 represents a Cyme, 
the type of terminal inflorescence. A 
many-flowered cyme is a Fascicle ; more 
densely flowered, a Glomerule. Cymes 
and Fascicles resemble Corymbs; but 
in the former, the central flowers are 
the older, while in the latter, the younger flowers or buds occupy the 
center. Glomerules differ from heads in the same way. 

The woodland flowers Trillium and Anemone furnish examples of 
the simplest form of Terminal Inflorescence. Their simple stems bear 
each one flower at the top. Often flowers seem to be axillary when the 
plan of inflorescence is terminal. Fig, 57 illustrates a case of this kind- 

56 55 

56. Umbel. 55. Corymb. 


Suppose that one of the branclies iu 
Fig. 54 bad failed to grow. The first 
flower would then appear to be axil- 
lary. In the plant represented by 
Fig. 57, two of each set of three 
axillary buds usually remain dormant. 
Their growth would complete a Tri- 
chotomous Cyme. Fig. 54 represents a 
Dichotomous Cyme. Imagine the plant 
shown in Fig. 57 to continue branch- 
ing, the stem to be shortened so as to 
bring the flowers close together, and 
the leaves to become obsolete. A 
bunch of flowers, having the appear- 
ance of a one-sided raceme, would be 
formed. Let the flowers become ses- 
sile, and we would have a false spike. 
Such mimic racemes and spikes are 
usually coiled as shown in Fig. 64. 

The common Anagallis, whose 
pretty salmon-colored flowers appear in 
the axils of the opposite leaves (Fig. 58), 
is an illustration of simple Axillary In- 
florescence. Imagine the leaves reduced 
to bracts, and the stem shortened. The 
fruit, flowers, and buds would then form 
a Bracteate Raceme. Let the bracts be- 
come wanting, and we would have a naked 
or Braciless Raceme, similar to the one 
shown in Fig. 59. This raceme wants 
only a slight leugtheuing of the lower 
pedicels to become a Corymb. Indeed, it 
might be called a Corymbose Raceme. 
Fig. 60 represents a naked raceme, in 
which only one or two flowers are in 


bloom at a time. A dense Sj) ike, 
bearing a ring of flowers be- 
tween growing ovaries below 
62 and expanding buds above, is 

shown in Fig. 61. The coiled spike (Fig. 64) is 
reall}' a kind of cyme, as has been shown. This 
Scoi^pioid Infiorescence is characteristic of two 
families of plants, represented by many p)lants on 
this coast. Mosquito Bills (Fig. 62) grow in Brac- 
teate Umbels. The Head or Capitate cluster (Fig. 63) 
is like an umbel, only the pedicels are mostly very 
short. When the flowers are numerous, the head 
becomes Globose. The true clovers have capitate 
flowers. "When the pedicels in a raceme branch so 
as to bear two or more flowers each, a Compound 
Raceme is formed. So in like manner Compound 
Umbels, Spikes, and Corymbs may be formed. These 
flower bunches, cymes, racemes, etc., may be at the ends of 
main stems or branches, or in the axils of leaves, or replace 
single flowers in any kind of inflorescence. 

The Calyx, as we have already learned, is composed 
of leaves called Sepals, which, though different from ordinary 
leaves in shape, are usually green. "When the sepals are separate, the 
flower is Polysepalous. Sepals united jDartly or wholly form a Gamo- 
sepalous calyx. If the sepals drop off when the flower opens, as shown 
on p. 20a, they are Caducous. If they fall with the petals, or before the 
fruit is ripe, they are Deciduous. A Persistent Calyx remains until the 


fruit ripens (Fig-. 65). A colored 
calyx — i. e., not green — is said 
to be Petaloid. Flowers with- 
out i^etals and those of the Lily 
Family usually have petaloid 
sepals (Figs. QQ>, 70, 71). 

The Corolla is Polypet- 
alous when the petals are free 
from each other (see Figs. Q>(j, 
68, 69, 73). In Gamopetdlous 
corollas there are all degrees of 
cohesion from the complete 
union (Fig. 67) of the Eidire 
limb to the almost free petals 
of a Divided corolla (Fig. 58). 
Petals often grow upon the calyx 
(Fig. 68). Corollas are Regular 
(Figs. 67, 69) or Irregular (Fig. 
66, and Fig. 58, p. 3. See also 
the figures on p. 11 and p. 88b). 
Common forms of regular co- 
rollas are Ro(afe{Fig. 58), Salver- 
form (Fig. 64), Fuiinel-foi-m 

(Fig. 67), and Campanulate or Bell-shaped when the tube expands suddenly 
at the base to a width nearly equal to that of the summit and about equal 


. . Ovary. 

Calyx tiibe. 

Calyx lobes. 
Bifid 2'>etals. 

73. A flower of 'WTiipplea, magnified, cut down 
through the center, showing the partly inferior 
ovary and the introree anthers. 

to a third of the length. Irregular flowers are frequently 
Bilabiate or Tico-lipped , as shown in the figures a and c on 
p. 11, and the figures on p. 88b. When the tube of a corolla 
is slender, and the regular or irregular limb is small or want- 
ing, the flower is said to be Tubular. The term Perianth is 
used to designate the calyx and corolla taken together. It is 
mostly used in describing endogenous flowers (Figs. 70, 71). 
Stamens may grow upon the receptacle (Hypogynous, 
Fig. 69), ujDon the calyx (Perig^'^nous, Fig. 68), upon the 
corolla (Fig. 67), or upon the pistil. Stamens are often 
united by their filaments so as to form tubes (Fig. 74) or 
bundles; or the anthers are joined, as in the Sunflower or 
Thistle. Sometimes there are two kinds of stamens in the same flower 
(Fig. 68). Staminodia are antherless or abortive stamens (see longer sta- 
mens in Fig. e, p. 8). Anthers usually consist of two cells, which are 
filled with Pollen. If the upper end of the filament lies exactly between 
the anther cells, the anther is Innate. An Adnate anther is attached by 
one side to the filament (Figs. 67, 68). A Vei'satile anther is attached be- 
tween its ends b}' one side to the tip of the filament (Figs. 71, 72). The 
pollen usually escapes from slits in one side of the anther, as shown in 
Fig. 69. This side, which in an adnate or versatile anther, is opposite 
the filament, is called the face of the anther. When the anther faces 


the pistil, it is Inlrorse (Figs. 68, 71, 72, 73); and when it faces away 
from the pistil, it is Exlrorse (Fig. 69). 

The Pistil grows upon the receptacle, or upon a stem arising 
from it, called a Stipe (Fig. 71). In a few orders there are several or 
many pistils in each flower. Usually there is but one, formed of several 
simple pistils (carpels) united more or less closely. As in the other floral 
organs, there are all degrees of cohesion, from a slight union of the 
bases of the ovaries — rarely of the stigmas only — to such completeness 
as leaves no trace of lobes in the stigma (see Fig. on p. 5). Often the 
free styles tell how many carpels compose the pistil (Fig. 69). Generally 
the stigmas are divided or lobed (Fig. 68). These marks wanting a cross 
section of the ovary, or, -better still, of the partly grown fruit, will usu- 
ally show a cell for each carpel (see the right-hand figure, p. 88b). If 
the ovules (or young seeds) are in the center or grow on more than one 
side of the ovar}' (or pod), the pistil is compound. A simple pistil is 
generally plainly one-sided. A symmetrical pistil is compound. 

Inferior Ovaries. When the calyx adheres to the ovary, so as 
to form, after the ovary has matured, the outer part of the fruit, it is 
said to he superior, because the apparent calyx, its lobes, or cup, seem 
to grow upon the ovary. For the same reason the ovary is said to be in- 
ferior (Figs. 68, 72). There are all degrees of adhesion, from the slight 
union at the base, as seen in WMpplea (Fig. 73), to the remarkable ex- 
treme exhibited in the plant figured on p. 5, in which not only the ovary, 
but several inches of the style, is adherent to the calyx. "When the 
adhesion is only partial, it can be shown by cutting the flower vertically, 
as represented in Fig. 73. 

The Fruit is the ripened ovary (or set of ovaries), and all that 
directly belongs to it. A dry fruit which opens in any way to let out the 
seeds is called a Pod. A j)od formed by the growth of a simple j^istil 
(one-carpeled) is called a Follicle when it splits only along the side which 
bears the seeds. A Legume splits down both edges. Pods formed of 
several carj^els are called Capsules. Akenes are dry, indehiscent, seed- 
like fruits, containing but one seed. Utricles are distinguished from 
akenes by their thin coats, which are too large for the inclosed seed. 


There are many other names applied to 
fruits, which it' is not necessary to define 

The Growth of Ovules. You can 
not study the development of ovules from the 
beginning, without the help of a compound 
microscoiDe, but you can easily observe all 
stages of growth, from a tiny green speck 
to the full-grown embryo. Most seeds are 
nearly full grown in appearance before the 
embryo is more than fairly visible to the 
naked eye. The- seed coat, filled with a 
syrupy or milky, usually sweet, liquid, ap- 
pears to constitute the very young seed. 
With a sharp knife cut in halves a great 
many green peas, in size from half grown 
upward. You will surely find in some of 
them tiny green embryos, and you may get specimens from the size of a 
pin's head up to those which tightly fill the seed coat. In Fig. 75, at the 
top, is seen — magnified two diameters — the young seed of a lupine, cut so 
as to show the young embryo lying in one end. In the same figure is 
represented a radish pod, laid open so as to show three of the seeds, two 
of which exhibit their partly grown embryos.* Below, at b, is one of 
these magnified, and at a an older one, also magnified. The grown em- 
bryo completely fills the seed. Observe the positions of the embryos in 
relation to the stems of the seeds and the stems of the pods. The lower 
seed in the radish is fastened to the lower side of the pod, the middle 
seed grows to the upper side. The cotyledons increase much more in 
size than the radicle. The embryo evidently grows, in part at least, by 
absorbing the liquid around it. Suppose the embryo of the lupine to quit 
growing at the size represented in the figure, and that the liquid arouiul 
it thickens until it becomes solid. Would not the seed thus formed be 
albuminous ? 

* These are cut in two. The embryo may he seen through the Beed-coat, as represented at b, by hold 
ing it up to the light. Half of the seed-coat is removed from a. 



In a general way we designate the objects around us by single 
names. We speak of a stone, a wolf, or a pine; but to distinguish the 
kinds we naturally use two names, as lime stone, sand stone; grey wolf, 
prairie wolf; nut pine, yellow pine, etc. This is one step in classifica- 
tion, and the only one commonly taken. This natural plan of double 
names was adopted by the great naturalist, Linnaeus, who gave names to 
most European plants, as well as to many of this continent. He wisely 
gave the Latin form to his names, since that language (being the base of 
most languages spoken in civilized countries) is the natural source of cos- 
mopolitan names — those truly common to all people. Botanical names, 
then, differ from so-called common names principally in form, and they 
have these decided advantages: they more exactly represent the rela- 
tions between kinds of plants, and they are names that are common to 
people of all languages. In short, they are the true common names. 

It is not true that botanical names are harder than local names. The most com- 
jion of our ornamental plants are well known by their scientific names. Xo one thinks 
of calling the following botanical names hard : Geranium; Aster; Verbena; Petunia; For. 
tulaca; Crocus; Phlox; Fuchsia; Iris; Magnolia; OxaUs; Azalea; Dahlia; Lobelia; Ar- 
nica, etc. Most people talk familiarly of Camellias, Callas, Begonias, Acacias; etc.: 
while cur beautiful California plants, Clarkia, CoUinsia, Eschscholtzia Nemophila, etc, 
are well known by their proper names — at least, in other countries. 

Generic Names correspond to the second parts of the compound com- 
mon names, as oak, pine, rose, etc. Some of these are the old Greek or 
Latin names of the plant. Most generic names are either derived from 
Greek or Latin words descriptive of some peculiarity of the plant, or they 
are commemorative of some botanist, as Thysanocarpus, from Greek 
words meaning fringe and pod; Kelloggia, in honor of Dr. A. Kellogg, a 
veteran botanist of this coast. Sometimes genera are named in honor of 
those who are not botanists, as Fremontia. Hollisteria, etc. 


> pe.cific Names are adjectives correspondiDg to the first parts of com- 
mon names. They are usually descriptive of some characteristic of the 
plant, as Oilia linifiora. Flax-flowered Gilia. Frequently a species is 
named for the discoverer, as Gilia Bolanderi, Bolander's Gilia; often for the 
country where it\t« first found, or where it abounds, as Ranunculus Cali- 
fornicus, California Buttercup. Sometimes there are varieties of a species 
as TrifoUum harbigerum, Var. Andrewsii, Andrews' Bearded-Clover. 

Orders and Classes. Genera are grouped in Orders or Families, 
and these in Classes. There are two classes of flowering plants, Exogens 
j and Endogens. 


This whole matter of naming and classifying can be well under- 
stood only after you have analyzed many plants; i. e., you must have 
carefully examined them part by part, and patiently compared their pecul- 
iarities with the descriptions in the Flora until you have determined 
their names. In the beginning there will be many failures; but do not 
allow them to discourage you, for each victory will make tJie way easier 
to other conquests. 

Choose for your first studies plants with large flowers. Do not 
attempt to determine the name of a plant unless you have specimens 
which show the kind of inflorescence and the arrangement of the leaves 
on the stem. If possible, secure specimens of the fruit and the roots. 
If in any plant you cannot readily distinguish the parts of the flower and 
their relations to each other, lay it aside until the study of easier plants 
has given you more skill. 

The first thing to be determined in analyzing a plant is the Class; 
i. e., you must decide whether it is an Exogen or an Endogen. You have 
learned in the preceding lessons how the seeds and stems of these two 
Classes of Flowering Plants differ. Usually, however, the leaves and 
flowers sufficiently distinguish the class. In our plants, if the leaves are 
parallel-veined; or, if the parts of the flower are in threes the plant is an 
endogen. In other words, if there is no network of intersecting fibers 
between the ribs of the leaves the plant is an endogen; if the flower has 


three sepals and three petals {i. e., a perianth of six leaves or lobes), three 
or six stamens and three or six pistils (generally united to form a compound 
pistil -with a three or six-celled ovary) the plant is an endogen. When 
the leaves are netted-veined, and the parts of the flower are not all in 
threes, the plant is an exogen. 

It is a good plan to write out a description of a plant before 
attempting to ascertain its name. The parts may be described in this 
order: Boots, Stems, Iieaves, Flowers, Fruit. 

You may find a smooth plant bearing a loose raceme of red flowers, 
one of which is represented in Fig. 57. The 
floral leaves are all colored, but there are 
evidently two sets; viz.; a calyx of 5 sepals 
inclosing a corolla of 4 petals. The parts of 
the flower, then, are not in threes; and, since 
the palmately lobed leaves are netted-veined 
the plant must be an exogen. Tarning to 
the key, we proceed as follows: s'^ 

The plant must belong in "Division 1," since by carefully removing the sepals 
and petals we find that the latter are separate from each other. It must be found under 
"A," for there are many stamens. The stamens are free from the calyx and corolla, i. e., 
they are hypogynous; so we read the next line: " Pistils, few to many distinct carpels, 
rarely one." Our flower has three distinct carpels, therefore we feel sure that it must 
be sought under one of the next five equal Imes beginning with "Calyx." As the 
calyx is easily shaken off from the older flowers we decide that it is deciduous. The 
juice is colorless also. AVe turn, therefore, to EAXUXcuLACE.i:, p. 16. The description 
ot the order is satisfactory. The key to the genera begins with the heading " *Floweri' 
regulcu-." Ours is not, for the upper sepal is unlike the others. "**Flowers irregular ; 
colored sepals consjncuoits," is right. We now choose between "Upper sepal spurred,' 

and ' ' Upper sepal hooded. " Evidently the first 
is right, and the genus is Delpldnium. We find 
that the generic description on p. 18 fits our 
plant. The last species being the only one Avith 
red flowers, we decide that our plant is Del- 
phinium nudicaule, or the Naked-stemmed Lark- 

The order Leguminosae, or the 
Pea Family, is one that you will soon 


learn, since its characteristics are well marked, "We will suppose that 
you have before you a very common blue-flowered shrubby plant belong- 
ing to that order, a single flower of which is shown in Fig. 58. Knowing 
the order, you turn at once to p. 38, and begin to use the key to the 

j Carefully removing all the petals, the stamens and pistil appear as in a, Fig. 59. 

I The filaments are united for the greater part of their length into a tube which incloses 
the ovary as a sheath does a knife. Of the three sections in the key, then, it is evident 
that the second is to be taken. Since some of the anthers have shed their pollen, and 
others have not, it is safe to say they are of two kinds — a bud will show the difference 
better [h, Fig. 59.) Moreover the leaves are digitate, and have more than three leaflets. 
We therefore conclude tliat the third genus is the one. Our plant is slightly shrubby, 
so we pass over the first heading in the synopsis of species. Of the second and third 
headings the last seems the most likely to lead us aright. Our flower is blue, so we have 
to choose between the second and third species. The words ' ' Slightly woody at the 
base," decide us in favor of Lupinus Dour/lasii, though we should examine more speci- 
mens before being quite positive. 

Fig. 60 represents a flower of a j^lant 
common in the Kedwood forests. Three or 
more of the dull-colored flowers grow in an 
umbel on a very short scape between a pair of 
spreading radical leaves. Since the leaves have 
parallel veins, and the jDarts of the flower are 
in threes, we must use the Analytical Key 
for Endogenc, p. 13. You will have no diffi- 
culty in referring the plant to the Order Lilia- g^ 
' CE^. To make the analysis of a plant in that 60. nower of scouopus a, obo 

'' i- of the stamens magnified, showing 

large order easy, the genera are grouped in t^e bursting anther ceiis. 
three Series. Eeading the characteristics of Series I, we find they do 
not correspond with those of our plant, which has no floral bracts, which 
has the stamens hypogynous instead of perigynous, the anthers extrorse 
instead of introrse, etc. Comparing Series II with Series III, we decide 
that our plant belongs in the former, since the perianth is not persistent, 
and the flowers are not in racemes or panicles. § 1, in Series II is wrong, 
for our plant has no leafy stem. Since the perianth segments of our 
flower are dissimilar we try § 3, under which we refer our i)lant to the 


genus ScoUojnis. Turning to the description of the only species de- 
scribed, we find it satisfactory'. Upon x-eferriug to the Glossary of 
Generic and Si^ecific Names in the back jjart of the book, we find why 
the plant was named ScoUopus Bigelovii. 

This picture represents part of a plant whose yellow 
flowers are among the first to greet the new year. 
It is shown as it would appear if cut down through 
the center after removing most of the outer leaves. 
The leaves and flowers all grow from the flat summit 
of a thick root-stock. It will be noticed that the 
buds are younger as the center is approached. Possi- 
bly you have tried to analyze one of these flowers. 
If so, you probably got on nicely till you tried to 
find the ovary. I hope you kejit searching and at 
last felt the satisfaction which rewards the discoverer. 
However, you can determine the name, and thus 
have the book tell you where the ovary is. The 
poorest eyes can see that the leaves are all radical; 
that the four divisions of the calj'x are refiexed; that 
four broad petals and eight stamens grow upon it; 
and that there is one pistil whose slender style bears 
a globose stigma. You can not doubt that the plant 
is to be sought under B., in Division 1, but you are 
unable to say whether the ovary is superior or not. 
In such a case, search first for the order under the 
head "Ovary Superior;" and, if not satisfied 
there, try the head "Ovary axd Fruit Inferior." 
Since there is but one pistil, you look under " * * Pi-<- only one." The plant is not a shrab, so you next 
stop at "t t Herb.t." The first division under this is 
the only one admissible, because the leaves are all 
radical. But in no case under this head is the num- 
ber of stamens eight. We therefore try the sub- 
head "2. OvARY^ AND Fruit Inferior," etc. It is 
evident that the descriptive line, "Parts of the flower 
mostly in 4's," etc., is the only one that fits our 
plant, so we turn to p. 59, where we find nothing in 
the description of the order Onagracese to rule our 
plant out. The lines descriptive of the genera are 
d.11 uusuited to our plant, except one, which refers us to the genus Oenothera, the de- 


Fig. A. Clarkia elegans; a, in- 
ferior, sessile ovary of the axil- 
lary flower. Fig. B. Boisduvalia 
densiflora; c, inferior ovary, ses- 
sile in the axil of a bract. Fig. 
C. Capsule of Godetia; b, cross 
section of the same. Fig. D. 
Epilobium paniculatum; h, in- 
ferior ovary; /, a grown capsule; 
g, tube of calyx above the ovary; 
e, one of the bifid petals; i, one 
of the seeds bearing a tuft of 
silken hairs. 

The figure on the right rep- 
resents Cardamine paucisecta, 
a pod of which is represented at 
e on the oppos^ite page. 

scription of which (p. 60) is satisfactory. Our plant is acaulescent or stemless; therefore, 
according to the book, the calyx tube is filiform (slender) above the underground ovary. 
This being verified by examination, there can be little doubt that the plant is (Enothera 
ovata. You now see that the flowers, instead of growing upon scapes, are sessile upon 
the end of a root-stock. The apparent flower stem is the slender calyx tube and style 
consolidated. When you plucked the flower, the ovary was left under the ground. No 
wonder you could not find it. Later in the season you will find other plants belonging 
to this order; then the figures above will help you. 

The figure at the right above represents the upper part of a plant which usually grows 
in moist places. The white flowers have four separate sepals; four petals; six stamens in 
two sets, two being shorter and otherwise different from the other four, and one pistil. 


These charactei's lead you in the key to the oider Cruciferje, but it is not easy to decide 
fartlier, because you have not the fruit. Look for the pods a few -weeks later, and you 

will find them long and flat, as represented in the 
figure at e on the left. You can then determine 
the name of the plant. The seed pods here 
figured Mall help you in determining some of the 
plants in this order. 

The curious flower depicted below is another 
early bloomer. You must cat the flower open 
and study it carefully. The four — sometimes 
five — petals are joined together, and bear upon 
the short tube the four stamens which hug the 
pistil tightly and form a beak like that of a bird. 
The ovary does not adhere to the calyx, and if a 
seed pod is partly grown, it will be easy to see 
that the seeds grow upon a central placenta. 
Turning to the key you are called upon to de- 
cide whether the stamens are opposite the lobes 
of the corolla or not. They certainly are op- 
posite, so the order Prlmulaceae is evidently 
■where our plant belongs. The pi-etty little for- 
eigner Anagallis is here figured, and it will be 

Upper Fig. — a, indehiscent 
pod of Raphanus Eaphanis- 
trum; 6, pod (silicle) of Cap- 
sella Bursa-pastoris; c, pod of 
Capsella divaricata; A, pod 
(silique) of Tropidocarpum, 
flattened contrary to the parti- 
tion; e, pod of Cardamine pau- 

cisecta, flattened parallel with the partition (septum);/, two pods (silicle) 
of Lepidium nitidum, and two partitions from which the valves have fallen, 
showing that there was one seed in each cell ; g, pod of Lepidium latipes, Wl 
showing the broad pedicel which suggested the specific name; h, a branch Xflkl 
of Thysanocarpus pusillus, with four of its 1-seeded pods; i, one of - « '''' I 
the pods magnified to show the hooked hairs; j, pod of Thysanocarpus 

LowEB Fio.— c, reflexed petals of Dodecatheon Meadia; /, filaments; a, . 
anthers; », stigma (not always protruding); i, involucre; p, scape (i-adical ^ 
peduncle). The horizontal figure represents a rather small branch of Ana- S ' 
galUs arveoEls. 



well to read the description of 
Trientalis, that j'ou may know it 
when found. 

When you get a head of the 
purple-blue flower j of Brodhfa 
capitata, figured on page xxiv of 
this book, it will be the proper 
time to study the figures on this 
page, and what is here said about 
the genus they illustrate. 
(^ Upon p. 113 you will find the 

species grouped under three sub-genera or sections. 
Figures a, d, and e illustrate the first, c the sec- 
ond, and b the third. The species belonging to 
the first section are arranged under two heads 
marked by asterisks, and those under the first head 
are under suliheads marked by daggers. Species 4 
and 5 closely resemljle number 6, which is put un- 
der a different head, because it has six true or 
anther-bearing stamens instead of three stamens 
and three staminodia. Fig. a shows that three of 
^ « / the filaments came near being antherless. Petaloid 

a. Perianth of Brodis^a capitata laid gt^niinodia replace these small stamens in species 
open, with putil and section of mature i ti r x-i ^ -ji j. j.i 

„„„,.„i„ 1. rr„,,„„ ™ . .„ f 4.-u^ ,,,„■ „ih 4 and o, and the fertile stamens are without the 
capsule. 0. Two segments of the perianth ' 

of B. lactea and the pistil, c. Perianth and winglLke appendages shown in Fig. a. Observe 
pistil of B. lasa. d. Bud and flower of B. that the staminodia in one of these species are 
Same with perianth laid cleft. The first three species have flowers resem- 
bling the one shown in Figs, d and e, in which 
the staminodia (opposite the outer segments of the perianth) are not petaloid, but 
resemble true stamens. Observe that the first species is distinguished by staminodia not 
notched at the top as shown in the figure. The species in § Seubertia resemble the fii'st 
three in general appearance, but the stamens and pistils are very difi"erent, as is shown 
by Fig. f. Observe that the stamens have versatile instead of basifixed anthers; and the 
ovary is upon a stipe, instead of being sessile. Douglas' Brodiasa, of Oregon, is like 
Fig. c, only the base of the perianth is broader, the upper row of stamens have broad 
Oases, the stipe is shorter and the flowers are on short pedicels, so as to form a sub- 
capitate umbel. The most common species of the third section is the White Brodiaea. 
Fig. h shows a part of the flower. 

The middle figure on the next page represents a plant, the curious cup-like lea^ves of 
which must have attracted your attention. The leaf cups are frequently much larger than 
here shown, and borne upon stems a foot or more in height. Though the flowers are small, 


open. /. The pistil. 


you reailily decide that the serials are two, and 
that there are live petals and iive stamens. The 
seed i:>ods show tliat there is but one pistil, and 
that the calyx does not adhere to the ovary; that 
is, the ovary is superior. Armed with this in- 
formation, you turn to the key where you search 
i;nder "B. Stamens 10 or less." Evidently the 
correct subheads are : "1. Ovary, or ovaries, supe- 
rior," etc.; "* * Pistil only one;" "i- f Herbs ;"^ 
"J Leaves mostly radical;" ' ' Stamens 5, opposite the 
petals; sepals 2; style 3-cleft— Portulacacete, 29." 
Turning to p. 29 you find that Claijtoma is the 
only genus having 5 stamens, and that this plant 
must be Claytoma jx'r/oUata. 

The little plant figured above (a) evidently an- 
swers to the description of the Var. exir/ua, which 
is now considered by the best authority to be a 
distinct species. The stem leaves are sometimes 
broad and united at the base. The radical leaves 
are nearly terete, as shown in the figure. This 
species is most obviously distinguished from the 
two varieties of the Cup-leaved Claytonia, by its 
glaucous leaves. The plants are often smaller 
than here represented, and rarely much larger. 

Kellogg's Lavatera, or Tree Mallows, an ever- 
blooming shi-ub, common iii cultivation, is a con- 
stant source of material with which to illustrate 
the Mallows Family. The figure at the bottom of 
the page represents one of the flowers cut through 
the center, so as to show the structure. The fiiiit 
of a very common weed of the same family is also 
shown. The most common native plant is Sidalcea 
humilis, described on page 32. Hollyhock, cotton, 
okra and Abutilon are foreign plants of this order, 
common in cultivation. The latter is a shrub with 
drooping flowers; the petals incurved, and the 
stamens sticking out (exserted). 

Upper Tig.— a. C'lax tonia esigua (entire plant) . h. Clay- 
tonia perfolidta. 

Lower Fig.— a. Fruit of Malva rotundifolia. 6. Same, 
sbowlng the bracts of the persistent calyx, c. Kellogg's 
Lavatera. (L. assurgentiflora.) 



You may recognize in the picture on this page the 
likeness of one of our most troublesome native 
weeds. The yellow iiowers are often smaller than 
here represented, and the upper leaves are generally 
narrower. Indeed, this plant, along with many 
others of this coast, is provokingly variable in its 
appearance. Pull off a corolla, and a single un- 
divided style is uncovered. Follow this down into 
the calyx, and you discover that it grows from be- 
tween four seed-like ovaries. These are more easily 
seen m an older calyx, as shown at a. Now it hap- 
pens that this peculiar compound ovary, together 
with the coiled inflorescence, belongs only to plants 
of the order BoiTaginacese. A coiled inflorescence 
and a pistil with a di^'ided style is found only in 
plants of the order Hydrophyllace*. Any plant 
with a four-parted ovary and regular flowers ma}^ 
be sought under the former order. Creeping Helio- 
trope or Blue Weed {//ellotropiitm Vurassavicam) is 
a Borraginaceous plant with ovaries merely 4-lobed. 
The Mint Familj' has fruit similar to that of the 
Borrages (see d and e in the figure on p. 11), but the 
flowers are irregular. The Verbenas are distin- 
guished from tlie JMints by nearly regular flowers 
and a 4-lobed ovary, which does not split into parts 
until quite ripe. (See a in the left-hand figure on page 11.) 

The plant figured at the top of the opposite page is common in open woods tliroughout 
the Coast Ranges and the foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada. The flowers are white, tinged 
with purple. Each of the tliree incurved petals is covered with hairs on the inner side, 
and is marked near the base by a depression which is seen upon the outside as a project- 
ing boss. This is called a gland, and is one of the characteristic marks of the genus. 
Since the three-cornered ovary is superior, Ave at once refer the plant to the order 
Liliacese, where we again read the characters given in each of the three series. The 
stamens in this plant are hj'pogynous, not perigj-nous, and the anthers are extrorse. 
Therefore, Series I is passed. Serie.s III is excluded, because the anthers in this plant 
are not versatile. Evidently the name is to be sought under Series II, which is divided 
into three sections. You now see why you should have dug up one of the plants. How- 
ever, you can decide the genus without knowing that the plant is bulbous. It can not 
belong to § 3, since one of the two genera under it has iimbellate flowers, and the otlier 
solitary flowers. In § 2, the perianth segments are similar. Our plant then must be sought 
in § 1, and under the head "* * Perianth segments imlike," which leads to Calochortus, 

Amsinckialycopsoides. a. Calyx spread 
apart to show the ripe akenes. 

lStematic botany. 


Upper Fig. — Flower . antl 
buds of Calochortus albns 
and the three-winged fruit 

Eight-hand Fig. — a. Flower 
of Sphacelecalycina. 6. Same 
with corolla cut to show sta- 
mens, pistil, and hairy ring 
inside, e. Fruit (4 globular 
akeues) of the same, lying in /] 
the bottom of the calyx. 
Flower and buds, showing 
florescence of Trichostema 
lanceolatum. <f. Ripe fruit of 
the same (4 triangular akeneB 
in the persistent calyx) . 

Left-hand Fig. —Verbena 
hastata (spikes and bracts). 
a. Ripe fruit removed from 
the calyx (natural size and 
magnified; . 

p. 117. The subglobose 
and nodding flowers place 
it in the first division of 

§ 1, Eucalychortus. Our plant is the white species. The 
yellow species has larger flowers. The stiffly erect, open 
flowers of § 2 of this genus have a markedly different aj)- 
pearance from the species here figured; yet their struc 
ture is similar. The spots upon the perils cause them to 
resemble the wings of butterflies; hence the common name Butterfly Tulip, and the sec- 
tion name Mariposa. 


Analyze the plant first as directed on page 4 of the West Coast Key. Make fhe 
loSMwing changes in Flora to correspond with the Key. The nunbers indicate pagea 

17. Thalictrum Fendleri is T. polycarpum. 

18. Ranunculus macranthus is R. orthorhyncns. 

25. Lepidium Menziesii, rar. strictum is L. strictam. 

25. Thysanocarpns pnsillus is Athysanus pusillna. 

26. Viola anrea is V. praBmorsa. 

30. Claytonia perfoliata, var. exigua is C. exigua. 
•• " " var. spathulata is C. apathulata. 

32. Sidalcea humilis is S. malvteflora. 

41. Lupinus micranthus, var. trifidus is L. trifidus. 

43. Trifoliom amplectans is a var. of T. depauperatum. 

48. Astragalus didymocarpus is partly A. nigrescens. 

49. Lathyrua venosus, var. Califomicus is L. Califomicus and partly Lk 

Bolanderi of the Key. 
51. Spiraea is Holodiacus and Neilia is Physocarpus. 
66. Plectritis is Valerianella with same specific names. 

74. Asclepiaa fascicularis is A. Mexicana. 

" Gomphocarpus purpurascens is Schiznotus pnrpnrascens and shonld 
be called TowWs Milkweed in honor of the discoverer, C. R Towle, 

75. Gentiana affinia var. ovata is G. ovata. 

77. Gilia divaricata is G. glutinosa; G. Sessei is G. heterophylla. 

82. Phacelia tanacetifolia is partly P. distans. 
' 85. Eritricium Californicum is Krynitzkia Califomica ; E. Scouleri is 

K. Scouleri; E. Choriaianum is K. Chorisiana: E. oxycarynm k 
K. oxycarya; E. fnlvum is Plagiobothrys nothofulvus; E. canescena 
is P. canescens. • 

87. Convolyulus luteolus is only a form of C. occidentalia. 

88b. Solanum nigrum, var. Douglaaii ia S. Douglasii. 

93. Mimulus pilosua is M. exilis. 

95. Orthocarpns faucibarbatus is O. erianthus, var. Isvia. 

Why these changes shonld b« made is "too long a story." 


The calyx and corolla together of either more or less than six parts* CLASS I 

The calyx and corolla together of 6 parts: 

Stamens 6 or less CLASS II 

Stamens 9; Umbellularia, p. 106, or Eriogonum, 105 

Stamens 10; united sepals 5 Leguminosae, 38 

Stamens many; caducous sepals 2 Papaveraceae, 20 

Stamens many; sepals 3 Sagittaria, 122 


Calyx and corolla both present. 

Petals not united (free) Division 1 

Petals more or less united (cohering) Division 2 

Corolla -Hranting; calyx often petaloid, sometimes wanting Division 3 


A. Stamens more than 10 and more than double the number of 

1. HYPOGYNOUS, t. «., on the receptacle (not adhering to the sepals or petals). 
• Pistils few to many distinct carpels, rarely one. 

Calyx deciduous, sepals 5 Ranunculaceae. 16 

Calyx caducous, sepals 2 or 3 Papaveraceas, 20 

Calyx persistent, sepals 3 or 4; aquatic plants NymphaeaceaB, 20 

Calyx persistent; leaves all radical Rosaceae, 49 

Calyx petaloid; corolla wanting Ranunculaceae, 16 

• • Pistil one and compound, as shotm by two or more atigmaa, or more than one cell in the 

Petals more numerous than the sepals. 

Indefinitely numerous, slender, persistent; aquatic plants NymphaeaceaB, 20 

Just twice as many (4-6); sepals caducous Papaveraceae, 20 

Five to sixteen; sepals persistent; fleshy herbs Portulacaceae, 29 

• Uaianthemiim [see p. 116) Iub s 4.parted perianth; 4 Btamaiu and 2 or 3 parallel-Telned iMTea. 


Petals of the same number (5) as the persistent sepals, yellow. 

Leaves opposite; sepals equal HyperlcaceaB, 30 

Leaves alternate; 2 outer sepals smaller CistaceaB, 25 

2. PERIGYNOUS or EPIGYNOUS (on the free or adnate calyx). 

Leaves opposite, simple; fleshy herbs Ficoideae, 63 

Shrubs. Sepals and petals numerous Caly canthaceae, 55 

Sepals and petals 4 or 5 Saxifragaceae, 55 

Leaves alternate, with stipules Rosaceae, 49 

Without stipules; rough herbs Loasaceae, 62 


Stamens free; calyx a cap; petals 4 Papaveraceae, 20 

Stamens many united to form a tube; petals 5 Malvaceae, 31 

Stamens 10 to 16 united for half the length; petals 5-8 Styracaceae, 20 

B. Stamens 10 or less. 

1. OVARY or OVARIES SUPERIOR (free from the calyx), or mainly so, but 
sometimes included in the calyx-tube. 

* Pistils more than one and distinct {not united). 
Pistils of the same number, as petals and the sepals. 

Leaves simple entire, fleshy Crassulaceae, 58 

Leaves pinnate; styles united Geraniaceae, 33 

Pistils not corresponding in number with the petals and sepals. 

Two, united at the base. Trees with compound leaves Sapindaceae, 37 

Herbs with simple leaves Sazifragaceae, 55 

Many. Stamens on the receptacle Ranunculaceae, 16 

Stamens on the calyx Rosaceae, 49 

• • Pistil only one. 

t Shrubs or trees. 
Style and stigma one. 

Sepals, petals, and -stamens 6 each, in 3'a opposite each other. .Berberldaceae, 19 

4 to 5 each; leaves 3-foliolate, alternate .. Rutaceae, 34 

5 each; leaves simple, opposite CelastraoeaB, 35 

Calyx 2-lipped; petals unequal; stamens 5-8, exserted Sapindaceae, 37 

Calyx 4-toothed; petals 2; stamens 2-4; fruit a samara Oleaceae, 73 

Styles or stigmas more than one. 

Styles 2; leaves opposite; fruit 2-winged Sapindaceae, 37 

Style 3-cleft; stamens 5, opposite the small petals Rhamnaceae, 35 

Stigmas 3; leaves alternate 3-foliolate Anacardiaceae, 38 

Stigma 5-iobed; a small shrub with opposite or whorled leaves Ericaceae. 68 


1 1 Herbs. 

X Leaves mostly radical. 

Stamens 5, anthers united; lower petal spurred; style 1 Violaceae, 25 

Stamens 5, opposite the petals. Sepals 2; style 3-cleft Portulacaceae, 29 

Sepals united; styles 5 . . , Plumbaginaceae, 71 

Stamens 10, on the receptacle; stigma 5-lobed Ericaceae, 68 

Stamens 10, on the calyx; styles 2 Saxifragaceae, 55 

Stamens 6, in 3's; sepals 2; petals 4, in pairs Fumariaceae. 22 

t X Leaves alternate. 

Corolla regular. 

Stigma one, often 2-lobed; stamens 6 (2 and 4) Cruciferae, 22 

Stigma 1, calyx a striated tube bearing 6 petals Lythraceae, 59 

Stigmas 5; sepals and petals 5 each; stamens 5-10 Geraniaceae, 33 

Styles 3-5; sepals and petals 5 each; stamens 5 Linaceae, 32 

Style 3-cleft; sepals 2; petals 5; fleshy herbs Portulacaceae, 29 

CJorolla irregular; style one. 

Stamens 10; fruit a legume Leguminosae, 38 

Stamens 5; anthers united; lower petal spurred Violaceae, 25 

Stamens 6, in 2 sets; stigma 2-lobed Fumariaceae, 22 

Stamens 6-8, united; ovary 2-celled Polygalaceae, 27 

XXX Leaves opposite or tohorled. 

Styles 2-6; fruit a 1 -celled capsule; stamens 10 or 6 Caryophyllaceae, 27 

Styles 3; flowers sessile; stamens 4to7 Frankeniaceee, 20 

Styles or stigmas 5; fruit 5 akenes Geraniaceae, 33 

Small white flowers clustered on terminal peduncles Saxifragaceae, 55 

Leaves in 3's; white flowers; petals 6 in 2 sets Papaveraceas, 20 

Leaves a single pair on the stems ; fleshy Portulacaceae, 29 

2. OVARY AND FRUIT INFERIOR (adherent to the calyx), or mainly so. 

Shrubs; sepals, petals, and stamens each 4-5; leaves simple. 

Stamens opposite the clawed petals; style 3-cleft Rhamnaceae, 35 

Sepals petaloid; ovary globose; styles 2, or 2-cleft Saxifragaceae, 55 

Leaves opposite; flowers in heads with petaloid involucre or in \ cornacese fi^ 

cymes; the sepals, petals, and stamens 4 each / 

Herbs. Sepals and petals each 5; styles distinct; leaves simple Saxifragaceae, 55 

Parts of the flower mostly in 4's (rarely in 2's or 6's) Onagraceae, 59 

Tendril-bearing vines, with prickly fruit Cucurbitaceae, 63 

Flowers in umbels; styles 2 Umbelliferae. 63 



A. Ovary Inferior (adherent to the calyx) or largely so. 

Stamens more numerous than the lobes of the corolla, 8 or 10. 

Distinct and free from it, or nearly so Ericaceae, 68 

Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla (5, rarely 4), united into a tube. 

Flowers in an involucrate head, resembling a single blossom Compositae, 66 

Flowers separate in racemes or spikes; ovary slender Lobeliaceae, 67 

Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes, distinct. 

Nearly or quite free; leaves alternate, no stipules Campanulaceae, 67 

Inserted on the corolla; leaves opposite or whorled. 

With stipules, or in whorls, entire Rubiaceae, 65 

Without stipules, opposite. Calyx with minute lobes. . . Caprifoliaceae, 64 

Prostrate herbs. Abronia in Nyctaginaceae, 104 

Stamens only 3, fewer than the lobes of the corolla. 

Leaves opposite; stamens distinct; flowers minute Valerianae eae, 66 

Leaves alternate; stamens united; fmit prickly Cucurbitaceae, 63 

B. OvEiry Superior (free from the calyx) or nearly so. 
1. FLO"WERS REGULAR or nearly so. 

• Stamens, twice as many as the lobes of the corolla. 

Stamens 8-10, distinct; corolla campanulate or ovoid .Ericaceae, 68 

Filaments united for half their length; corolla nearly polypetalous Sty rax, 20 

Pistils or styles as many as the petals; fleshy herbs Crassulaceae, 58 

* * Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and opposite them. 

Styles 5; long-clawed petals, scarcely united Flumbaginaceae, 71 

Style 1 ; corolla lobes, reflexed or rotate PrimulaceaB, 72 

* * * Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and alternate with them. 

Style and stigma one, leaves entire (lobed in the first). 

Leaves mostly radical; flowers on a scape Bomanzoffia in Hydrophyllaceae, 80 

Leaves all radical; flowers in a spike; 4-lobed corolla scarious Plantaginaceae, 103 

Leaves alternate; flowers mostly in coiled spikes; ovary 4-lobed Borraginaceae, 83 

Leaves alternate; flowers rotate to funnelform; ovary 2-celled Solanaceae, 88 

Leaves opposite; flowers in cymes; ovaries 2 Apocynaceae, 73 

Leaves opposite or whorled; flowers in umbels; ovaries 2 Asclepiadaceas, 73 

Style 1 or none, stigmas 2. 

Leaves opposite or whorled, sessile, entire, or ) _ ^. _ 

Leaves alternate, 3-foliolate, on a creeping rootstock j 


Leaves alternate; twining vines; flowers funnelform, axillary Convolvulaceae, 86 

Leaves alternate; flowers not axillary Hydrophyllaceae, 80 

Leaves alternate; flowers in a head, with acerose bracts Gilia, § 5, 78 

Style 2-cleft Hydrophyllaceae, 80 

Style 3-cleft, or stigmas 3 Polemoniaceae, 75 

Style 2; leaves simple or none. 

Flowers solitary in the axils of small leaves ) „ ,' , 

_ , ^ J r-i r 4. .. i Convolvulaceae, 86 

Flowers clustered on filiform parasitic stems J ' 

Flowers in naked cymose clusters; shrubs Hydrophyllaceae, 80 

• * * * Stamens fewer than the lobes of the slightly irregular corolla. 

Limoaella or Veronica in Scrophulariaceae, 93 

2. FLO"WERS IRREGULAR. Stamens with anthers 4 in pairs or 2; style 1; 
leaves opposite or none, except in some of the Scrophulariaceae. 

Ovary 1 -celled; corolla curved; leafless root parasites Orobanchaceae, 96 

Ovary 2-celled Scrophulariaceae, 89 

Ovary 4 parted, forming in fruit 4 seedlike nutlets Labiatae, 97 

Ovary 4-lobed; fruit splitting into 4 nutlets Verbenaceae, 102 


A. . Ovary inferior (calyx adherent) or apparently so. 

Leaves cordate; calyx 3-lobed; capsule 6-celled Aristolochiaceae, 104 

Leaves opposite; calyx salver- form; ovary 1 -seeded Nyctaginaceae, 104 

Leaves opposite; calyx inconspicuous; corolla tubular Caprifoliaceae, 64 

B. Ovary superior (free from the calyx). 

• Herbs; leaves aUemate. 

Petaloid calyx withering-persistent; akene 3-comered or flat Polygonaceae, 105 

Petaloid sepals deciduous; carpels several Ranuuculaceae, 16 

Sepals 4, green, deciduous; small pods 2-celled Cruciferae, 22 

Flowers asepalous in a spike, with a petaloid involucre Anemopsis, 106 

• * Herbs; leaves opposite, entire. 
Capsule 1 -celled; style and stigma 1; leaves fleshy. 

Stems prostrate; flowers in involucrate heads Nyctaginaceae, 104 

Stems erect; flowers axillary Glavx in Primulaceae, 73 

Capsule 1 -celled; style or stigmas, 3 or more Caryophyllaceae, 27 

Capsule 3-5-celled; flowers axillary Mollugo in Ficoideae, 63 


• • • Shrubs or trees; leaves aliemate, entire {except in the last). 

Calyx tubular, bearing the stamens; akene tailed Rosaceae, 49 

Calyx e-parted, yellowish; leaves aromatic Lauraceae, 106 

Calyx 4-5-cleft, greenish; fruit cherry -like Rhamnaceae, 35 

Calyx 3-4-cleft, yellowish; stamens 6-8 Thymelaceae, 107 

Calyx 5-cleft, bright yellow; stamens 5, united Sterculiaceae, 20 

• • • • Trees; leaves opposite, jnnnate. 

Fruit a slender samara Oleaceae, 73 

Fruit a double samara Sapindaceae, 37 

* • * • * ^ half-tooody climber; leaves opposite. — Clematis, 16. 

A. Perianth adherent to the ovary (ovary inferior). 

Flowers irregular. Anthers 1 or 2 on the pistil .-^. Orchidaceae, 108 

Flowers regular. Stamens 3, ajqthers extrorse Iridaceae. 110 

B. Perianth free (ovary superior). 

Flowers in whorls. Carpels 8 to many Alismaceae, 108 

Pistil 3-celled; stamens 3 to 6 LiliaceaB, 110 

Flowers greenish in a spike Trighchin in Alismaceae, 108 

Perianth 4-parted; stamens 4. Stem 2-3-leaved Maianthemum, 116 

'Pistil 2-celled; red flowers in an umbel Clintonia, 119 





Series I. 

Plants producing flowers and seeds ; the former consisting, at least, of stamens and 
pistils, which may be together in the same flower, or they may separately form staminate 
and pistillate flowers growing on the same individual, or difi"erent individuals of one 
•pecies ; the latter containing a germ, or embryo. 

Class I. — Exogens or Dicotyledons. 

Stems consisting of pith in the center, bark on the outside, and between these, fibrout 
or woody tissue, which, in perennial stems, increases from year to year by the addition of 
layers on the outside next the bark. Embryo usually of two opposite cotyledons, or rarely 
irith several in a whorL 


Pistil consiBting of a closed ovary which forma the fruit. Cotyledons twa 




I Herbs or shmbs, with colorless juice; foliage various; stipules none; organs of the 
iflower free and distinct; sepals, petals, and pistils few or many; stamens numerous; petals 
sometimes wanting, then the sepals are usually petaloid; anthers short and adnate; seeds 
with minute embryos in fleshy albumen. 

* Flowers regular. 

Petals none; shrubby climbers Clematis. 1 

Petals none; small herbs Anemone. 2 

Petals 5 or more; carpels numerous Ranunculus. 3 

Petals 5, spurred; carpels 6 Aquilegia, 4 

* * Flowers irregular; colored eepals eonspieuous. 

Upper sepal spnrredL Delphinium. 5 

Upper sepal hooded. Aconitum. 6 

* * * Sepals large, leaf-like, persistent. 
Flowers large Paeonia. 7 

1. CLEMATIS, L. Virgin's Boweb. 

Sepals 4, colored and petal-like, valvate in the bud. Pistils numerous; styles persistent, 
becoming long feathery tails in fruit. Half-woody climbers or perennial herbs, with 
opposite leaves. 

1. C. ligusticifolia, Nutt. Stems climbing by the petioles of the 5-foliolate leaves; 
^leaflets broadly ovate to lanceolate, 1^ to 3 inches long, acute or acuminate, 3-lobed and 
jcoarsely toothed, rarely entire or 3-parted. Flowers dioecious, paniculate; sepals thin, 
silky, white, 4 to 6 lines long; akenes pubescent; tails 1 to 2 inches long. 

Var, Califomica, Watson. Leaves silky-tomentose beneath, often smalL 

2. C. lasiantha, Nutt. Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets ovate, 1 to IJ inches long, acute, 
coarsely toothed or 3-lobed or the terminal 3-parted. Flowers solitary on 1-2-bractcd 
peduncles; sepals obtuse, thick, 6 to 10 lines long. 


Sepals 4 to 20, colored and petal-like, imbricated in the bud. Petals none. Pistils 
numerous; style short; stigma lateral; akenes compressed, pointed, in a head. Erect 
perennial herbs, with lobed or divided leaves, which are radical, except those which form 
an involucre below the flower. 


1. A. nemorosa, L. (Wood Anemone.) Smooth or somewhat villous; stem* 
from a slender rootstock, 3 to 12 inches high, without radical leaves, one-flowered; invo- 
lucre of 3 petioled temato leaves, the di\dsions cuneate-oblong to ovate, incisely toothed 
or lobed, or the lateral ones 2-parted, about an inch long; the 4 to 7 sepals pinkish or 
white; akenes 12 to 20, oblong, with a hooked beak. 

Here belongs Thalictrum Fendleri, Englm. A smooth apetalous dioecious herb; also, 
Myosurus minimus, L. A very small herb, -with a tuft of linear or spatulate entire 
radical leaves, and solitary flowers on simple scapes; called Mouse-tail, from its long, 
narrow receptacle, densely covered with small akenes. 

3. RANUNCULUS, L. Buttercup. 

Sepals usually 5. Petals 3 to 18. Pistils numerous. Akenes in a head, asaally flat- 
tened, beaked with the persistent style. 

§ 1. Aquatic herbs; petals white, with a pit at the base, the claw yellow; akenes trans- 
versely wrinkled. 

1. R. hederaceus, L., var. Glabrous; stems 6 to 12 inches long, floating; leaves 
commonly all floating, 3 to 8 lines wide, deeply 3-lobed, truncate or cordate at the base; 
the lobes equal, oval or oblong, the lateral ones usually with a broad notch in the apex; 
submersed leaves none or rudimentary and resembUng adventitious roots; peduncles 
opposite the upper leaves, thicker than the petiole, 6 to 8 lines long; sepals a line long; 
petals 2 lines long, obovate oblong; stamens 5 to 9; akenes 4 to 6. 

2. R. aquatilis, L., var. tricophyllus, Chaix. Stems long, filiform; leaves all 
submersed and cut into numerous capillary segments, which are 4 to 10 lines long; flowers 
3 to 5 lines in diameter; akenes numerous in a globular head. 

§ 2. Terrestrial herbs, but often grovnng in wet places; sepals green; petals yellow, vnth 
a scale at the base; akenes neither wrinkled nor hispid. 

* All the leaves undivided, the margins entire. 

3. R. Flammula, L., var. reptans, Gr. Glabrous throughout; stems filiform, creep- 
ing and rooting at the joints, 4 to 10 inches long; leaves mostly lanceolate and acute at 
each end, entire; flowers 2 to 5 Lines in diameter; petals broadly obovate, one half longer 
than the sepals; akenes few, in a small globular head, plump, smooth; beak very short 
and curved. 

4. R. alismcefolius, Geyer. Similar to the last species, but with etoutish, erect 
stems, longer flowers and obtuse leaves; akenes straight-beaked. 

• * Some or all the leaves temately compound. 

5. R. CalifomicTis, Benth. More or less hairy; stems erect, or nearly so, 12 to 18 
inches high; radical leaves, commonly pinnately temate, the leaves laciniately cut into 
3 to 7 parts, which are usually linear; flowers bright yellow, 5 to 10 Lines in diameter; 


petals 10 to 14, narrowly obovate; sepals shorter than the petals, reflexed; akenes nearly 
2 lines long, flat, with sharp edges; beak short and curved; lieads compact, ovate or 

This is by far the most common species, and usually the only one collected by begin- 
ners. It varies greatly. The leaves are sometimes simply three lobed and sometimes 
much cut up. [B. Bloomeri, Wat., belongs here. See p. 122.] 

6. R. macranthus, Scheele. Stems stout, 2 to 5 ft. high; flowers 14 to 18 lines in 
diameter; petals commonly 5 or 6, broadly obovate, shining yellow. 

§ 3. Akenes rough; oUteru-Use as in § 2. 

7. R. hebecarpus, Hook. & Am. Rather slender, more or less hairy; flowers 
minute; petals 5, not more than a line long; sepals hairy, about equaling the petals. 

8. R. muricatus, L. Smooth; flowers 5 or more lines in diameter; akenes large 
and rough, with recurved beaks. Introduced from Europe. 

4. AQUILEGIA, Toum. Columbine. 

Sepals 5, regular, colored and petal-like; petals 5, produced backward (upward) into a 
long tubular spur; stamens numerous, exserted, the inner ones reduced to thin scales; 
pistils 5; styles slender. Flowers nodding, showy, terminating the branches. 

1. A. truncata, Fisch. & Mey. Stems 1 to 3 ft. high; flowers usually red, tinged 
with orange or yellow; leaves usually temately compound, leaflets lobed. 

5. DELPHINIUM, Toum. Labkspur. 

Sepals 5, colored and petal-like, very irregular, the upper one prolonged backwards at 
the base into a long spur, which (in our species) contains spur-like prolongations of the 
upper pair of petals. Petals 4, small and irregular. Stamens many. Pistils 1 to 5. Erect 
herbs, with palmately-cleft, lobed, or dissected leaves, and racemose flowers. 

1. D. simplez:, DougL Canescent throughout, with a fine, short, somewhat woolly 
pubescence, rarely smooth; stem stout and strict, 1 to 3 ft. high, leafy; leaves all much 
dissected with linear obtuse lobes, on stout, erect petioles; racemes usually dense and 
many -flowered, the pedicels often short and nearly erect; flowers small, blue, varying to 
nearly white or yellowish; sepals 4 or 5 lines long, about equaling the stout, straight 
spur; ovaries and capsule pubescent. 

2. D. variegatum, Torr. & Gr. Foliage similar to the last, but the flowers much 
larger, on longer pedicels, forming a short, open raceme; ovary and capsule pubescent. 

3. D. decorum. Fisch. & May. Lower leaves 5-lobed, sparingly toothed, the upper 
with narrow divisions. Flowers similar to the last, but the spur is usually longer, and 
the ovary and capsule smooth. 

4. D. Californicum, Torr. & Gr. Stems stout. 2 to 7 ft higih: leaves large. 3 1« 


5 cleft, the divisions variously lobed; pedicels and dull bluish flowers densely velvety 

D. nudicaule, Torr. & Gr. Distinguished by its red flowers, 

6. ACONITDM, Toum. Monkshood. 

Sepals 5, colored and petal-like, very irregular; the upper one arched into a hood oi 
helmet, which conceals the spur-like blades of the upper pair of petals. General appear- 
ance similar to Delphinium. 

1. A. Columbianum, Nutt. Sufficiently characterized by the generic description- 

7. P.230NIA, L. 

Sepals 5, herbaceous. Petals 5 to 10. Stamens inserted on a fleshy disk. Pistil* 
2 to 5. Fruit leathery follicles. Perennial herbs with compound leaves. 

1. P. Brownii, Dougl. Leaves thick, 1-2-temately compound, the leaflets temately 
and pinnately lobed, glaucous; petals leathery, dull, dark red, about equaling the sepals. 


Shrubs or herbs, with compound alternate exstipulate leaves; flowers remarkable for 
having the bracts, sepals, petals and stamens before each other, instead of alternating. 

Low shrubs, with rigid pinnate leaves and small yellow flowers Berberis. 1 

A fern-like herb, with white flowers Vancouveria. 2 

1. BERBERIS, L. Barberry. 

Sepals, petals, and stamens 6 each, with 3 or 6 bractlets. Carpel 1, forming a berry. 
Smooth shrubs, with yellow wood, and yellow flowers in bracteate racemes. 

* Leaflets pinnately veined. 

1. B. repens, Lindl. Less than a foot high; leaflets 3 to 7, ovate, acute, 1 to 2 J 
inches long, not shiny above; short racemes terminating the stems. 

2. B. Aquifoliiun, Pursh. 2 to 4 ft. high; leaflets 7 or more, the lower pair distant 
from the stem, IJ to 4 inches long, shining above, spiny; racemes chiefly clustered in 
Bubterminal axils. 

3. B. pinnata. Lag. Like the last species, but the leaves more crowded, and the 
lower pair of leaflets near the base of the petiole; usually 5 to 7 leaflets. 

* * Leaflets palmatebj nerved. 

4. B. nervosa, Pursh. Simple stems but a few inches high; leaves 1 to 2 ft. long. 
of 11 to 17 leaflets. 


2. VANCOUVERIA, Morren & Decaisne. 

Sepals and petals 6 each, reflexed, with 6 to 9 bractlets. Stamens 6. Carpel 1 ; th« 
Btigma cup-shaped. A slender perennial herb, with radical 2-3-temately compound 
loaves, and the open paniculate raceme upon a naked scape. 

V. hezandra, Morr. & Dec. The long petioled leaves rising like the fronds of a 
fern, leaflets 1 to 2 inches broad, petiolulate, obtusely 3-lobed, the margin thickened; 
tha minute flowers on a scape exceeding the leaves. 

Ordee 3. NYMPHiEACEiE. 

Aquatic perennial herbs, with peltate or deeply cordate leaves; solitary axillary perfect 
flowers on long peduncles. Stamens numerous. 

Water-Shield. (Brasenia peliata, FvLTsh.) May be found in ponds. Its elliptical, pel- 
tate, floating leaves (green above and brownish-red beneath) and its jelly-coated stems 
characterize it quite well enough. 

The Yellow Pond-Lily {Nuphar polysepalum, EngL ) is more common. 

The Order SarraceniaceaB is represented by the remarkable Darlingtonia Calif omica, 
or California Pitcher Plant, which grows in cold swamps in the northern part of the 
State, from Mount Shasta to near the coast. 

Frankenia grandifolia grows in saline soils, and may be known by its opposite sessile, 
obovate, or linear oblanceolate, small leaves, with revolute margins; and by its small, 
pink flowers. It may be distinguished from a Silene, which at first it seems to be, by its 
fewer (4 to 7) stamens and sessile flowers. 

The Order FrankeniaceaB should come next to CaryophyllacecB. Fremontia Calif or- 
nica, belonging to the Order StercxiliaceaB, which is allied to the Malvaceas, is most 
conveniently described here also. It is a small tree, bearing conspicuous yellow flowers 
in the axils of usually broadly cordate, lobed leaves. The apetalous flowers are some- 
times 2 or 3 inched across. 

The Order CapparidaceaB is represented in Santa Barbara County, and southward, by 
homeria arborea, a low shrub, bearing bracteate racemes of yeUow flowers, the pistils 
conspicuous on account of their long stipes. The flowers of this plant are apparently 
like those of the Cruciferae, and its proper place is next tc that order. Capers are ob- 
tained from a cultivated plant of this order. 

The Order Styracaceae is represented by Styrax Califomt'ca, a pretty shrab, bearing 
clusters of nearly rotate white flowers, in which the gamopetf\lou3 corolla is cut down to 
the short tube which is adnate to the tube formed by the stamens: Calyx truncate- 



On the left above is represented 

an opening bud of Eschscholtzla. 

The cap-like calyx has been split at 

the bottom and shoved ujjward by ' I 

the expanding petals. Next to this 
bud is an open flower of Meconopsis and one of its nodding buds. Behind the flower, 
and projecting above it to the right, is a stem from which the petals have just fallen. 
The slender filaments bending to one side, as they often do, show the curious pistil 
which in time becomes the pretty fluted capsule seen below. To the right of the ^leco- 
nopsis pod is the three-sided capsule of Platystigma lineare. The stem should have a 
few hairs npon it. The two flowers with hairy stems, the nodding buds below, and the 
rough seed pod above, belong to Platystemon. Observe the three caducous sepals, just 
ready to drop from the opening bud. The smooth plant on the right is Platystigma 
Californicum. If you choose you may call this the Smooth Platystigma, and the other 
species, with tlie triangular pod, Hairy Platystigma. The exceedingly prickly Bristly 
Argemone is represented on the right, below, by a bud and a couple of bracts. A pistil 
with its white prickles is imperfectly shown against one of the liracts. 
The Order Papaveraceae is characterized by flowers with 2 or 3 caducous sepals, 


twice as many free petals in two sets, indefinite, usually numerous, free stamens, and a 
compound pistil. In EschsclioUzia the sepals are united, and the stamens adhere to the 
claws ot the petals. 

This small but interesting order of plants, with the exception of one species, is con- 
fined to the northern hemisphere. Fifteen species, belonging to eleven genera, are natives 
of the United States, and several European species have become naturalized. Esch- 
scholtzia and Platystemon are the most widely distributed of the California genera. 

Romneya Coulteri is a half shrubby plant, with smooth pinnatifid leaves and very large white flowers 
(3, i, or even 6 inches across) , a native of the coast from San Diego to Santa Barbara County. 

Jrctomecon is another white-flowered plant, with somewhat hairy, nearly entire leaves; the petals 
persistent; found in soiith Kevada and Utah. 

Caiibya, a recently discovered plant of sovith-east California, is the smallest of the order, being 
scarcely an Inch in height. The small white petals are persistent. 

Papaver Somniferum, a native of Asia, furnishes opium, -which is the dried juice of the plant. A 
variety ot this species is cultivated in this State for the seeds, from which is expressed poppy oil, used 
by artists. This oil is also used as a substitute for olive oil in the preparation of salads, etc. 

* Herbs with entire leaves, the iq:)permost luhorled or op])osite, sepals 3, 

Filiform stigmas 6 to many (pistil hollow) Platystemon. 1 

Flat stigmas 3 , Platystigma. 2 

* * Herbs vnth divided or lobed leaves. 

Slightly lobed stigma, style distinct; sepals 2 Meconopsis. 3 

Filiform stigmas unequal; sepals united to form a conical cap Eschscholtzia. 4 

Entire plant bristly with prickles; sepals 3, each with a horn Argemone. la 

* * * Shrub with entire leaves. 
Buds globular; stigmas 2 Dendromecon. 5 


Sepals 2 or 3, spinosely beaked. Petals 4 or 6. Stamens numerous, with linear 
anthers. Leaves sinuately pinnatifid, prickly toothed. 

1. A. hispida, Gr. (Chicalote). Erect, armed with rigid bristles and prickles; leaves 
3 to 6 inches long; flowers, nearly white, 2 to 4 inches in diameter; capsule IJ inches 

1. PLATYSTEMON, Benth. Cream-Cups. 

Sepals 3. Petals 6. Stamens many, with flattened filaments and linear anthers. 
Torulose carpels at first iinited; stigmas free. 

1. P. Californicus, Benth. Slender, branching, 6 to 12 inches liigh; villous, with 
spreading hairs; leaves 2 to 4 inches long, sessile or clasping, broadly linear, obtuse. 


pale-green. Sepals hairy; petals pale-yellow, shading to orange in the center, 3 to 6 
lines long. 


Sepals 3. Petals 4 to 6. Stamens few or many, with narrow filaments. Ovary 
t>-<ingled, oblong or linear; stigmas 3, ovate to linear. Low, slender annnals, resembling 
Platystemon in habit, with pale-green, entire, opposite or verticillate leaves and long- 
peduncled pale-yellow or creamy- white flowers. 

1. P. lineare, Benth. Hairy, short-stemmed; stamens many, with dilated fila- 
ments; stigmas broad; capsule ovate. 

2. P. Calilomlcum, Benth. & Hook. Smooth, long-stemmed; stamens few (10 to 
12) with filiform filaments; stigmas narrow; capsule linear. 

3. MECONOPSIS, Viguier. 

Sepals 2. Petals 4. Stamens numerous, with filiform filaments and oblong anthers. 
Style distinct; stigma 4-8-lobed. Seeds numerous. 

1. M. heterophylla, Benth. Annual, smooth, slender, 1 to 2 ft. high; lower leaves 
long petioled, pinnately divided, the segments oval to Linear and 2 to 12 lines long; upper 
leaves sessile; flowers scarlet to orange, the petals 2 to 12 lines long; peduncles elongated. 
Very variable. 


Sepals coherent into a narrow pointed hood, which drops off from the top shaped torus 
when the flower opens. Petals 4. Stamens numerous, with short filaments and long 
anthers. Smooth annuals, with colorless, bitter juice; finely dissected, pale-green alter- 
nate petioled leaves, and bright orange or yellow (rarely white) flowers. 

1. E. Califomica, Cham. Has stout branching stems, 1 to 1§ ft. high; flowers 2 
to 4 inches in diameter, brilliant orange toward the center; capsule 2^ inches long, curved. 

Var. Douglasii, Gr. More slender; flowers yellow. 

Var. caeapitoaa. Brewer. Scape-like peduncles; small yellow flowers. 


Sepals 2. Petals 4. Stamens numerous, with short filaments and linear anthers. 
Ovary linear; style short; stigmas 2, short and erect. The many seeded capsule dehis- 
cent the whole length by 2 valves separating from the placental ribs. A smooth 
branching shrub, with alternate vertical entire thick and rigid leaves and showy yellow 
flowers. The only true woody plant belonging to the order. 

1. D. rigidum, Benth. A shrub 2 to 8 ft. high, with slender branches and whitish 
bark; leaves ovate to linear-lanceolate, 1 to 3 inches long, very acute or mncronate, 
' I or nearly so, twisted into a vertical position, margin rough or denticulate. 

22 CBUCIFER^. (mustard FAMILY.) 

Oeder 5. PUMARIACEiE. 

Tender herbs with dissected compound leaves, and irregular hypogynous flowers, the 
parts in twos, except the 6 diadelphous stamens. 

1. DICENTRA, Borkh. 

Sepals 2, small and scale-like, sometimes caducous. Corolla of two pairs of petals, 
flattened and cordate; the outer pair the larger and sacked at the base, the tips spreading; 
the inner, spoon-shaped, lightly united at the apex, inclosing the anthers and stigma. 
Stamens in two sets, 3 before each of the outer petals, filaments slightly cohering. 
Style slender; stigma 2-lobed, each lobe sometimes 2-crested. 

1. D. formosa, DC. Leaves radical, and the compound racemes of rose-colored 
flowers borne on naked scapes. 

2. D. chrysantha, Hook. & Am. The flowers in long terminal paniculate racemes 
on leafy stems; corolla narrow, scarcely cordate, golden yellow. 

Order 6. CRUCIFERffl. 

Herbs with pungent watery juice. Sepals 4. Petals 4, with blade narrowed into a 
claw, the lamina spreading to form a cross, rarely wanting. Stamens 6, two of them 
inserted lower down on the receptacle and shorter than the other four. Ovary 2-celled 
by a thin partition, rarely 1-celled. Leaves alternate, and flowers usually in racemes 
without bracts. 

Since a careful examination of the fruit is usually necessary for the determination of 
species in this difficult order, only such plants as have large flowers or remarkable fruit 
are here described. 

§ 1. Pod dehiscent, 2-valved. 

• Pod elongated, compressed parallel with the partition; seeds flat. 

Pctioled leaves, lobed or divided; root tuberous Cardamine, 1 

Stem leaves sessile, entire; root perpendicular. 

Flowers purple Arabis. 2 

Flowers orange ", Cheiranthus. 3 

Flowers yellowish. Erysimum. 4 

• • Pod terete; seeds globose. 
Flowers Yellow Brassica. 5 

• * * Pod flattened contrary to the partition. 

Pod linear; flowers axillary, yellow Tropidocarpum. 6 

Pod obcordate; flowers minute Capsella. 7 

Pod obovate, 2-winged at the top Lepidium. 9 


§ 2. Pod indehiscent, 1-celled. 
Pod orbicular, winged with a thin broad margin; flowers minute. ..Thysanocarpvis. 9 
Pod long, pithy; seeds large; flowers large, veiny . . Raphanua. 10 


Pod linear, with somewhat thickened margins, merely pointed or beaked above; valves 
flat, nerveless. Seeds in one row somewhat flattened, wingless; cotyledons flat, accum- 
bent. Sepals equal. Petals white or pinkish. 

1. C. paucisecta, Benth. Stems from small deep-seated tubers, erect, 8 to 18 inches 
high; leaves varioixs; the upper deeply lobed or parted, the lower often simple; petals 
6 to 9 lines long; pods 1 to 1^ inches long. 

2. ARABIS. L. 

Pod linear; valves l-nerved, not strongly. Seeds in 1 or 2 rows, flattened; cotyledons 
acetunbent. Sepals short or narrow, rarely colored. Petals with a narrow claw, white, 
rose-colored, or purple. 

1. A. blepharophylla, Hook. & Am. Stems often tufted 4 to 12 inches high; 
leaves strongly ciliate, sometimes sparingly sinuate-toothed, the lower obovate or broadly 
spatulate, the cauline oblong, sessile; petals bright purple, 6 to 9 lines long. 

2. A. Brevreri, Wat. Cespitose, canescent, with dense stellate pubescence; stems 2 to 
10 inches high; petals 1 to 4 lines long, deep rose-color; sepals purplish; pods spreading 
or recurved. 


Pod elongated, compressed; valves l-nerved or carinate. Seeds in one row, flattened, 
not winged; cotyledons accumbent, or rarely oblique. Calyx not colored, the outer sepals 
strongly gibbous. Stigma with two spreading lobes. 

1. C. asper, Cham. & Sch. Rather sparingly pubescent with appressed 2-parted 
hairs; stem simple erect, leafy, 1 to 3 ft. high; leaves spatulate or oblanceolate, the lower 
long petdoled, entire or sinuate- toothed; sepals broad 4 to 6 lines long, half the length 
of the bright yellow or orange petals; pods li to 2 inches long. 


Pod 4-angled by the prominent mid-nerve of the valves, not stipitate; cotyledons 
incumbent or oblique. Sepals, petals and stigma like the last. 

1. E. aspenun, DC. Similar to the last; sepals narrower; petals usually creamy 
white to yellow. 

5. BRASSICA. L. Mustard. 

Pod nearly terete or somewhat 4-sided, pointed with a long conical beak. Seeds in 


ono row globose; cotyledotur infolding the radical Lateral sepals usually gibbous. 
Petals yellow. 

1. B. campestrls, L. Smooth; lower leaves pinnately divided, with a large ter- 
minal lobe; the upper leaves oblong or lanceolate, with a broad clasping base; pods 2 
inches long or more. 

2. B. nigra, Boiss. Larger; leaves all petioled; pods less than an inch long. 

Not to be confounded with Sisymbrium o£5cinale, Scop., which has runcinately 
pinnatifid leaves, small yellow flowers and closely appressed, subulate sessile pods half 
an inch long; or, Mdth S. acutangulum, DC. , similar to the last, but the pods on short 
pedicels, erect and over Mi inch long. The last are called Hedge Mustards. 


Pod linear, flattened, often 1 -celled by the disappearance of the narrow partition. 
Seeds in two rows, minute; cotyledons incumbent. A low hirsute branching n-nn nal, 
with pinnately divided leaves, and yellow, solitary axillary flowers. 

1. T. gracile, Hook. Stems weak; petals 1^ to 3 lines long, broad; pods 6 to 20 
lines long, pointed at both ends. 

7. CAFSELLA, Mcenck Shepherd's Pxiese. 

Pod obcordate, much flattened, many-seeded; cotyledons incumbent. Slender and 
mostly smooth annuals, with minute flowers. 

1. C. Bursa-pastoris, Moench. Somewhat hirsute at base; radical leaves mostly 
runcinate-piimatifid, the cauline lanceolate, clasping. 

2. C. divaricata, Walp. Very slender; pods elliptic-oblong; is more rare. 

8. IiEFIDrGTM, L. Pefpebobass. 

Pod orbicular or obovate, emarginately 2-winged at the summit; the cells 1-seeded. 
Ix>w herbs, with pinnatifld or toothed leaves, and small white flowers; the petals in 
some species wanting, and the stamens only 2 or 4. 

1. L. latipes, Hook. Stems stout, simple 1 to 3 inches high, surpassed by the 
irregularly and coarsely pinnatifld leaves; racemes capitate, in fruit an inch long or less; 
sepals very unequal; pod strongly reticulated, the acute wings nearly as long. 

2. L. oxycarpxim, Torr. & Gr. Stems simple or branched 3 to 6 inches high; 
smooth; raceme lax, elongated; pod smooth, rounded, nodding, the broad acute teeth 
short and divergent; petals none. 

3. L. nitidum, Nutt. Similar to the last, but larger; petals present; pods smooth 
and shining, acutely margined. 

4. L. Menziesii, DC. Hispid; petals none; pods not margined, except by th« 
rery short teeth at the summit. 


Var. (?) strictmn, Wat. Sepals green, persistent; fruiting racemes crowded cylin- 
dric-capitate, the pedicels erect, low and spreading. This plant seems to be a separata 
•pedes. It has been found in San Francisco, by Miss Annie Hughes. 


Pod 1-celled, 1-seeded, plano-convex, mostly pendulous on slender pedicels. Flowers 
minute, white or rose-colored. 

1. T. curvipes, Hook. Six inches to two feet high; the upper leaves clasping by a 
broad auricled base; pods densely tomentose or smooth, 2 to 4 lines in diameter, the wing 
entire or crenate, veined and often perforate, emarginate at the top and tipped with the 
purple style. The perforate-wing form called Lace-pod. 

2. T. laciniatus, Nutt. Smaller and more slender; the cauline leaves scarcely 
fturicled at the base; pods obovate, cuneate at the base, 2 to 3 lines long. 

Var. crenatus, Brewer. The broader wing deeply crenate or fringed. Fringe-pod. 

3. T. radians, Benth. Pods round, 4 to 5 lines in diameter, scarcely emarginate, 
with al broad entire translucent wing conspicuously marked by radiating nerves. 

4. T. pusillus, Hook. May be known by its minute pods hirsute with hooked haira. 

10. RAPHANUS, L. Radish. 
Coarse introduced annuals. 

1. R. sativus, L., has a pointed 2-seeded pod. 

2. R. Raphanistnun, L., has a necklace-shaped pod, long beaked, l-9-8eeded 

Oedeb 7. CISTACE.ffi. 

Flowers perfect and regular. Sepals 5, persistent; and two of them smaller, wholly 
exterior, and bract-like. Petals 5, usually ephemeral. Stamezis indefinite, with filiform 
filaments; anthers short. Style one. Capsule 3-valved. 


Petals broad. Stamens numerous (about 20). Style short; stigma 3-lobed. Low 
branching herbs, or somewhat woody; flowers yellow, opening only once, in sunshine. 

1. H. Bcoparitun, Nutt. Much branched, hairy or smooth, about a foot high; leave* 
narrow, 4 to 12 Unes long, alternate; flowei« on slender pedicels, one or several termin- 
sting the branches; petals 4 lines long. 

Oedeb 8. VIOLACEiE. 

Herbs distinguished by the irregular one-spurred corolla of 5 petals, 5 stamens, adnate 
»"trose anthers conniving over the pistil, which has a club-shaped style with a one sided 


■tigma, a one celled ovary, formiiig a capsule, which splits at maturity into three parts 
Represented only by the famiUar genas 

1. VIOLA, L. 

Sepals unequal, auricled at the base. Petals unequal, lower one spurred. Anthera 
nearly sessile, often coherent, the connectives of the two lower bearing spurs which are 
Inclosed by the spur of the petal. (See Addenda. ) 
* Leaves undivided. 

+- Flowers not yellow, or orange. 

1. V. canina, L., var. adunca, Gr. Flowers violet or purple. Low stems sending 
out runners; leaves ovate, often somewhat cordate at the base, obscurely crenate; stipules 
foliaceous, narrowly lanceolate, lacerately toothed; spur as long as the sepals, curved; 
lateral petals bearded. 

Var. lougipes, Wat. The obtuse spur straight. 

2. V. ocellata, Torr. & Gr. Stems nearly erect, 6 to 12 inches high; leaves tordate 
to cordate-ovate, acutish, conspicuously crenate; stipules small, scarious; upper petals 
white within, purple-brown without, the others pale-yellow veined with purple. 

-t-+- Flowers yellow, tinged toith purple. 

3. V. pedunculata, Torr. & Gr. Stems with a decumbent or procumbent base; 
leaves rombic-cordate, with truncate or abruptly cuneate base, obtuse, coarsely crenate; 
stipules foliaceous, narrowly lanceolate, entire or gashed; showy flowers on peduncles 
exceeding the leaves; petals 6 to 9 lines long, the upper tinged with brown on the outside, 
the others veined with deep purple; lateral petals bearded; capsule smooth. 

4. V. aurea, Kellogg. Leaves ovate to lanceolate, cuneate or sometimes truncate 
at base, obtuse, coarsely crenate; stipules foliaceous, lanceolate, laciniate; peduncle but 
little longer than the leaves; petals 4 to 6 lines long, as in the last, but lighter yellow; 
capsule pubescent. 

5. V. Nuttallii, Pursh. Leaves oblong-ovate to oblong, attenuate into a long 
petiole, entire, or obscurely sinua-te; stipules entire; peduncles usually shorter than the 

-«- •{--(- Flowers yellow. 

6. V. sarmentosa, Dough Leaves rounded-cordate, reniform, or sometimes ovate. 
finely crenate, usually punctate with dark dots. Flowers smalL 

• * Leaves divided or lobed; flowers yellow, tinged with brown-purple. 

7. V. lobata, Benth. Distinguished by its stout stems and large palmately 5 to 
9-lobed leaves. Flowers large. 

8. V. chrysantha, Hook. Stems short; leaves bipinnatifid, with narrow seg- 
ments. Flowers large, like V. pedtmcnlata, but the lateral petals are not bearded. 



Herbs or shrubs, with simple entire exstipulate leaves, remarkable for the papilio* 
naceous-looking flowers. In our genus the ovary is 2-celled. 

1. POLY GALA, Toum. 

Sepals 5, very unequal, the 2 lateral ones large and petal-like. Petals 3, united to 
each other and to the stamen-tube, the middle one hooded and often crested or beaked. 
Stamens 6 to 8, the filaments united below into a split sheath, adnate at the base to the 
petals. The 2-celled ovary forms a capsule flattened contrary to the partition, notched 
or retuse above. 

1. p. cucullata, Benth. Stems slender from a woody base, 2 to 8 inches high; leaves 
Bmooth, oblong-lanceolate or ovate-elliptical, J to 1 inch long, short petioled; flowers 
rose-color; outer sepals 2^ lines long, rounded-saccate at the base; the wings broadly 
ipatulate, 4 to 6 lines long. 

2. P. Calif omica, Nutt. Stouter; flowers greenish white. 


Herbs with regular and mostly perfect flowers, persistent calyx, its parts and the petals 
4 or 5 and imbricated or the latter sometimes convolute in the bud, the distinct stamens 
commonly twice as many as the petals, ovary 1 -celled with a free central placenta. Stems 
usually swollen at the nodes. Leaves opposite, often united at the base by a transverse 
line, in one group with interposed scarious stipules. Styles 2 to 5, mostly distinct. 
Fruit a capsule opening by valves, or by teeth at the summit. Flowers terminal, or in 
the forks, or in cymes. 

Many species in this order are difficult to determine. 

* Sepals united into a ^5-toothed calyx. Petals long-clawed. 
Petals with bifld appendages Silene. 1 

• * Sepals distinct; petals without claws. 

Petals bifid; capsule cylindric Cerastium. 2 

Petals bifid capsule globose .' Stellaria. 3 

Petals entire; capsule globose ^ Arenaria, 4 

Stipules present; styles 5 Spergula. 5 

Stipules present; styles 3 Lepigonum. 6 

1. SILENE, L. 

Calyx tubular, cylindrical to campanulate, 5-tootbed, lO-nerved. Petals 5, with nar- 


row claws; the blade mostly bifid or many-cleft and usually crowned with 2 scales at 
the base. Stamens 10; styles 3, erect. Capsule dehiscent by 6, rarely 3 teeth. 

1. S. Gallica, L. Hairy; leaves spatulate, 1 to IJ inches long; calyx oblong- 
cylindric, becoming expanded by the growth of the ovoid capsule; flowers small, rose- 
colored, in one-sided close racemes; petals entire, slightly twisted. 

2. S. Californica, Durand. Glandular-pubescent; stems 6 inches to 3 ft. high, 
lax, leafy; flowers large, deep scarlet, few at the ends of the branches; calyx 7 to 10 lines 
long; petals deeply parted with bifid segments, the lobes 2-3-toothed or entire, with 
often a lateral one. 

3. S. Douglasii, Hook. Stems simple few-flowered; leaves narrowly oblanceolate 
to linear, an inch or two long; calyx oblong-cylindric, often inflated, 5 to 7 lines long; 
petals rose-color or nearly white; 8 to 10 lines long, bifid with broad obtuse lobes; claw 
broadly auricled; capsule oblong-ovate, long stiped. 

2. CERASTIUM, L. Mouse-ear Chickweed. 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, emarginate or bifid. Stamens 10. Styles 5, rarely less. The 
curved capsule dehiscing by twice as many teeth as there are styles. Flowers white. 

1. C. pilosum, Ledeb. Erect, rather stout, more or less densely pilose; leaves 
oblong-lanceolate, ^ to an inch or more long, acute, almost sheathing at the base; flowers 
from J to 1 inch in diameter. 

C. ABVEN8E, L.. has downy acute leaves. 

C. \xjLaATxru, li.. has ovate or obovate obtuse leaves; flowers clustered. 

3. STELLARIA, L. Chickweed. 

Sepals 5, rarely 4. Petals as many, 2-cleft. Stamens 10, or fewer by abortion. Low 
herbs with minute white flowers and 4-angled stems. 

1. S. media, L. Weak and spreading, rooting at the lower joints; the ovate leaves 
less than an inch long on hairy petioles, or the upper ones sessile; stamens 3 to 10. 

Introduced from Europe. 

2. S. nitens. Nutt., has small sessile lanceolate leaves and narrow shining sepals 
surpassing the nainute petals. 

3. S. littoralis, Torr., is rather a stout hairy plant, with ovate leaves; flowers in 
a terminal cyme. May Jbe found on the sea-shore. 

4. ARENARIA, L. Sandwort. 

Distinguished chiefly from Stellaria by the entire petals and nsually by the tufted 
stems and subulate rigid leaves. In our species the 3 valves of the capsule are entire; 
bracts foliaceous. 

1. A. Douglasii, Torr. & Gr. Slender, much branched, 3 to 6 inches high; leavei 


filiform, 3 to 12 lines long; flowers on long slender pedicels; sepals 3-nerved; petals obovate» 
2 lines long or more; longer than the sepals. 

2. A. Califomica, Brew. Leaves lanceolate, 1 or 2 linea long; flowers smaller than 
the last; petals spatulate. 

3. A. palustris, Wat. Stems weak, 4 to 8 inches high; leaves linear, flaccid, 6 to 
12 Lines long; flowers few on long pedicels; petals 3 or 4 lines long. In swamps. 

5. SPERGULA, L. Corn-Spurrt. 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire. Stamens 10, rarely 5. Ovary 1-celled, many-ovuled; 
styles 5, alternate with the sepals. Annuals dichotomously branched, with awl-shaped 
apparently whorled leaves (fascicled). 

1. S. arvensis, L. The almost filiform leaves 1 or 2 inches long; flowers white, the 
long pedicels at length reflexed. Naturalized. 

6. LEPIGONUM, Fries. Sani>-Spijrrt. 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, entire, rarely fewer. Stamens 10, or fewer by abortion. Ovary 
1-celled, many ovuled; styles 3, or rarely 5. Low herbs, with setaceous or linear fascicled 
leaves; flowers white or pink, pediceled. 

1. L. macrothecum, Fisch. & Mey. Rather stout, often a foot high; leaves fleshy 
i to 2 inches long, with large ovate stipules; pedicels becoming reflexed; sepals 3 or 
more lines long, equaling the pinkish petals. In salt-marshes. 

2. L. medium. Fries. More slender than the last, with smaller flowers on shorter 

Oeder 11. PORTUIiACACEiE. 

Succulent herbs, with simple and entire leaves, and regular but unsymmetrical perfect 
flowers; the sepals only 2, the petals 2 to 5 or more; the stamens opposite the petals 
when of the same number; the ovary 1-celled. Stamens sometimes indefinitely numerous, 
commonly adhering to the base of the petals, these sometimes united at the base. Style 
2 to 8-cleft. Stipules none. 

• Sepals 2, distinct, persistent, 

Btamens more than 5 Calandrinia. 1 

Stamens 5 Claytonia. 2 

* * Sepals 4 to 8 Lewisia, 3 


Petals mostly 5 (3 to 10). Stamens 5 to 15. Ovary free, many-ovuled; style 3-cleft, 
short. Capsule globose or ovoid, 3-valved. Seeds shining-black. Low succulent herbs- 
with alternate leaves. 


1. C. Menziesii, Hook. Smooth, branching from the base, the stems ascending; 
leaves linear to oblanceolate, 1 to 3 inches long, the lower on slender petioles; sepals 
keeled, the calyx 4-angled in the bud; petals broadly obovate, red to purple, 2 to 6 lines 
lorg. One of the most abundant of open ground early flowers. 


' Petals 5, cquaL Stamens 5. Style 3-cleft. Capsule and Ipeds as in Calandrinia. 
Radical leaves numerous; cauline perfoliate, or a pair. 

1. C. perfoliata, Donn. Stems 2 to 12 inches high; radical leaves long-petioled, 
broadly rhomboidal, or deltoid, or deltoid-cordate, ^ to 3 inches broad, obtuse; the cauline 
pair usually united to form an almost orbicular perfoliate leaf, concave above; the lax 
raceme of small pinkish flowers nearly sessile in the leaf-cup., 

Var. parviflora, Torr. Radical leaves linear, or linear-spatulate. 

Var. spathulata, Torr. Radical leaves linear; the cauline pair distinct or partly 
united on one side, ovate to lanceolate. Low and slender. 

Var. exigua, Torr. Low, radical leaves narrowly linear or filiform; the cauline 
distinct, linear. 

2. C. Siberica, L. Stems 6 to 15 inches high; radical leaves lanceolate to rombic- 
ovate or nearly orbicular, long-petioled; the cauline pair ovate or varying from lanceolate 
to spatulate-obovate, sessile, distinct; raceme loose; the rose-colored or white petals 2 to 
A lines long. 

3. LETWISIA, Pursh. 

Petals 8 to 16, large and showy, rose-colored. Stamens numerous (40 or more). Styla 
3 to 8- parted nearly to the base. Low acaulescent fleshy perennials, with fusiform roots, 
and short 1 -flowered scapes. 

1. L. rediviva, Piirsh. Leaves densely clustered, linear-oblong, subterete, 1 or 2 
inches long, smooth and glaucous; scape jointed in the middle, bearing on the joint 6 to 
'7 subulate verticillate bracts; petals sometimes white, 8 to 16 lines long. 

Oeder 12. HYPERICACE^. 

Herbs or shrubs, with opposite entire punctate leaves, no stipules and perfect flowers 
with 4 or 5 petals and numerous stamens, the fruit a septicidal many-seeded capsule. 
Calyx of 4 or 5 persistent sepals. Filaments mostly in 3 sets. Styles 2 to 6, usuallj 

1. HYPERICUM, L. St. John's-wort. 

Sepals and petals 5. The numerous stamens in three bundles. Ovary 1 to 3-celled, 
the ovules growing on the parietal placentae. Flowers cymose, yellow. 


1. H. Scouleri. Hook. Stems erect from a running rootstock i to 2 feet high, 
terete, simple or sparingly branched ; leaves ovate to oblong, clasping, an inch or less 
long ; petals punctate, 3 to 5 lines long; capsule 3-celled. 

2. H. concinnum, Benth. Stems from a woody base, 3 to 6 inches high; leaves 
from oblong to linear, acute, an inch long or less, not clasping, usually folded. 

3. H. anagalloides, Cham & Schlecht. Stems numerous, weak, rooting at the 
lower joints, 1 to 10 inches long; leaves broadly ovate or elliptical, 2 to 6 inches long, 
obtuse, clasping; sep^ exceeding the petals; capsule 1-celled. 

f / 

i Order 13. MALVACE-ffi. 

f \ 
Herba or sh^nibs/with alternate stipulate leaves; distinguished by the valvate calyx, 

convolute petals, 'their bases or short claws united with the base of a column of many 

united stamens, these with reniform anthers. Calyx 5-cleft or parted, persistent, with 

eometimes a calyx-like involucel of bracts. Petals 5, usually withering without 

falling off. Pistil usually either a ring of ovaries around a projecting receptacle or a 

3-10-celled ovary; styles united at least at the base. Leaves usually palmately ribbed. 

Flowers axillary. (See Addexda. ) 

1. LAVATERA, L. Tree Mallow. 

Involucel 3 to 6-cleft. Stamineal column divided into numerous filaments. Styles 
filiform. Fruit depressed ; the several cai^els separating from the prominent axis, 
1 -seeded. 

1. L. assurgentiflora, Kellogg. A shrub 6 to 15 ft. high; flowers 1 to 4 in the 
axils on drooping pedicels; petals rose-purple, 1 to 1 J inches long, with a broad truncato 
limb and narrow claws having a pair of dense hairy tufts at the base. Commonly culti- 
vated, but a native (?) of this State. 

2. MALVA, L. Mallow. 

Involucel 3-leaved. Petals obcordate, small. Herbaceous. Otherwise as Lavatera. 

M. borealis, Wallman. Annual; leaves round-cordate, crenate, 5-7-lobed; peduncles 
short; petals pinkish-white, 2 or 3 lines long. 

Distinguished from the biennial M. rotundifolia by its short pedunceles, small flowers 
and rugose carpels. 


Involucel none. Stamineal colunm double; the filaments of the outer series usually 
united into 5 sets, opposite the petals. Flowers in a terminal raceme or spike. Herbs. 

* Perennial. 
1. S. malvaeflora, Gr. Perennial, 1 to 3 ft. high; leaves on elongated petiole*, 

32 LINAGES. (flax FAMILX.) 

orbicular to semi-circular in outline; the lower toothed or cleft, the upper more narrowly 
and deeply, 5 to 9-lobed or parted; the segments sparingly toothed, often linear and 
entire; flowers in naked elongated racemes; bractlets small, lanceolate; pedicels short, 
naked; calyx often tomentose; petals emarginate, 6 to 12 lines long, purple; carpela 

2. S. humilis, Gr. Much resembling the last, but lower, and often decumbent at 
the base; leaves smaller; flowers fewer and more scattered; calyx larger, 3 to 6 lines 
long; carpels reticulated and pubescent. 

* * Annual. 

3. S. diploscyplia, Gr. Pubescent with long spreading hairs, 1 to 2 ft. high; 
leaves deeply 5-9-cleft with lobed segments; bractlets conspicuous, 5 to 7-parted, hispid; 
flowers nearly sessile in close 3 to 5-flowered clusters; petals 6 to 12 lines long, broad and 

4. S. malacliroides, Gr. Stout, hirsute, 3 to 6 ft. high, tufted; leaves large; flowers 
small, white or purplish, nearly sessile in close terminal heads on the short leafy branches; 
petals narrowly obcordate; sets of stamens indistinct. 

Oeder 14. UNACE-aS. 

A small order represented and characterized by the one genus 

1. LINUM, L. Flax. 

Parts of the flower 5, except sometimes in the pistiL Filaments united at the base 
with commonly alternating teeth. Styles 5, or sometimes only 2 or 3, distinct or united. 
Stigmas capitate or oblong; ovary globose. Seeds twice as many as the styles. Herbs 
with sessile entire leaves without stipules, and cymose or panicled flowers. 

§ 1. Styles 5. Flowers blue. 

1. L. perenne, L. Smooth, 1 to 2^ ft. high, branching above, leafy; leaves linear 
to linear-lanceolate, 3 to 18 lines long, acute; stipidar glands none; flowers on slender 
pedicels, scattered, large. 

§ 2. Styles S; petals appendaged at base, with a tooth on each side and a third adnatt 
to the inner face of the claw. 

* Flowers yellow; pedicels short. 

2. L. Brewerl, Gr. Smooth, slender, 3 to S inches high or more, few flowered at 
the summit; leaves linear-setaceous, G to 8 lines long; stipular glands conspicuous; petab 
3 or more lines long. 

• • Flowers rosc-purjU to white. 

3. L. congesttun, Gr. Nearly smooth, excepting the calyx, about a foot high; 


•tipular glands very small; flowers in close terminal clusters; petals about 3 lines long; 
capsule globose. 

4. L. Califomicum, Gr. Smooth, glaucous, G to 18 inches high; stipular glands 
conspicuous; flowers in small cymes or the lower solitary^ petals 4 lines long, capsule 
acute, shorter than the calyx. 

5. S. spergulinum, Gr. Smooth, 6 to 15 inches high; leaves without stipular 
glands; pedicels 3 to 6 lines long, and mostly solitary; sepals slightly glandular, minute; 
capsule obtuse, exceeding the calyx slightly. 

Oeder 15. GERANIACE-ffi. 

Flowers perfect on axillary peduncles, regular (in our species) and 83minietrical, the 
parts in fives. Stamens mostly in two sets, those alternate with the petals sometimes 
sterile. Ovary deeply 5-lobed, with a prolonged axis, or 5-ceUed. 

§ 1. Carpels 5, one-seeded, separating at maturity from the long central axis; the stylet 
forming long twisted tails. 

Fertile stamens 10; tails of the carpels not bearded Geranium. 1 

Fertile stamens 5; tails of the carpels bearded Erodium. 2 

§ 2. Carpels 5, one-seeded, fleshy, distinct Limnanthes. 3 

§ 3. Carpels combined into a 5-celled ovary. Ozalis. 4 

1. GERANIUM, L, Cranesbill. 

Stamens 10 with anthers, a gland behind the base of each of the shorter 5; filaments 
bearded at the base. Ovary 5-lobed; style 5-lobed at the top; the roundish-oblong carpels 
splitting away from the persistent beaked axis. Leaves palmately lobed and mostly 
opposite, scarious stipules; swollen- jointed stems. 

1. G, Carolinianum, L. Difiusely branched, pubescent; leaves 1 to 2| inches in 
diameter, palmately 5-7-parted, the divisions cleft iuto linear lobes; petals rose-colored 
equaling the awned sepals, 2 or 3 lines long; carpels hairy; tails half an inch long. 

G. incisum, Nutt., with large purple flowers, grows in the Sierra Nevada, and in 
Humboldt County. 

2. ERODIUM, L'Her. 

Characters as in the last; but the filaments dilated, the 5 opposite to the petals sterile 
and scale-like; carpels attenuate to a sharp bearded base; the tails long bearded on the 
inner side. Leaves commonly pinnate and bipinnately parted or lobed; peduncles 
umbellately 2-several-flowered with a 4-bracted involucre at the base of the pedicels; 
flowers small. 

1. E. cicutarium, L'Her. (Filaria or Pin-Clover.) Hairy, much branched, 


decumbent; leaves pinnate the leaflets laciniately pinnatifid with narrow acute lobes, 
tho opposite leaves unequal; the long peduncles in the axils of the smaller leaves bearing 
4 to 8-flowered umbels; the slender pedicels at length reflexed, the fruit still erect; the 
bearded carpels with spirally, twisted tails. 

2. E. moschatum, L'Her. (Musky Filaria. ) Similar to the last but of a lighter 
green and the leaflets unequally and doubly serrate, not pinnatifid. Gives out a musky 
odor when wilted. 

3. E. macrophyllum, Hook. & Am. Leaves reniform-cordate, 1 to 3 inches 
broad; sepals broad, 5 to 6 lines long. 


Glands 5, alternating with the petals. Stamens 10. Style 5-cleft at the apex. An- 
nual low diffuse herbs, with pungent juice, growing in wet places; leaves pinnate, 
without stipules; flowers yellowish-white or rose-colored, solitary on axillary peduncles. 

1. L. Douglasii, R. Br. Glabrous, yellowish green, weak and succulent stems; 
leaflets incisely lobed; peduncles at length 2 to 4 inches long; sepals lanceolate, 3 to 4 
lines long, half the length of the oblong or obovate, emarginate or truncate petals. 

Var alba, Hartweg. Villous sepals; shorter, white petals. 

4. OXALIS, L. 

The parts of the flower in fives. Stamens 10; the filaments dilated and united below. 
Capsule columnar or ovoid, beaked with the short style. Low herbs with sour watery 
juice; leaves alternate or radical, digitately trifoliolate, leaflets obcordate. 

1. O. Oregana, Nutt. (Redwood Sorrel. ) Acaulescent, rusty- villous; rootstock 
creeping; leaflets broadly obcordate, 1 to 1^ inches broad; petioles 2 to 8 inches long; 
scapes equaling or exceeding the leaves, mostly 1 -flowered; petals 6 to 12 lines long, white 
or rose-colored, often veined with purple. 

2. O. comiculata, L. (Yellow Sorrel. ) Distinguished by its slender branching 
stems, and smaller yellow flowers. 

Ordek 16. RUTACE.ffi. 

Pellucid or glandular-dotted aromatic leaves, along with definite hypogynous stamens 
and definite seeds characterize this order, although some of the orange-tribe have many 

1. PTELEA, L. Hop-tree. 
Flowers polygamous. Sepals, petals and stamens 4 or 5; ovary with a short, thick 


stipe, 2-celled; style short; fruit a broadly ■winged orbicular Bamara, 2-seeded. Flowen 
email, greenish-white, in terminal cymes or compound corymbs. 

1. P. angustifolia, Benth. A shrub 5 to 25 ft. high, with chestnut colored punc- 
tate bark; leaves 3-foliolate. 

Order 17. CELASTRACE^. 

SuflBiciently characterized by the genus 

1. EUONYMUS, Toum. 

Sepals and petals 4 or 5, widely spreading; Stamens as many very short on an angled 
disk; ovary immersed in the disk, 3-5-valved, colored, often warty. Fruit a red ariL 
Shrubs, with 4-angled branches, opposite petioled exstipulate serrate smooth leaves, and 
flowers in loose cymes on axillary peduncles. 

1. E. occidentalis, Nutt. 7 to 15 ft. high; leaves ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate, serrulate, 2 to 4 inches long; peduncles 1-4-flowered; flowers dark reddish- 
brown, 4 to 6 Hues in diameter, the parts in fives. 

Order 18. RHAMNACEiE. 

Shrubs or small trees, with simple undivided leaves, small and often cadacous etipnlea, 
and small regular flowers, the stamens borne on the calyx and alternate with its lobes; 
ovary 2 to 4-celled. Flowers often apetalous; a conspicuous disk adnate to the short tube 
of the calyx; petals often clawed; style or stigma 2-4-lobed; fruit berry-like or dry, con- 
taining 2 to 4 seed-like nutlets. 

Calyx and disk free from the ovary; filaments short; fruit berry-like. Rhamnus. 1 

Calyx and disk adherent to the ovary; filaments long; fniit dry Ceanothus. 2 


Small greenish flowers; calyx 4-5-cleft, with erect or spreading lobes, the campanulate 
tube persistent; petals 4 or 5 or none, on the margin of the disk; claws short; stamens 4 
or 5 ; leaves evergreen. 

§ 1. Flowers dicecious, apetalovs, solitary or fascicled in the axils. 

1. R. crocea, Kutt. Much branched, 3 to 15 ft. high; leaves coriaceous, oblong 
or obovate to obicular, 3 to IS lines long, acutely denticulate, usually yellowish brown or 
copper-colored beneath; fruit red. 

§ 2. Flowers mostly perfect in pedunctdate cymes. 

2. R, Californica, Esch. Spreading 4 to 18 ft. high; leaves ovate-oblong to ellip- 


tical, 1 to 4 inches long, denticulate or nearly entire; petals very small, broadly ovate, 
emarginate; fruit blackish-purple. 


Calyx 5-cleft; the lobes acute; disk thick adhering to the tube and to the ovary; petals 
on long claws, hooded; stamens 5; filaments long-exserted; ovary 3-lobed; style short, 
3-cleft. The small flowers are in showy thyrsoid or cymose clusters. Species difficult. 

§ 1. Leaves S-nerved. 

1. C. thyrsiflorus, Esch. (California Lilac. ) Smooth, 6 to 15 ft. high; branches 
strongly angled; leaves rather thick, oblong to oblong-ovate, 1 to 1^ inches long, usually 
smooth and shining above, canescent beneath; flowers bright blue in dense compound 
racemes, terminating the long and somewhat leafy peduncles. 

2. C. integerrimus, Hook & Am. Slender, 2 or 3 ft. high; branches round, usually 
warty; leaves thin, bright green, ovate to ovate-oblong, 1 to 3 inches long; thyrse large, 

3. C. dentatus, Torr & Gr. Low, not rigid; leaves small glandular-serrate, 
fascicled, the margin strongly undulate or revolute, somewhat resinous; flowers blue, ia 
small roundish clusters. 

4. C. sorediatus. Hook & Am. Rigid; inflorescence pubescent; leaves silky on 
the nerves, ^ to 1^ inches long; flowers blue in shortly peduncled simple racemes ^ to 2 
inches long. 

5. C. divaricatus, Nutt. Grayish, usually spinose; leaves small, not tomentose 
beneath; flowers light blue or white, in nearly simple often elongated racemes, 1 to 4 
inches long; fruit resinous. 

6. C. incanus, Torr & Gr. Spinose; leaves hoary beneath with a very minute 
tomentum, cuneate to cordate at base; flowers in short racemes, white; fruit resinously 
warty. A straggling shrub along creeks. 

§ 2. Leaves pinnatehj veined. 

7. C. papillosus, Torr. & Gr. More or less hispidly villous or tomentose, 4 to 6 
ft. high; leaves glandular-serrulate, and the upper surface glandular-papillose, narrowly 
oblong, 1 to 2 inches long on slender petioles; flowers blue, in close clusters or short 
Vacemes, terminating slender naked peduncles; fruit not resinous. 

% 3. Leaves small, often opposite, very thick, with numerous straight lateral veins; stipule* 
mostly large and warty; flowers iii sessile or shortly peduncled axillary clusters; fruit 
larger, with S horn-like or warty prominences below the summit. 

8. C. crassifolius, Torr. Erect 4 to 12 ft. high, the young branches white with a 
Tillous tomentum; leaves somewhat spinosely-toothed or rarely entire and revolutely 
margined; flowers light blue or white, in dense clusters. 

SAPINDACEa:. (buckeye FAMILT.) 37 

9. C. cuneatus, Nutt. Similar to the last, but less tomentose; leaves cuneate- 
obovate or oblong, retuse above, on slender petioles; flowers in looser clusters. 

10. C. rigidus, Nutt. Erect, 5 ft. high, the branchlets tomentose; leaves 2 to 5 
lines long, cuneate-oblong or broadly obovate, few toothed above, very shortly petioled; 
flowers bright blue. 

Order VITACE.aj has but one representative; the well-known Calif omia wild grape, 
Vitis Califomica, Benth., which is common on the woody banks of streams. 

Oeder 19. SAPINDACEiE. 

Trees or shrubs, mostly with compound or lobed leaves, with unsymmetrical or irregular 
flowers; the order best characterized under its suborders. 
Under the order proper belongs 

1. -ffiSCULUS, L. Buckeye. 

Leaves opposite, palmately 4-7-foliolate. Calyx tubular, unequally 5-toothed. Petals 
4 or 5, unequal, with claws. Stamens 5 to 7, exserted and often unequal. Ovary 
3-celled; style long. Fruit a large leathery 3-valved pod. 

1. ^. Calif ornica, Nutt. Leaflets, usually 5, smooth, oblong-lanceolate, acute, 
obtuse at base, slenderly petiolulate, serrulate, 3 to 5 inches long; flowers in a close 
finely pubescent thyrse which is 6 to 12 inches long; calyx 2-lobed, the lobes scarcely 
toothed; petals white or pale rose, half an inch long or more; stamens 5 to 7; anthers 
orange colored. Fruit pear-shaped, 1^ to 2 inches long, containing, usually, one seed. 

Sub-order. ACERINE.ffi. 

Flowers polygamous or dioecious, regular, often apetalous. Ovary 2-lobed and 2-cel]';d, 
each 1-seeded cell producing a wing. Leaves opposite without stipules. 

2. ACER, Toum. Maple. 

Leaves palmately lobed. Calyx colored. Petals, usually 5. Stamens 3 to 12 inserted 
with the petals on a lobed disk. Styles 2. Fruit divaricately 2-winged. 

1. A. macrophyllum, Pursh. (Large-leafed I^Iaple.) A tree 2 or 3 feet in 
diameter; leaves G to 10 inches in diameter, deeply 3-5-cleft; flowers fragrant, yellow, 
in crowded pendulous racemes; fruit densely hairy; the smooth wings H inches long. 

2. A. circinatum, Pursh. (Vine-Maple.) A shrub or small tree; leaves 3 to 5 
inches broad, 7-9-lobed, lobes sharply serrate; flowers in corymbs loosely 10-20-flowered, 
on slender 2-leaved branchlets; sepals red or purple, exceeding the greenish petals; fruit 


Legdminos^. vpea family.) 

3. NEGUNDO, Mcench. Box-Elder. 

Flowers dioecious. Calyx minute. Petals and disk none. Stamens 4 or 5. Ovary 
and fruit as in Acer. Trees; leaves pinnate; sterile flowers on clustered capillary pedi- 
cels, the fertile in drooping racemes. 

1. N. Californicuni, Torr. & Gr. Usually a small tree; leaves 3-foliolate, villous; 
leaflets ovate or oblong, acute, 3 or 4 inches long, the terminal largest and 3-5-lobed or 
coarsely serrate, the lateral ones coarsely serrate; fruit pubescent; wings slightly 

In the figure a represents the fruit of Acer ma- 
croj^hijllum, h the wider spreading samara of Acer 
circiiiatmn, and c the closer wings of JS^'egundo 
Californicum. The first has hairy car^jels; the 
second is smooth, and the last slightly hairy. 

Order ANACARDIACE^ is represented 
by the well-known Poison Oak ov'doha, 
a slender, sometimes climbing, shrub, resembling 
the eastern -S/h/s toxicodendron, which is also often 
called Poison Oak, but is more commonly known 
as Poison Ivy. The eastern Sumac belongs to the 
same genus. There are three other species of 
Rhus in the State. The Pepper tree [Schinus 
violle), so commonly cultivated as an ornamental 
shade tree, belongs to this order. 

Order 20. LEGUMINOSiE. 

The single and simple free pistil becoming a legume in fruit, the alternate leaves with 
stipules, and in our genera, the papillionaceous corolla with .10 stamens, mai'k this order, 
one of the largest and most important in the vegetable kingdom. 

Flowers irregular. Calyx 3-5-cleft or toothed, persistent. Corolla of 5 petals, the 
upper larger and always external, covering the lateral pair in the bud, and these cover- 
ing the lower pair, which are more or less united, forming a keel which encloses the 
stamens and pistil. Filaments 10, rarely 5, commonly united around the pistil, either 
all united or nine and the upper one free. Ovary forming a pod with a single row of 
seeds attached to one side; style usually inflexed or curved. In Cercis the upper petal is 
small and enclosed by the wings. In Amorpha there is but one petal. 

Suborder Caesalpineae is marked by the upper petal enclosed, and distinct stamens. 

Suborder Mimoseae has regular flowers and usually many conspicuous stamens. 


Fig. A. On the left is Hosackia sub- 

pinnata, showing a i\\\l grown pod 

and a flower as seen from above. On 

the right is a i»d and flowers oi 

Hosackia Purshiana. At a is a single 

flower with its bract as seen from the 

front. The lower leaves and bracts 

are larger. 

Fig. B. A head of Trifolium fuca- 

A turn, with all but three of the flowers 

removed, showing the common receptacle and the involucre. 

Fig. C. An axillary spike of Astragalus didymoca-rpus, with ripe fruit. Below is 
one of the pods magnified. 

This order is remarkable for the number of useful and beautiful plants 
whicli belong to it. Pease, beans, lentils, peanuts, clover, alfalfa, etc., 
furnish food for man and domestic animals. Tropical plants of this 
order supply, among others, the following articles of commerce: Gum 
arable, gum Senegal, gum copal, dragon's-blood, indigo, logwood, brazil- 
wood, rosewood, tamarind. Many species have medical value, as senna, 
catchu, copaiba, etc. 

There are over 6,000 species of leguminous plants, mostly tropical. 
About 350 species are natives of the United States, more than half of 
which are found in California. Only 4 or 5 species are common to this 
coast and the Atlantic States, and these have forms peculiar to each 
coast. Our 180 species are grouped under 14 genera, while the 150 species 
of the East (i. e., the Mississippi States and eastward to the Atlantic), 
represent 50 genera. There are about 40 species of lupine, and the same 
number belonging to the genus Astragalus, growing within the limits ot 
this State. Only two kinds of the former and 4 of the latter grow east 
of the Mississippi. The latter is the largest American genus of the 


XiEQxmisoss. (pea family.) 

Fig. A. At a la Been a single flover of Lupintu Doi^ 
gUuii; h, the eame vdth the upper and Bide petals re- 
moved, showing the united pair of long-clawed, lowex 
petals and the base of the stamlneal tube. 

Fig. B. a. The same flower with all the petals re- 
moved, showing the nnlted stamens, 5 of which have 
shed the pollen and crinkled down. 6. The stamens aa 
they appear in a bud. The shorter stamens of the bnd 
become the longer stamens of the flower, c. Anther of 
a long stamen in a magnified, d. Anther of a long 
stamen In b (short In a) magnified. 

order, the species within the United States numbering about 150, nearly all of which 
belong west of the Rocky Mountains. We have about 25 kinds of clover; only 3 or 4 
species are natives of the East. Hosackia, numbering 28 species in our whole country, 
25 of which grow here, is not represented in the East at all. On the other hand, the 
large genus Desmodium, numbering in the East 19 species, has no representative west of 
the Rocky Mountains. Pickeringia is probably not found beyond the boundary of Cali- 
fornia. The great Australian genus Acacia, numbering there nearly 300 species, is 
represented in Southern California by a small tree (-4. Greggii], and in the East by an 
herb. Possibly 30 species are cultivated for shade trees. Honey Mesquit, or Algaroba 
(Prosopis julijlora) and Screw-pod Mesquit, or Tornilla ( P. pubescens), are small trees of 
Southern California. Prosopis and Acacia belong to the Suborder Mimoseae. All the 
plants here described (except Cercis) belong to the Suborder Papilionaceae, which is dis- 
tinguished by flowers, like those of the pea, as before described. 

Cercis, which, by mistake, is not described in the proper place, belongs to the Sub- 
order Caesalpineae, in which the side petals enclose the upper one and the stamens are free. 

§ 1. Stamens distinct. 

Leaves digitately 3-foliolate. Herbs; yellow flowers Thennopsis. 1 

Shrub; purple flowers Pickeringia. 2 

Leaves unequally pinnate; shrubby; 1 petal Amorpha. 9 

§ 2. Stamens all united into a sheath. 

Anthers of two forms; leaves digitate, more than three leaflets Lupinus. 3 

Anthers all alike; leaves pinnately 3-foliolate Psoralea. 8 

§ 3. Stamens diadelphous {2 sets, 9 and 1). 
* Leaves 3-foliolate; pods small. 

Flowers capitate. Corolla persistent Trifolium. 4 

Flowers in axillary racemes or spikes. Pod globular, wrinkled Melilotus. 5 

Flowers in axillary spikes. Pod one-seeded Psoralea. 8 

Pod spirally coiled or reniform Medicago. 6 


• * Leaves unequally pinnate; leaflets entire; no tendril. 

Flowers timbellate or solitary, axillary Hosackia. 7 

Flowers white or pinkish. Pod short, prickly Glycyrrhiza. 10 

Pods mostly inflated or nearly 2-celled Astragalus. 11 

* * * Leaves terminated by a tendril or bristle or an imperfect leaflet. 

Style filiform, hairy around the apex Vicia. 12 

Style flattened dorsally toward the apex, hairy on the inner side, usually 

twisted half round Lathyrus. 13 


Calyx companulate, cleft to the middle. Standard roundish, shorter than the oblong 
wings, the sides reflexed; keel nearly straight, its petals somewhat united, equalling the 
wings. Perennial herbs with the aspect of Lupine; leaflets entire; stipules foliaceous; 
flowers large in long terminal racemes, witli persistent bracts. 

1. T. Califomica, Wat. Woolly-tomentose; stipules lanceolate; leaflets obovate to 
oblanceolate, an inch or two long; bracts ovate; pod hairy. 


Calyx campanulate, turbinate at the base, repandly 4-toothed. Petals equal; standard 
orbicular, the sides reflexed; wings oblong; keel petals oblong, distinct, straight, obtuse. 
A low stout much branched spinose shrub; leaves evergreen, small, nearly sessile, 
1-3-foliolate, without stipules; flowers large, solitary', axillary, nearly sessile. 

1. P. montana, Nutt. Spreading, densely branched, 4 to 7 ft. high, silky-tomentose 
or smooth; leaflets 3 to 9 lines long; flowers from light cinnamon-red to purple, 7 to 9 
lines long; stamens persistent. 

3. LUPINUS, L. Lupine. 

Calyx deeply bilabiate, bibracteolate. Standard broad, the sides reflexed; wings united 
at the ends, enclosing the incurved beaked keel. Stipules adnate to the petioles; leaflets 
entire. Flowers in terminal racemes, verticiUate or scattered, bracteate. 

A large and diflScult genus. 

* Annuals. 

Ovules 2; bracts persistent; flowers in whorls; leaves long petioled, approximate; stout. 

Long- villous; flowers mostly purple L. microcarpus. 15 

Smoother; flowers yellow to white L. densiflonis. 16 

Ovules several; bracts deciduous; flowers in whorls; petioles 1 to 3 times the length of 
the leaflets. 
Puberulent; leaflets broad, smoother above; bracts short !•. afBnis. 8 


Villous; leaflets narrow, both sides pubescent. 

Bracts elongated; flowers rather large L. nanus. 9 

Bracts short; flowers small, narrow L. micranthus. 10 

Ovules several; bracts somewhat persistent; flowers scattered; petioles 1 to 4 times 
the length of the leaflets. 

Slender; leaflets smooth above; bracts long. L. leptophyllus. 11 

Slender; leaflets linear; bracts short L. sparsiflorus. 12 

Stout; leaflets truncate; bracts short L. truncatus. 13 

Stouter; leaflets broad; bracts short; very hispid L. hirsutissimus. 14 

* * Perennials; herbaceous, tall; flowers large; ovules 8 to 12. 

Stout; long petioles; leaflets 10 to 16, very large L. polyphyllus. 4 

Stout; short petioles; leaflets 7 to 10, large L. rivularis. 5 

Slender, decumbent; short petioles; leaflets small L. littoralis. 6 

Stoutish, erect; short petioles; keel narrow, falcate L. albicaulis. 7 

• * * Perennials; shrubby, leafy, silhy-puhescent. 

Leaflets narrowly lanceolate; flowers yellow L. arboreus. 1 

Densely silky-pubescent; flowers blue to white L. Chamissonis, 2 

Pubescence short, tomentose; shrubby at the base L. DouglasiL 3 

1. L. arboreus, Sims. Often 4 to 8 ft. high; sulphur-yellow, fragrant flowers, ver- 
ticillate in a loose raceme; pods large, pubescent, 10-12-seeded. 

2. L. Chamissonis. Esch. Less shrubby, 1 to 4 ft. high; leaflets 7 to 9, cuneate 
obovate, a half to an inch long, very silky on both sides; bracts lanceolate, shorter than 
the calyx; flowers sub-verticillate, blue, violet, rarely white. A variety about San 
Francisco with long bracts. 

3. L. Douglasii, Agardh. Slightly woody at base; pubescence short, tomentose or 
silky; leaflets 7 to- 9, oblanceolate to cuneate-oblong, 1 to 1^ inches long, pubescent on 
both sides; bracts linear-setaeeous, exceeding the calyx; flowers, blue or purple; calyx 
with long setaceous bractlets. 

4. L. polyphyllus, LindL Stout, erect, 2 to 5 ft. high, sparingly villous; stipules 
large, triangular to subulate; leaves distant, long petioled; leaflets 2 to 6 inches long; 
racemes a foot or two long; flowers mostly scattered on long pedicels, blue, purple or 
white; bracts oblanceolate, equaling or shorter than the calyx; keel naked. 

5. L. rivularis, DougL Stout, erect, 2 to 6 ft. high, nearly smooth; stipules subu- 
late or setaceous; leaflets 7 to 10, about equaling the petioles, ^ to 5 inches long; raceme 
often 1 to 2 ft. long; bracts setaceous, exceeding the calyx; flowers purple or rarely 
white; keel slightly ciliate. 

6. L. littoralis, Dougl. Stems slender decumbent or ascending, 1 or 2 ft. long; 
leaflets a half to an inch long, at least half as long as the petioles; flowers blue or violet, 
with some yellow, in short racemes; keel ciliate; calyx large, with small bractlets. 


7. albicatilis, Dougl. Distinguished by its flowers; which are light-blue to white, 
the standard strongly reflexed, the margins cohering near the apex, naked, acute; the 
narrow keel very strongly falcate. 

8. L. afEnis, Agardh. Stem a foot high; leaflets broadly wedge-obovate, emargin- 
ate or obtuse, an inch long or more; the petioles twice longer; petals 5 lines long; the 
keel usually naked; bracts short. 

9. L. nanus, Dougl. Slender stem 6 inches to a foot high, villous, often branching 
from the base; leaflets linear to oblanceolate, half to an inch long, the petioles 1 to 3 
times longer; bracts exceeding the calyx; petals very broad, 5 to 6 lines long, bluish- 
purple, or at first nearly white; the standard shorter and usually marked with purple 

10. L. micranthus. Dough Similar to the last, but the flowers smaller, in usually 
shorter more dense racemes; bracts shorter than the calyx; petals 2 to 3 lines long, 

Var. microphyllus, Wat. The lower and more hirsute form, with leaflets but 3 to 
6 lines long. 

Var. bicolor, Wat. Flowers larger, more like L. Nanus. 

Var. trifidus, Wat. Very hairy; lower lip of the calyx 3-parted. 

11. L. leptophyllus, Benth. Rarely branched, 1 or 2 ft. high, villous; leaflets 
narrowly linear on slender petioles; smooth above; bracts setaceous, much exceeding the 
calyx; petals 5 or 6 lines long, bluish-lilac, with a deep crimson spot upon the standard. 

12. L. sparsiflorus, Benth. Very slender, sparingly branched, 1 to 1^ ft, high, vil- 
lous, with spreading hairs; upper leaves very small; leaflets 5 to 9, linear, J to 1 inch 
long; petals violet, 5 lines long, the standard shorter; pod half an inch long. 

13. L. truncatus, Nutt. Stout, branched, 1 to 2 ft. high; leaflets linear, narrowed 
from the tnmcate or somewhat 3-toothed apex to the base, smooth above, J to 1^ inches 
long, nearly equaling the petiole; petals deep-purple, 4 or 5 lines long, the standard 
shorter; pod about an inch long. 

Here belongs L. Sxrvsni, Kellogg. A beautiful species of the Sierra Nevada, with yellow standard 
and rose-colored \nngs. 

14. Ij. Mrsutissimus, Benth. A foot high or more, very hispid, with spreading 
straight and viscid stinging hairs; leaflets broadly cuneate-obovate, obtuse or retuse, 
rarely acute, mucronulate; flowers in loose racemes, reddish-purple, large. 

15. L. microcarpus, Sims. Villous, with long hairs, 6 to 18 inches high; leaves 
approximate on long petioles; leaflets usually 9, cuneate-oblong, obtuse or emarginate 
smooth above, 1 to 2 inches long; calyx densely villous, large; petals purple to white, 
6 or 7 Unes long; the hairy 1-2-seeded pods 8 lines long. 

16. L. densiflorus, Benth. Much resembUng the last; calyx smooth or finely 
pubescent; petals yellow or ochroleucous, rarely white or pink. 

Ii. luteolus, Kellogg, may be found, distinguished by its more slender habit, smaller 
and fewer leaflets, and bracts exceeding the calyx- 

42 LEavursoaM. (pea FAmLT.) 

4. TRIPOLIUM, L. Clover. 

Calyx 5 cleft with nearly equal teeth, persistent. Corolla withering, persistent; winga 
narrow, keel short obtuse. Stamens usually diadelphous. Style filiform. Pod small 
and usually inclosed in the calyx, membranaceous, indehiscent or dehiscent at the ventral 
euture, 1 to 6-seeded. Herbs with leaves palmately 3 or rarely 5-7-foliolate; stipules 
adnate to the petiole; flowers in capitate racemes, spikes or umbels, rarely few or solitary; 
peduncles axillary or only apparently terminaL 

All our species annuaL 

§ 1. Heads not involucrate; ovules i. 

• Heads apparently terminal; flowers sessile, not reflexed; calyx teeth plumose, filiform. 

1. T. Macraei, Hook. & Am. Somewhat villous, erect, 6 to 12 inches high; sti- 
pules ovate to lanceolate; leaflets obovate to narrowly oblong, obtuse or retuse, serrulate, 
about haK an inch long; flowers dark purple, 3 lines long, in dense ovate long peduncled 
heads; calyx very villous; the straight teeth as long as the petals, often tinged /dth 
purple; pod 1-seeded. 

Var. dichotomuin, Brew. A taller and stouter form, with larger flowers in heads 
nearly an inch long; corolla more conspicuous, tipped with white. 

• * Heads axillary, small; flowers on short pedicels, at length reflexed; ealyx teeth svbu- 

laie; mostly smooth. 

2. T. ciliatTim, Nntt. Erect, often 1 to 2 ft. high; leaflets similar to the last; 
corolla white or purplish, little exserted, 3 lines long; calyx tube campanulate; the 
lanceolate teeth very acute, rigid, the scarions margin rigidly ciliate. 

3. T. gracilentozn, Torr. & Gr. Erect, slender, a foot high or less; stipules lanceo- 
late; leaflets cuneate oblong to ovate or obcordate, retuse, about half an inch long, 
serrulate; flowers pale rose-color or purplish on pedicels a line long or less; calyx cam- 
panulate, the subulate teeth nearly equaling the corolla. 

4. bifidom, Gr. Exactly like the last, but the leaflets narrow, the sides sparingly 
toothed or entire, and all deeply notched or cleft at the apex. 

§ 2. Heads subtended by an involucre; peduncles axillary; flowers sessile, not reflexed. 

• Involucre not membramaceous, deeply lobed, and the lobes laciniately and sharply toothed; 

corolla not becoming inflated. 

5. T. involncratom, Willd. Smooth; stems ascending, often a span high or more; 
leaflets mostly oblanceolate and acute at each end, a half to an inch long; flowers half an 
inch long, in close heads, purple or rose-colored; the narrow calyx teeth all entire; ovules 
mostly 5 or 6. 

Var. heterodon, Wat Heads larger and leaflets broader; some of the calyx teeth 
eetaciously cleft. 

6. tridentatnin, LindL Smooth or glandular-puberulent, slender and usually erect. 


ft half to two feet high; leaflets linear to narrowly lanceolate, sharply serrate; heads 
rather large, the flowers 6 to 8 lines long, purple, often tipped with white; calyx strongly 
nerved; the rigid teeth usually shorter than the tube, abruptly narrowed into the spiau- 
lose apex, often with a stout tooth on each side; ovules usually 2. 

Var. obtusiflorum, Wat. Stouter and often glandular-puberulent, with broader 
leaflets and larger flowers; calyx teeth entire. 

7. T. pauciflorum, Nutt. Smooth, very slender; sterna ascending or decumbent; 
leaflets obovate to oblanceolate or sometimes linear, half an inch long or less, serrulate; 
heads few flowered; involucre small; flowers 3 or 4 lines long, not much exceeding the 
calyx; deep purple to light rose-colored; calyx teeth subulate, entire; pod 2-seeded. 

* • Involucre membranaceous, at least at the base, less deeply lobed; corolla not inflated. 

8. T. microcephalum, Pursh. Villous, with soft hairs, slender, erect or decum- 
bent; stems often a foot or two long; leaflets oblanceolate to obovate, usually retuse, 
serri'late; heads small, dense; involucre about 9-lobed, the lobes acuminate 3-nerved, 
entire ; calyx hairy, nearly equaling the white or light rose-colored corolla; ovules 2; 
pod 1 -seeded. 

9. T. microdon. Hook & Am. ResembUng the last; involucre broader, nearly 
inclosing the head; its lobes about 3-toothed; calyx smooth. 

* • * Standard becoming conspicuously inflated and inclosing the rest of the flower; invo- 
lucre nearly obsolete in No. 12. 

10. T. barbigerum, Torr. Somewhat pubescent; stems rather stout, decumbent 
or ascending, a span high or less; stipules scarious; involucre as broad as the heads, 
shortly lobed; calyx-tube short, membranaceous; its teeth setaciously awned, plumose, 
the lower usually exceeding the purple corolla, sometimes 3-parted; pod 2-seeded. 

Var. Andrewsii, Gr. A stout villous form, the heads sometimes an inch broad; 
calyx teeth very long. 

11. T. fucatum, LindL Smooth; stems stout and succulent, a foot or two high; 
stipules large and scarious, usually very broad and entire; leaflets obovate, \ to 1^ inches 
long; heads large; involucre brond, deeply cleft; flowers often an inch long, pale rose- 
colored or purplish; 2-6-seeded. 

12. T. depauperatum, Desv. Smooth, low, slender; heads only 3-10-flowered; 
involucre scarcely more than a scarious ring. 

13. T. amplectans, Torr & Gr. Like the last; the involucre larger. Probably 
only a variety. 

5. MELILOTUS, Toum. Sweet Clovek. 

Flowers as in Trifolium, except that the petals are free from the stamens and decidu- 
ous. Pod 2-seeded. 

1. M. parviflora. Desf. Annual, smooth, erect, often 2 or 3 ft. high; leaflets 

i4 LEGl^DNOS^. (pea FAMILT.) 

mostly caneate, oblong, obtnse, denticulate, an inch long or less; flowers yellow, » Una 
long, in slender axillary pedunculate racemes; pedicels a line long. 


Characters nearly as the last; style subulate; pod compressed, falcate, incurved or 
•pirally coiled. 

1. M. sativa, L. (Lucebn, Alfalfa.) Stems erect, 1 to 4 ft. high; from a deep 
perennial root, smooth; leaflets cuneate-oblong or oblanceolate, toothed above; flowers 3 
or 4 lines long, racemed ; pods numerous, spirally twisted, veined, smooth. 

2. M. denticulata, Willd. Bur-Clover. Annual, nearly smooth, prostrate or 
ascending; leaflets cuneate-obovate or obcordate, toothed above; flowers small, yellow, 
usually 3 to 8 in an axillary cluster; pods spiral, armed with a double row of hooked 

3. M. lupulina, L. Pubescent, procumbent; flowers very small, yellow, in short 
spikes; pods smooth, reniform, 1-seeded. 

7. HOSACKIA. Douglas. 

Calyx teeth nearly equal, nsually shorter than the tube. Petals free from the stamens, 
nearly equal; standard ovate or roundish, the claw often remote from the others; winga 
obovate or oblong; keel somewhat incurved. Style incurved. Pod linear, sessile, several 

seeded, partitioned between the seeds. Herbaceous or rarely suff'rutescent; leaves 

pinnate, 2-many-foliolate; stipules minute and gland-like, rarely scarious or foliaceous; 
flowers yellow or reddish, in axillary sessile or pedunculate umbels. 

The flowers usually change to reddish or reddish-brown in drying. Matured pods are 
necessary for the determination of species. 

§ 1. Pod shortly acute, linear and many-seeded, straight, smooth; seeds suborbicular; 

flowers and fruit not reflexed; peduncles long; heel bread above mostly obtuse. 

Stipules large, foliaceous; villous, viscid H. stipularis. 1 

Stipules scarious; smooth. 

Bract small or none; wings usually white H. bicolor. 2 

Bract 1-3-foliolate, at the umbel; keel and wings purplish H. gracilis. 3 

Stipules reduced to blackish glands. 

Appressed-pubescent; tall, stout; pod long, smooth H. grandiflora. 4 

Flowers very small, solitary BL parviflora, 5 

§ 2. Pod shortly acute, 3-7-aeeded, straight; flowers small, mostly solitary; keel acvie; 

stipules gland-like; villous. 
Dlade of the standard cordate; leaflets 3 to 5; nearly smooth H. parviflora. 5 


Flowers peduncled; corolla scarcely exceeding the calyx; leaves nearly 

sessile, 1-3-foliolate H. Purshiana. 6 

Flowers nearly sessile, not bracteate; corolla larger; leaves petioled, 3-5-foliolate; low. 

Calyx -teeth about equaling the tube, pod 5-seeded H. subpinnata. 7 

Teeth much longer than the tube; pod 2-4-seeded H. brachycarpa. 8 

§ 3. Pod long-attenuate upward, iucurved, pubescent; stipules gland-like; leaflets S to 7; 
seeds 1 or 2; peduncles short, or none; flowers and fruit reflexed. 

Somewhat woody; nearly smooth; stems angled; leaflets mostly 3, oblong to linear. 

Umbels sessile; teeth narrow, erect glabra. 9 

■ Peduncles short or nearly wanting; teeth usually recurved H. cytisoides. 10 

Pedvjacles shorter; teeth short and blunt H. juncea. 11 

Very silky -pubescent or tomentose; stems herbaceous: pod pubescent, short; umbels 
on short peduncles. 

Very pubescent throughout; flowers 3 or 4 lines long H. tomentosa. 12 

Less pubescent; stem smooth; flowers smaller H. Heennanni. 13 

1. H. stipolaris, Benth. Eather tall, stout, two feet high or more, glandular; leaf- 
lets 15 to 21, obovate oblong, acute and mucronate, a half to an inch long; stipules large 
ovate; often fragrant. 

2. H. bicolor, DougL Smooth, erect and stout; leaflets 5 to 9, obovate or oblcng, a 
half to an inch long; stipules rather large; pedimcles longer than the leaves, 3-7-flowered, 
naked or sometimes with a small 1-3-foLiolate bract at the summit; flowers nearly sessile 
yellow, the wings often white; pod slender nearly 2 inches long. 

3. H. gracilis, Benth. Much like the last; usually low and slender, the weak stems 
a span high or more; umbel with a petioled 1-3-foliolate bract; flowers yellow, keel and 
wings purplish. 

4. H, grandiflora, Benth. Stout, I to 5 ft. high, more or less appressed silky- 
pubescent; leaflets 5 to 7 on an elongated rachis, 6 to 9 lines long; peduncles elongated; 
imbel 3-S-flowered, usually subtended by a single leaflet; flowers nearly sessile, 6 to 11 
Lnes long, yellowish or greenish white, often tinged with purple, pod slender, smooth. 

5. H. parviflora, Benth. Smooth or nearly so, stems slender, ascending, a span 
high or less; leaflets 3 to 5, obovate and very small to narrowly oblong and 6 to 8 lines 
long; bract 1-3-foliolate; flowers about 2 lines long, yellow. 

H. Purshiana, Benth. Silky-villous, rarely smooth, often a foot high or more; 
leaflets varying from ovate to lanceolate, 3 to 9 lines long; peduncles usually exceeding 
the leaves; the solitary flowers 2 or 3 lines long. 

7. H. subpinnata, Torr. & Gr. Villous or smooth, decumbent, a span high or less, 
leaflets half an inch long or less; flowers 3 or 4 lines long; pod linear oblong, about 


8. H. brachycarpa, Benth. Resembling the last; softly villous; pod viHoua, 
2 -4-seeded. 

9. H. glabra, Terr. Very nearly smooth; stems woody at base, 2 to 8 ft. long, 
erect or decumbent; leaflets oblong to linear-oblong, 3 to 6 lines long; umbels numerous, 
Bessile; flowers 3 or 4 lines long; seeds 2. 

10. H. cytisoides, Benth. Resembling the last; peduncles equaling or exceeding 
the leaves, or sometimes very short, usually with a 1-3-foliolate bract, at the top; calyx- 
teeth attenuate, mostly recurved. 

11. H. JTincea, Benth. Somewhat shrubby, erect; leaflets obovate to oblong, 2 to 
4 lines long; umbels on very short peduncles or sessile; flowers about 3 Hues long; calyx 
2 lines long or less; teeth short and blunt. 

12. H. tomentosa, Hook & Am. Very pubescent, weak and flexuose, prostrate or 
ascending, a foot or more long; leaflets 5 to 7, cuneate-oblong to obovate, acute, 3 to G 
lines long; umbels on short bracteolate peduncles, or the uppermost sessile; flowers 3 or 4 
lines long; alyx haK as long or more, very villous. 

13. H. Heennannii, Durand & Hilgard. Less pubescent, much branched and 
spreading; leaflets smaller; flowers smaller. 


Calyx lobes nearly equal, or the lower one longer; the two upper often connate. Keel 
broad and obtuse above, united with the wings. Stamens diadelphous or monadelphons. 
Pod ovate, indehiscent, 1 -seeded, thick, sessile. Perennial herbs punctate with dark 
glandular dots. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate. Stipules free. 

• Sterna prostrate, creeping; leaves orbicular. 

1. P. orbicularis, LindL Petioles 6 to 12 inches long; the leaflets 2 to 4 inches 
a2ross, slightly cuneate at the base; peduncles equaling or exceeding the leaves, bearing 
a close villous spike of large flowers; the lower tooth of the calyx much the longest and 
about equaling the purplish corolla; stamens diadelphous. 

• * Sterna erect. 

2. P. strobilina. Hook & Am. Two or three feet high; petioles 3 or 4 inches 
long; leaflets rombic ovate, softly pubescent beneath, about 2 inches long; stipules large, 
membranaceous; flowers in short oblong spikes, smaller than the last; stamens monadel- 

3. P. macrostacliya, D C. Three to even twelve feet high; leaflets ovate-lance- 
olate, an inch or two long or more; peduncles much exceeding the leaves; spikes cylin- 
drical, silky villous, the hairs often blackish; the lower tooth of the calyx but little tho 
longest, scarcely equaling the purple petals; tenth stamen nearly free. 

4. P. physodes, Dougl. A foot or two high, nparly smooth, slender; leaflet* 


ovate, mostly acate, about an inch long ; the white or purplish flowera in Bhort, clos« 
racemes; calyx at length inflated; stamens monadelphous. 


Calyx obconical, nearly equally 5-toothed; wings and keel wanting; the standard erect, 
folded together. Stamens slightly united at the base, exserted. Pod 1-2-seeded. Shrubs, 
glandular-punctate; the unequally pinnate leaves with the leaflets stipellate; flowers 
purple or violet in dense clustered terminal spikes. 

1. A. Calif omica, Nutt. Three to eight feet high, puberulent; leaflets 5 to 7 
pairs, oblong-elliptical, obtuse, mucronulate, an inch long; spikes 1 to 6 inches long. 

10. GLYCYRRHIZA, L. Liquorice. 

Flowers nearly as in Astragalus. Erect perennial herbs, glandular viscid; leaves une- 
qually pinnate; stipules deciduous; flowers in dense axillary pedunculate spikes; root 
large and sweet. 

1. G. lepidota, Nutt., var. g;lutinosa,Wat. Two or three feet high; flowers yellow- 
ish white or pinkish; the short peduncles covered with stout viscid hairs. Bare; on 
water courses. 

10. ASTRAGALUS, Toum. Rattlk-weed. 

Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla and its slender clawed petals usually narrow; keel obtuse. 
Stamens diadelphous. Legume very various, commonly turgid or inflated, one or both 
sutures usually projecting inward, frequently so much as to divide the cell into two. 
Seeds few or many on slender stalks, generally small for the size of the pod. Herbs, or 
a few woody at the base; with unequally pinnate leaves, and small flowers, chiefly in 
simple spikes or racemes from the axils. 

A vast genus of five or six himdred species; about fifty on the Pacific coast. The fruit 
is needed for the determination of the species. 

• Soot annual; pod not inflated, S-celled. 

Pod wrinkled, 2-lobed, 2-seeded A. didymocarpus. 1 

Pod not wrinkled, several-seeded A, tener. 2 

• * Boot perennial; pod bladdery-inflated, 1-celled. 

Stipe a little exceeding the calyx; pod with pointed ends A. oxyphysus. 3 

Stipe much exceeding the calyx; pod obtuse, one-sided A. leucophyllus. 4 

Stipe, none; pod large and very bladdery, many seeded; leaflets mostly in many pairs; 
spike or raceme many flowered. 

Stipules distinct; pod rather firm walled A. Crotalariae. 5 

Stipules united; pod thin A. Menziesii. 6 

Stipules membranaceous; corolla yellowish A. Douglasii. 7 


1. A, didymocarpus, Hook. & Am. Slender from 3 inches to a foot high; leaflets 
9 to IC, narrowly oblong to linear and more or less cuneate, deeply notched at the apex; 
small flowers white and violet; pod not over two lines long, short oval and deeply 2-lob^d 

2. A. tener. Gr. A span or so in hight; leaflets similar to the last, not so deeply 
notched or entire; pod about half an inch long, 5-10-seeded; corolla 4 or 5 lines long, 
bright violet to pale and violet-tipped. 

3. A. oxyphysus, Gr. Canescent with very soft silky pubescence; stem erect, 2 
to 3 ft. high; leaflets oblong an inch or less in length; peduncles much exceeding the 
leaves; corolla greenish-white 8 lines long; bladdery pod acuminate and tapering into the 
recurved stipe which a little exceeds the calyx, 

4. A. leucophyllus, Torr. & Gr. Less canescent than the last; flowers about half 
an inch long; corolla yellowish- white; the thin pod unequal-sided, an inch and a half 
long on a filiform pubescent stipe of almost equal length. 

5. A. Crotalariae, Gr., var. virgatus, Gr. Smooth or the young parts villous; sterna 
2 or 3 ft. high, stout; stipules scarious, triangular or subulate, distinct; peduncles elon- 
gated; racemes virgate and loose, 4 to 10 inches long; the white flowers soon deflexed. 

6. A. Menziesii, Gr. Villous with whitish hairs or soon green and almost smooth; 
stems sometimes decumbent, 1 to 4 ft. high; the lower stipules imited opposite the leaf; 
inflorescence similar to the last but more dense; pod larger (an inch and a half or more 
long) and more bladdery. 

7. A, Douglasii, Gr. Cinereous-puberulent, almost smooth in age, stems ascend- 
ing, a foot or so in height; leaflets in numerous pairs; linear or linear-oblong, 4 to 9 lines 
long: spike, half to an inch long; 10-20-flowered; pod gibbous-ovoid, 1 J to 2 inches long. 

11. VICIA, Toum, Vetch. Tare. 

Calyx 5-toothed or cleft, usually unequally. Wings adherent to the middle of the 
short keeL Stamens diadelphous or nearly so. Style filiform, inflexed, the apex sur- 
I'ounded by hairs or hairy upon the back. Pod flat 2-valved, shortly stipitate. Herbs, 
with angular stems climbing by branched tendrils terminating the pinnate leaves; leaflets 
entire or toothed at the apex; stipules semi-sagittate; flowers solitary or in loose axillary 

• Perennials; powers in pedunculate racemes. 

1. V. gigantea, Hook. Stout and taU, climbing several feet high; leaflets 10 to 15 
pairs, oblong, obtuse, mucronate, an inch or two long; stipules large; peduncles 
5-18-flowered; corolla 6 or 7 lines long, pale purple; pod broadly oblong, 1 J inches long 
or more, smooth 3-4-8eeded. 

The seeds are large and edible; blackens in drying. 

2, V, Americana, Muhl. Usually rather stout, 1 to 4 ft. high, smooth: leaflets 4 
to 8 pairs, variable, linear to ovate-oblong, truncate to acute, ^ to 2 inches long; pedus* 


cles 4-8-flowered; flowers purplish, 6 to 9 lines long; style very villous at the top; pods 
an inch long or more, 3-C-seeded. 

Var. truncata. Brewer. Somewhat pubescent; leaflets truncate and often 3-5-toothed 
at the apex. 

Var. linearis, Watson. Leaves all linear. Only the varieties are Likely to be found. 

* * Slender annuals; flowers mostly solitary. 

3. V. exigua, Nutt. A span to two feet high, somewhat pubescent; leaflets about 
^ pairs, linear, acute, a half to an inch long; peduncles usually short, rarely 2-flowered; 
flowers 3 lines long, purplish; pod about 6-seeded. 

4. V. sativa, L. Bather stout, somewhat pubescent; leaflets 5 or 6 pairs, obovate- 
oblong to linear, retuse, long-mucronate; flowers nearly sessile, an inch long, violet- 
purple. — The common tare of Europe. Introduced. 


Style dorsally flattened toward the top, and usually twisted, hairy on the inner side. 
Peduncles usually equaling or exceeding the leaves and several flowered. 

* Rachis of the leaves tendril bearing; pod sessile; racemes several flowered. 

1. L. venosus, MuhL, var.^ Ceilifomicus, Watson. Very stout, several feet high; 
Btems often strongly winged; leaflets oblong-ovate, acute; flowers nearly or quite an inch 
long, purple; pod about 2 inches long. 

2. L. vestitus, Nutt. Slender, a foot to 6 or 10 feet high; stems not winged^ 
stipules narrow, often small; flowers pale rose-color or violet, usually 7 to 10 lines long; 
ovary pubescent. 

3. L. palustris, L. Slender, a foot or two high; stem often winged; leaflets nar- 
rowly oblong to linear, acute, an inch or two long; flowers purplish, half an inch long. 

Var. myrtifolius, Gr. Stipules broader; leaflets ovate to oblong, shorter. 

* Rachis of the leaves not tendril bearing, or rarely so; pod shortly stiputate, peduncles 
long; 2-6-flowered. 

4. L. littoralis, Endl. Densely silky-villous throughout; stems numerous, from 
creeping root-stocks, stout, decumbent or ascending, ^ to 2 ft. high; leaflets 1 to 3 pairs, 
with a small linear or oblong terminal one; calyx teeth nearly equal; standard bright 
purple, 6 to 8 lines long, exceeding the paler wings and keel; pod villous, an inch long. 

Ordeb 21, ROSACE-ffi. 

Herbs, shrubs or trees, with alternate leaves, usually evident stipules, mostly numer- 
0Q3 stamens borne on the calyx; distinct free pistils from one to many, or in one sub- 

50 KOSACEJE. (rose FAMILY.) 

order few and coherent with each other and adherent to the calyx forming a 2-several 
celled inferior ovary. 

Nearly all the cultivated fruits of the temperate zones belong to this order. 


Carpels solitary, or rarely 5, becoming drupes, entirely free from the calyx, this or its 

lobes deciduous. Trees or shrubs with bark and seeds tasting and smelling like those 

of the peach or cherry. Stipules few, deciduous. 

Flowers perfect; carpel solitary Prunus. 1 

Flowers not all perfect; carpels 5 Nuttalliau 2 

Sub-order 2. ROSACEiB Proper. 
Carpels free from the persistent calyx becoming akenes, follicles or berries. 

§ 1. Carpels few, becoming follicles; calyx open. 

Shrubs; follicles 2 to 8; flowers minute, in panicles Spiraea. 3 

Shrubs; follicles 1 to 5; flowers larger, in corymbs Neillia. 4 

§ 2. Carpels several or numerous, on a spongy receptacle,forming a compound 

berry Rubus. 5 

§ 3. Carpels one or many, becoming dry akenes. 

Shrubs; solitary, axillary apetalous flowers Cercocarpus. 6 

Herbs; carpels many, on a fleshy receptacle Fragaria. 7 

Herbs; carpels many, on a dry receptacle — 

Stamens 20 to 25 Potentilla. 8 

Stamens 10 Horkelia. 9 

Shrub: heath-Uke, with subulate fascicled leaves Adenostoma. 10 

I 4. Erect shrubs; showy flowers '. Rosa . 11 

Sub-order 3. POMEiE. 
Carpels 2 to 5, inclosed in and mostly adnate to the fleshy calyx-tube, in fruit becoming 
a berry-like pome. Trees or shrubs, with free stipules. 

Stamens 10, in pairs; fruit red Heteromeles. 12 

Stamens 20; fruit black Amelanchier. 13 

1. PRUNUS, Toum. Plum, Cherry, Etc. 
Calyx 5-cleft, deciduous. Petals 5, spreading. Stamens 15 to 25, inserted with the 


petals. Ovary solitary, free, with two pendulous ovules; style tenninaL Fruit a drupe, 
with usually a long stone containing one seed. 
Deciduous; flowers white. 

Corymbose; appearing before or with the leaves P. emarginata. 1 

Racemose; appearing after the leaves P. demissa. 2 

Evergreen; leafless racemes axillary ; P. ilicifolia. 3 

1. P. emarginata, Walp. Four to eight feet high, with bark like the ordinary 
cherry tree, and chestnut- brown very slender branches; leaves oblong-obovate to oblan- 
ceolate, obtuse, narrowed to a short petiole; corymb 6-12-flowered, shorter than the 
leaves; flowers 4 to 6 lines broad; fruit globose, black; stone with a thick grooved ridge 
apon one side. 

2. P. demissa, Walp. (Wild Cherry. ) Slender, 2 to 12 ft. high; leaves ovate to 
oblong-ovate, abruptly acuminate, mostly rounded or somewhat cordate at the base; 
racemes 3 or 4 inches long; fruit purplish -black or red, edible but astringent. 

3. P. ilicifolia, Walp. (Evergreen Cherry.) Much branched, 8 to 12 ft. high, 
with grayish -brown bark; leaves thick and rigid, shining above, broadly ovate to ovate- 
lanceolate, spinosely toothed; flowers small in racemes J to 2 inches long; fruit red or 
dark purple, half an inch or more thick. 

2. NUTTALLIA, Torr. & Gr. Oso Berry. 

Petals 6, broadly spatulate, erect. Stamens 15 in two rows, 10 inserted with the 
petals, and 5 lower down upon the disk lining the calyx-tube, filaments very short, the 
lower declined. Carpels 5, inserted on the persistent base of the calyx-tube, free, smooth. 

1. N. cerasiformis, Torr. & Gr. A shrub 2 to 15 ft. high; leaves rather broadly 
oblanceolate, short petioled; racemes of greenish white flowers, appearing with the 
branchlets from the same bud; drupes blue-black; with a slight furrow on the inner side, 
6 to 8 lines long, bitter. 


Caly^ persistent, 5-lobed. Petals 5, rounded, nearly sessile. Stamens 20 or more, 
inserted with the petals. Carpels distinct and sessile, becoming several-seeded follicles. 

1. S. discolor, Pursk A difiuse shrub, 4 ft, high or more with grayish brown bark, 
pubescent; leaves broadly ovate, truncate at base or cuneate into a slender petiole, pin- 
nately toothed or lobed, the lobes often dentate; panicle of dingy white flowers much 
branched, tomentose, 

Var. ariaefolia, Wat. Taller, 5 to 15 ft. high, leaves 2 or 3 inches long, panicle larger, 

Var, dumosa. Wat. Only 1 or 2 ft. high, leaves an inch long or less, cuneate into a 
short margined petiole, 

4, NETIiIilA, Don. Nine-Bark. 

Carpels 1 to 5, inflated and divergent; flowers large, white, in simple corymb*. 

52 ROSACE-E. (rose FAMILY.) 

1. N. opulifolia, Benth. & Hook, A shrub 3 to 10 ft. high, with slender spreading 
or recurved branches and ash-colored shreddy bark; leaves ovate to cordate, 3-lobed and 
toothed, 1 to 3 inches long. 

5. RUBUS, L. 

Calyx persistent 5-lobed. Petals 5, conspicuous. Stamens numerous. Carpels nume» 
ous, on a convex receptacle, becoming small globose 1-seeded drupes, forming a com* 
pound berry. — Fruit edible. 

§ 1. Fruit with a bloom, separating from the receptacle when ripe. 

Leaves simple, palmately lobed; stem soft, woody Nutkanus. 1 

Leaves 3-foliolate, or on the flowering branches simple, rarely 5-foliolate; stems soft, 
woody, prickly — 

Flowers large, red spectabilis. 2 

Flowers white leucodennis, 3 

Stems herbaceous, trailing unarmed pedatus. 4 

§ 2. Fruit persistent, black and shining; sterna prickly, lowers white ursinus. 5 

1. R. Nutkanus, Moc. (Thimble-berrt. ) Stems erect, 3 to 8 ft. high; older bark 
shreddy, no prickles; leaves 4 to 12 inches broad; flowers large white, rarely rose-col- 
ored, an inch or more across; fruit red, large. 

2. R. spectabilis, Pursh. (Salmon-berry. ) Stems 5 to 10 ft. high, similar to the 
last, but armed with a few prickles. Distinguished by its large red flowers and cyUn- 
drical-ovoid yellow or purplish berries. 

Var. Menziesii, Wat. Densely tomentose and silky. 

3. R. leucodennis, Dougl. (Raspberry.) Maybe known by its leaflets, white, 
tomentose beneath, prickly stem, white flowers, and its yellowish red white-bloomed 

4. R. pedatus. Smith. Stems slender pubescent; leaflets cuneate-obovate, an inch 
or less in length; flowers white; the at length reflexed sepals exceeding the petals; berry 
of only 3 to 6 large red pulpy drupelets. 

5. R. ursinus, Cham. & SchL (Blackberry. ) Stems weak or trailing, 5 to 20 ft. 
long; fruit oblong. 


Calyx narrow, tubular, the campanulate 5-lobed limb deciduous. Petals none. Sta- 
mens in 2 or 3 rows on the limb of the calyx. Carpels solitary. Fruit a villous akene, 
included in the enlarged calyx-tube, tailed with the elongated exserted plumose twisted 

Evergreen shrubs or trees. C. ledifolius, Nutt. is the Mountain Mahogany of 
th« Sierra Nevada. The following is found in the Coast Range. 


1. C. parvifoKus, Nutt. A shrub 2 to 10 ft. high, or rarely a tree, branching from 
a thick base. Tails of the fruit often 4 inches long. 

7. FRAGARIA. Toum. Stravtbeeky. 

Calyx persistent; limb 5-toothed, with 5 alternate bractlets. Petals white, spreading. 
Stamens in one row. Carpels numerous, smooth; styles lateral short. Keceptacle much 
enlarged in fruit, conical, scarlet, bearing the small akenes on its surface. 

1. F. Chilensis, Ehrh. Densely villous, with silky hairs; leaflets thick, smooth 
above; flowers often an inch broad; fruit ovate; akenes deeply pitted. 

2. F. Califomica, Cham. & Schl. Somewhat villous; leaves thin, veiny; fruit 
•mall; akenes not in pits. 


Calyx as in Fragaria. Petals yellow, rarely white. Stamens 20 to 50, marginal in I 
to 3 rows. Carpels numerous. Akenes small, on a dry receptacle. 

1. P. glandulosa, LindL Perennial, erect, a foot or more high; leaves pinnate; 
leaflets 5 to 9, rounded, ovate, coarsely serrate; flowers cymose; calyx 4 to 6 lines loa^ 
usually villous, with coarse hairs ; bractlets shorter than the lobes; petals not ?*vodin§ 
the calyx; stamens 25 in one row. 

2. P. Anserina, L. (Silver- weed. ) White tomentope and silky -villous leaves, all 
radical, often a foot long or more; leaflets 3 to 10 pairs, with smaller ones interposed, 
oblong, sharply serrate, tomentose, at least beneath; flowers yellow, solitary, on scape- 
like peduncles. 

9. HORKELIA, Cham. & SchL 

Petals obovate to linear, often clawed, white or pink. Stamens 10, in two rows; Sla- 
ments more or less dilated; those opposite to the sepals broadest. Flowers cymose. 

• Bractlets nearly as broad as the calyx-lobes. 

1. H. Califomica, Cham. & Schl. Glandular-pubescent; stems a foot high or 
more; leaflets 5 to 10 pairs, 3 to 8 lines long; calyx about equaling the spatnlate petals, 

Var. sericea, Gr. Canescent throughout, with a dense, silky pubescence; leaf- 
lets larger. 

* * Bractlets much narrower than the calyx-lobes. 

2. H. tentiiloba, ^r. Canescently villous, a foot high; leaflets 8 to 12 pairs, deeply 
Incised, 2 or 3 lines long. 

3. H. Bolanderi, Gr. Densely hoary-pubescent, cespitose, the stems S or 4 iocbes 
high, the numerous leaflets minute, with rounded lobes. 

10. ADENOSTOMA, Hook & Am. Chamiso. 
Calyx pe^;8istenl^ 6-lobed; tube obconical, 10-ribbed; lobes m4RttlxMaao0OU^ lantui. 

64 ROSACEA. (rose FAHILY.) 

Petals 5, orbicular, spreading. Stamens 10 to 1 5, usually 2 or 3 together between th« 
petals. Fruit a membranaceous akene, included in the indurated calyx-tube. Ever- 
green shrubs, somewhat resinous; flowers small, white, in terminal, racemose panicles. 

1. A. fasciculatum, Hook & Am, A dififusely branching shrub, 2 to 20 ft high, 
with reddish virgate branches and grayish shreddy bark; leaves fascicled, linear subulate, 
2 to 4 lines long, usually channeled on one side, smooth. 

Alchemilla arvensis. Scop. , belongs here. Its minute, greenish, apetalous flowers 
are fascicled in the axils of the small leaves and inclosed by the cleft stipules. A small 
vmder herb, growing on sandy hillsides. 

Acaena trifida, R. & Pa v. Is another apetalous herb, with silky, villous leaves and 
stem rising from a woody caudex; 3 to 15 inches high. The leaves are pinnate, the leaf- 
lets pinnately cleft into 3 to 7 segments. The greenish flowers with purple stamens are 
in a crowded terminal spike. Habitat similar to the last. 

11. ROSA. Toum. Rose. 

It is not necessary to here characterize this well-known genus. 

1. R. Califomica, Cham. & SchL Erect, 2 to 8 ft. high, sparingly armed with 
usually recurved prickles, tomentose; leaflets 2 or 3 pairs; calyx lobes tomentose, often 
glandular leafy; petals 6 to 9 lines long; fruit globose. 

2. R. gymnocarpa, Nutt. Slender, 1 to 4 ft. high, armed with straight slender 
prickles or unarmed, smooth; leaflets 2 to 4 pairs, glandular; flowers solitary, rarely 2 or 
3, rarely an inch in diameter; calyx lobes at length deciduous; fruit small, ovate or pear- 

12. HETEROMULES, J. Rcemer. Photinia. 

Calyx 5-parted. Petals 5, spreading. Stamens in pairs, opposite the calyx-teeth. 

Fruit red, berry-like. An evergreen shrub or small tree, with coriaceous, simple, 

sharply serrate leaves. Flowers white in terminal panicles. 

1. H. arbutifolia, Rcem. Leaves dark green above, lighter beneath, narrowly to 
oblong lanceolate, acute at each end, 2 to 4 inches long, on short petioles, slightly revo- 
lute margins; fruit 2 or 3 lines in diameter. 

Pirus rivularis, Dougl. , the Oregon Crab-Aj^ple, may be found ia Sonoma County. 

13. AMELANCHIER, Med. Seevice-Berrt. 

Calyx-tube campanulate; the ILmb 5-parted, persistent. Petals 6, oblong, ascending. 
Stamens 20, short. Carpels 3 to 5 inferior, becoming membranaceous and partially 2- 
celled; styles united below or distinct. Fruit berry like, globose. — Shrubs or small 
trees; leaves simp'e, serrate; flowers white, racemose; fruit purplish, edible. 

1. A. alnifoUa, Nutt. A shrub 3 to 8 ft. high; leaves broadly ovate, sometime* 
eoiiate at the base, serrate only toward the summit, ^ to 1^ inches long. 


Okder C ALT' can THACEiE, is represented by Calycanlhus occidentalis, Hoot. 
&. Am., an erect shrub 6 to 12 ft. high, with opposite entire lanceolate leaves, 3 to G 
inches long and large solitary livid or purplish red flowers; sepals and petals numerous, 
linear-spatulate. The common name of the Eastern species — Sweet-Scented Shrtib — is 
~<>arcely applicable to our species. 

Oedee 22. SAXIFRAGACE-aE. 

Herbs, shrubs, or small trees, distinguished from Eosacece by albummous seeds; usually 
by definite stamens, not more than twice the number of the calyx-lobes; commonly by 
the want of stipules; sometimes by the leaves being opposite; and in most by the partial 
or complete union of the 2 to 5 carpels into a compound ovary. Seeds usually indefinite 
or numerous. Petals and stamens on the calyx. Styles inclined to be distinct. Only 
the HydrangieoB have many stamens. 

Tribe 1. SAXIFRAGE2B. Herbs, leaves mostly alternate and without distmct 
stipules. Styles or tips of the carpels distinct. Fruit capsular or follicular. 

* Ovary with 2 or rarely more cells, or of aa many distinct carpels. 

Stamens 10, rarely more Saxifraga, 1 

Stamens 5 Boykinia. a 

• * Ovary 1-celled. 

Stamens 10, included Tellima. 3 

Stamens 10, exserted Tiarella. 4 

Stamens 5, and styles 2 Heuchera. 5 

Tribe 2. HYDRANGIEiE. Shrubs, leaves opposite, simple, no stipules. Fruit 


A tall shrub. Large white flowers Philadelphus. 6 

Low, scarcely shrubby. Small flowers Whipplea. 7 

Tribe 3. GROSSULARIE^. Shrubs, leaves alternate with stipules adnate to the 

petiole or wanting. Fruit a berry. 
Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary Ribes. 8 

1. SAXIPRAGA, L. Saxifrage. 

Calyx 5-lobed, free, or its tube coherent with the lower part of the ovary. Petals 6. 
Fruit of 2 follicles, or a 2-lobed capsule. — In our species stemless; flowers white. 

1. S. Virginiensis, Michx. Leaves thickish, oblong-ovate to spatulate-obovate, 
coarsely toothed or almost entire, an inch or two long and the margined petiole often as 
long; scape viscid pubescent, 4 to 12 inches high, at length loosely many flowered in •* 
paniculate cjone; flowers, small white. 


2. S. integrifolia, Hooker. Larger; leaves shorter petioled; flowers in a thyrsiform 
panicle; calyx lobes reflexed. 

3. S. Mertensiana, Bong. Scape and leaves from a scaly granulate bulb; leaves 
rounded and cordate on long naked petioles; crenately or incisely lobed, the lobes often 
3-toothed at the end; 2 to 4 inches across; calyx free. 

2. BOYKINIA, Nutt 

Calyx 5-lobed, adherent to the ovary. Petals 5, entire, closed. Stamens alternating 
with the petals. Ovary and capsule 2-celled. — Perennial herbs, with creeping rootstocks, 
simple leafy stems; the leaves alternate, round-reniform, palmately lobed and incised or 
toothed, the teeth with callous-glandular tips, and the petioles mostly with stipule-like 
appendages at the base. 

1. B. occidentalis, Torr. & Gr. Smoothish, or with some rusty hairs; a foot or 
two high; leaves thin-membraaaceoua, 3-7-lobed; petals white, 2 or 3 lines long. 

3. TELLIMA, E. Br. 

Calyx campanulate or turbinate, 5-lobed; the base coherent with the lower part of the 
ovary. Petals 5, inserted in the throat or sinuses of the calyx, laciniate-pinnatifid, 
3-7-lobed, or entire. Stamens 10, short. Ovary short, 1-celled, with 2 or 3 parietal 
placentae; styles 2 or 3, very short; stigmas capitate. Capsule conical, sHghtly 2-3- 
beaked. — Perennials, with round-cordate and toothed or palmately divided chiefly alter- 
nate leaves, few on simple stems, their petioles with stipule-like dilations at the base, 
and the flowers in a simple terminal raceme; petals white or piakish. 

1 etals laciniate-pinnatifid T. grandiflora. 1 

Petals entire, spatulate-obovate T. Cymbalaria. 2 

Petals entire; pedicels very short T. Bolanderi 3 

Petals obtusely 3-lobed T. heterophyUa. 4 

Petals acutely 3-lobed T. afBnis. 5 

1. T. grandiflora, Dough A foot or more high, from short stout tufted rootstocks, 
hirsute or pubescent; leaves lobed, 2 to 4 inches in diameter; flowers dull-colored. 

2. T. Cymbalaria, Gr. Stem or scape filiform, 4 to 12 inches high, bearing mostly 
a pair of opposite 3-lobed or parted leaves; radical leaves somewhat 3-5-lobed, half an 
inch across, flowers few and slender pediceled, white. 

3. T. Bolanderi, Gr. Stems a foot or two high, 1^-leaved; radical and lower 
leaves lobed, the upper 3-5-parted; petals rarely with a small tooth on each side, white. 

4. T. heterophyUa, Hook. & Am. Stems slender, a foot or less in height 1-3- 
leaved; leaves similar to the last, but smaller; flowers fewer and smaller, sometimes 

5. T. afBnis, Gr. Eougher-pubescent; stem and leaves similar to the last; calyx 
tensely rough glandular-pubescent; petals 4 or 5 lines long, white or flesh-colored. 



Distinguished by the minute, slender petals, long ezserted stamens, and the very une* 
qual horns of the 2-carpeled ovary. 

1. T. unifoliata, Hook. Somewhat hairy; flowering stems 4 to 15 inches high, 1-3- 
leaved; leaves thin, cordate, 3-5-lobed, crenate-toothed; flowers small, panicled. 

5. HEUCHERA, L. Alum-root. 

Calyx tube coherent with the lower half of the ovary. Petals small, entire, clawed. 
Ovary more or less 2-beaked; the beaks tapering into either filiform long, or subulate 
shorter styles. — Herbs with small, dull-colored paniculate flowers. Scarious stipules 
adnate or distinct. Leaves round -cordate, obtusely lobed, crenate-toothed. 

1. H. znicrautha, Dougl, Scape, or few leaved flowering stems, a foot or two 
high; leaves 2 to 4 inches in diameter; calyx a,cute at the base, lobes erect; styles 

2. H. pilosissima, Fisch. & Mey. Very villous-pubescent or hirsute, with viscid 
hairs; calyx rounded or obtuse at the base, the broad, short lobes incurving, densely 
hairy; styles short. 

6. PHILADELPHUS, L. Mock Orakoe. 

Calyx adhering to the ovary nearly or quite to the summit, persistent. Petals 4 or 5, 
large, obovate or roundish. Stamens 20 to 40. Styles 3 to 5, united at the base or 
nearly to the top. — Shrubs with opposite leaves and showy white flowers. 

1. P. GordonJanus, LindL Six to twelve feet high; leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, 
mostly coarsly-serrate, 2 to 4 inches long; flowers in loose clusters, which are leafy at the 
base; petals frequently an inch long. 

7. -WHIPPLE A, Torr. 

Calyx lobes thin, white or whitish. Petals ovate or oblong. Ovary 3 to 5-celled. 
Styles distinct, subulate. — Small, trailing or diffuse, ours half shrubby plants, with 
opposite, short petioled, 3-ribbed leaves, no stipules and small white cymose-clustered 
flowers; peduncles naked, terminaL 

1. W. znodesta, Torr. Leaves membranaceous, ovate or oval, obtusely few-toothed 
or entire, an inch or less long. Flower 2 lines long, clusters close-flowered, fragrant. 

8. RIBES, L. 

Calyx tube adnate to the globose ovary and extended beyond it, the limb commonly 
petaloid. Petals erect, mostly smaller than the calyx-lobes. Stamens alternate with 
the petals. Berry crowned by the withered remains of the flower. — Shrubs with 
Alternate palmately lobed leaves. 


§ 1. Thorny under the fascicles. Gooseberries. . 

Berry prickly R. Menziesil X 

Berry smooth R. divaricatum. 2 

Berry dry; flowers large, bright-red R. speciosum. 3 

§ 2. Thomkss and prickless. , Currants. 

Flowers rose-red to white R, saugiiineum. 4 

Flowers golden yellow R. aureum. 5 

1. R. Menziesii, Pursh. Calyx about half an inch long, purplish red; its oblong 
lobea spreading or recurved, longer than the funnelform tube, hardly longer than the 
stamens which surpass the whitish petals; berry thickly covered with prickles. 

2. R. divaricatum, Dougl. Flowers one-third of an inch long; calyx livid-pur- 
plish or greenish- white; its lobes about twice as long as the fan-shaped white petals, 
these only one-third as long as the stamens and villous 2-cleft style, 

3. R. speciosum, Purgh. Very tall; flowers 2 to 5 on a bristly-glandular peduncle, 
drooping, fuchsia-like, almost an inch long and stamens as much longer. 

4. R. sanguineum, PursL Racemes drooping, many flowered; calyx prolonged 
beyond the ovary into a campanulate tube 2 or 3 lines long, about equaling the lobes. — 
Euna into indefinite varieties. 

5. R. aureimi, Pursh. Flowers golden yellow, spicy-fragrant, in 5-10-flowered, 
leafy-bracted racemes. 

Obdeb 23. CRASSULACE^. 

Succulent or fleshy plants, with completely symmetrical as well as regular flowers. 

Parts of the flower each 4 to 7; stamens twice as many. Petals distinct Sedum. 1 

Petals somewhat united Cotyledon. 2 

1. SEDUM, L. Stone-Crop. 

Sepals 4 or 5 united at the base. Carpels distinct or rarely connate at the base. 

1. S. Bpathulifolium, Hook. Stems ascending from a branched rooting caudex, 4 
to 6 inches high; leaves obovate or spatulate, flat, 6 to 10 lines long; flowers sccund in 
a forked cyme, nearly sessile, 3 lines long; petals yellow, lanceolate acute. 


Petals united into a 5-lobed pitcher-shaped or cylindrical corolla. Stamens 10, in- 
serted on the corolla-tube. Carpels usually distinct. 

1. C. farinosa, Benth. & Hook. Acaulescent, more or less mealy-pulverulent; 
rosulate leaves lanceolate, acuminate, the larger ones 2 to 4 inches long; flowering 
branches a span high with scattered broadly ovate to lanceolate clasping leaves. Flowers 


2. C. caespitoaa, Hawworth. Similar to the last; smooth glaucous-green; flowering 
branches 6 to 12 inches high, with broadly triangular-ovate clasping leaves. The most 
common species. 

TILL^A MINIMA, Mlers., a small herb 1 to 3 Inches high with cliisters of minute white flow- 
ers in the axils of the opposite leaves is a common nnder-herb In moist places; as Is also T.angusti- 
folia, Nutt., only an inch high with solitary flowers. 

Order LYTHRACEiE is represented by Lythrum alatum, Pursh., var. lineari/oUum, 
Gr. An herb a foot or two high with angled stemes and small deep purple 6-petaled 
flowers solitary in the axils of the entire sessile leaves. 

Ordeb 24. ONAGRACE.^. 

Herbs {snrubby exotics), with the parts of the flowers in fours, the calyx tube adnate 
to the ovary, the petals borne on its throat, and the stamens as many or twice as many. 
Style always single. 

Aquatic stems creeping Jussiaea. 1 

Flowers scarlet, fuchsia-like Zauschneria. 2 

Jlowers small, purplish, leaves mostly opposite Epilobium. 3 

Anthers attached near the center CEnothera. 4 

Flowers purple, calyx lobes reflexed Godetia. 5 

Petals clawed, calyx-tube short Clarkia. 6 

Petals clawed, calyx-tube filiform Euchariditim. 7 

Flowers purple in leafy spikes Boisduvalia. 8 

Flowers minute, white, parts in twos Circaea. 9 

1. JUSSIiEA, L. 

The 4 to 6 herbaceous lobes of the calyx persistent. Petals as many, obovate, spread- 
ing, yellow. Stamens twice as many. Capsule clavate. 

1. J. repens, L., Var. Califomica, Wat. Characterized sufficiently by its 
creeping stems and its solitary axillary flowers nearly an inch in diameter. 

Tube of the calyx much prolonged beyond the linear ovary, colored, the 4-lobed 
limb with 8 small deciduous scales, 4 erect and 4 deflexed. Stamens 8, exserted. 

1. Z. Califomica, PresL The scarlet fuchsia-like flowers over an inch long cannot 
be mistaken. 

3. EPHiOBIUM, L. Willow-herb. 
The seeds tufted with silky hairs in linear 4-sided, 4-valved capsules best mark this 
difficult genus. 



Calyx tube more or leas prolonged beyond the ovary; segments reflexed. Petals 4; in 
our species yellow. Stamens 8, equal, or those opposite to the petals shorter. Style 
filiform; stigma 4-lobed or capitate. (See Addenda.) 

j * Acaulescent. Calyx-tube Jiliform above tlie under-ground ovary. 

Leaves ovate to lanceolate CIJ. ovata. 1 

Leaves linear CE. graciliflbra. 2 

• • Caulescent. Calyx-tube obconic; capsule sessile, linear. 

Leaves thick; flowers small; capsule thick CB. cheiranthifolia. 3 

Flowers large; petals with a spot at the base CB. bistorta. 4 

Flowers small; capsule contorted CE. micrantlia. 5 

Slender, leafy annuals; leaves Unear; Jlowers small; capsule narrowly linear. 

Flowers rarely reddening CB. dentata. 6 

Flowers usually reddening CE. Btrigulosa. 7 

1. CE, ovata, Nutt. The radicalleavea 4 to 6 inches long; calyx-tube scape-like, 
1 to 4 inches long. 

2. CE. graciliflora, Hook & Am- Canescently villous; calyx-tube equaling the 
leaves, 6 to 18 lines long; petals obcordate, 3 to 6 lines long, smaller than the last. 

3. CE. cheiranthifolia, Horn. Canescently pubescent; stems decumbent or ascend- 
ing, 2 ft. long or more; leaves oblong or narrowly oblanceolate, sometimes broadly ovate 
or cordate, \ to 2^ inches long, mostly entire, the lower petioled, the upper often clasp- 
ing; ovary and calyx villous; flowers 2 to 5 lines in diameter; capsule 4 to 8 lines long. 
Near the sea on drifting sands. 

4. CE. bistorta, Nutt Less common than the last; distinguished by its petals, 4 
to 6 lines long, usually with a brown spot. 

5. CE. micrantha, Horn. A variable species distinguished from the last by its 
flowers, only 2 to 4 lines in diameter, with the petals sometimes 3-lobed; and by the con- 
torted slender capsules, 8 to 18 lines long. 

6. CE. dentata, Cav. A span high or less; leaves linear, sessile, denticulate, 6 to 
18 lines long; petals rounded, 2 to 4 lines long; capsule slender, attenuate, an inch long 
or more. 

7. CB. strigtilosa, Torr. & Gr. Like the last; the capsule obttise, scarcely attenu- 
ate. More common than the last. 

CEnothera, biennis, L., the Evening Primrost. if found, may be known by its tall, 
«rect stem and large flowers. 


5. GODETIA, Spach. 

Distinguished from GEJnothera by the anthers not versatile, and flowers not yellow. 

* Flowers in a strict, mostly compact spike; capsule ovate to oblong; stems leafy. 

Petals deep purple .^ G. purpurea. 1 

Petals rose-colored with a spot. . .^ G. lepida. 2 

Petals bluish-purple, 3 to 5 lines long G. albescens. 3 

• * Flowers in usually a loose spike or raceme, mostly nodding in the bud; capsule linear; 

leaves distant. 

+- Capsule sessile; stigma-lobes purplish. 

Ovary and capsule short, villous, 2-costate G. quadrivulnera. 4 

Capsule puberulent, not costate G. tenella. 5 

■i- +- Capsule pedicellate, not costate, stigma-lobes mostly yellow G. amoena. 6 

Small, hispid G. hispidula. 7 

Small, petals 2-lobed G. biloba. 8 

1. G. purpurea, Wat. Mostly very leafy, a foot or two high, puberulent, the 
ovary densely villous; leaves oblong to oblong-oblanceolate, an inch or two long, entire, 
sessile; flowers mostly in a leafy terminal cluster; petals 4 to 6 lines long; style shorter 
than the stamens; stigma-lobes very short, purple; capsule 6 to 9 lines long, not costate. 

2. G. lepida, LindL Canescently puberulent, the stem usually white and shining. 
Easily distinguished by its flowers; the rose-colored petals with a dark spot near the top 
9 to 12 lines long. 

3. G. albescens, Lindl. Smaller leaves than the last, and much smaller almost 
»^lue flowers. Eare. 

4. G. quadrivulnera, Spach. Puberulent, ovary and capsule more or less villous; 
stems usually slender, a foot or two high; leaves linear-lanceolate or linear, sessile or 
attenuate to a short petiole, entire or slightly denticulate, an inch or more long; petals 
deep-purple or purplish, 3 to 6 lines long; stigma-lobes short, purple. 

5. G. tenella, Wat. Chiefly distinguished from the last by the capsule, which is 
8 to 14 lines long, with nearly flat sides. 

6. G. amoena, Lilja. Petals and purple anthers, frequently rather villous, varying 
trhm. nearly white to rose-color, with more or less of purple, 8 to 15 lines long; capsule 
attenuate at each end. 

7. G. hispidula, Wat. Is about a span high, often but 1-flowered; leaves narrowly 
linear; purple petals, 6 to 12 lines long. 

8. G. biloba, Wat. Petals 2-lobed. Foot-hills of the Sierra Nevada. 

6. CLARKIA, Pursh. 
Petals 4, with claws, entire, purple. Stamens 8. Stigma with 4, at length spreading. 


•oraetime8 unequal lobes. Capsule linear, 4-angled. Annuals, with erect brittle stems 
and alternate leaves on short petioles. 

1. C. elegans, Dougl. Stems from 6 inches to 6 feet high; leaves broadly ovate to 
linear, repandly toothed; petals rhoniboidal; stigma-lobes equal; capsule nearly sessile. 

2. C. rhomboidea, DougL Is smaller; leaves petioled; claws of the petals 
toothed; capsule short, pediceled. 

7. EUCHARIDIUM, Fisch. & Mey. 

Distinguished from Clarkia by the filiform calyx tube prolonged above tho ovary, and 
stamens only 4. 

1. E. concinnum, Fisch. & Mey. Closely resembles Clarkia rhomboidea in habit 
and foliage, calyx-tube an inch long; petals 3-lobed. Common. 


Petals 4, obovate-cuniform, sessile, 2-lobed, purple to white. Anthers not versatile. — 
Leaves alternate, simple, sessile; the small flowers in leafy spikes; our species villous. 

1. B. densiflora, Wat. Canescent; 6 inches to 2 ft. high; leaves lanceolate to 
linear-lanceolate, mostly denticulate, 1 to 3 inches long; the floral leaves usually short 
and broad; flowers in utuaUy a close terminal leafy spike or numerous short lateral spike- 
lets; petals 3 to 6 lines long. 

2. B. Torreyi, Wat. Rather slender, a span or two high; leaves 4 to 9 lines long; 
the floral leaves scarcely smaller; flowers very small. 

9. Circaea, Pacifica, Asch. & Magn. In moist woods. Distinguished by its small 
indehiscent pear-shaped fruit covered with bristles and thin ovate opposite leaves. 

Order 25. LOASACE.ffi. 

Herbaceous plants with either stinging or jointed and rough-barbed hairs; no stipules, 
calyx tube adnata to the 1-celled ovary. Stamens usually very numerous. 


Calyx cylindrical to ovoid; the persistent limb 5-toothed. Petals 5 or 10. Stamens 
numerous, inserted below the petals on the throat of the calyx; filaments free or in clus- 
ters opposite the petals, filiform or the outer petaloid. Style 3-cleft, the lobes often 
twisted. — The leaves are alternate, mostly coarsely-toothed or pinnatifid; flowers white 
to yellow or orange. (See Addenda. ) 

1. M. albicaulis, Dougl. Slender, 6 to 12 inches high or more; leaves linear-lance- 
olate, pinnatifid with numerous narrow lobes, the upper leaves broader and often lobed 


at the baae only; flowers near the ends of the branches; petals 5, epatnlate or obovate 2 
to 3 lines long; capsule 6 to 9 lines long. 

2. M. gracilenta, Torr. & Gr. Stems similar to the last; petals obovate, abruptly 
acuminate, an inch long; capsule 12 to 15 lines long. 

3. M. laevicaulis, Torr. & Gr. Stout 2 or 3 ft. high; leaves lanceolate 2 to 8 inches 
long; flowers sessile on short branches, very large, light yellow; petals acute, 2 to 2^ 
inches long. 

Order CtTCtJRBITACEiE is represented by Megarrhiza Marah, Wat. (Big- 
Root). The cucumber-like vines, often 10 or even 30 ft. long; the sterile flowers white 
in racemes 4 to 12 inches long; the fruit ovate oblong, more or less covered with weak 
spines inclosing several nut-like seeds. M. Califomlca, Torr., has stiflfer spines on 
smaller fruit; the fertile flowers without abortive stamens. 

Order FICOIDE.aj is represented by Mesembryanthemum aequilaterale, Haw., 
a very fleshy herb, with opposite three sided leaves 1 to 3 inches long and solitary red 
flowers; the petals numerous, linear. On the sea shore Mollugo verticellata, L., will 
scarcely be noticed. 

Order 26. UMBELLIFERffi. 

Herbs with small flowers in umbels, stamens and petals 5, borne on a 2-celled ovary 
which in fruit splits into a pair of dry usually flat indehiscent carpels. Since the generic 
distinctions depend upon characters of fruit and seed difficult of determination, the plants 
of this order are not here described. 

Order ARALIACE-aJ is represented by Aralia Calif ornica, Wat. (Spikenard.) 
Grows in woods, along streams. Herbaceous stems, 8 to 10 ft. high; the white flowers 
in panicles a foot or, two long and more. 

Order 27. CORNACEiE. 

Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs, with simple entire mainly opposite leaves, no stipules, 
and flowers in cymes, capitate clusters or spikes; the petals and stamens 4, epigynous; 
calyx adnate to the 1-2-celled ovary, which becomes a drupe or berry. 

1. CORNUS, L. 
Flowers perfect. Calyx minutely 4-toothed. Petals 4, oblong or ovate. Stamens 4, 
with slender filaments. Style slender; stigma capitate or truncate. Fruit ovoid or 

• Flowers greenish, in a close head, surrounded by an involucre of 4 to 6 large, white, petal- 
like bracts. 

1. C. Nuttallii, Audubon. Usually a small tree; the involucre of yellowish or 

64 OAPBiroLiACE^. (honeysuckle family.) 

white, often reddish bracts, 1^ to 3 inches long, abruptly acute. Fruit a large cluster of 
crimson berries. 

2. C. Canadensis, L. Stem simple, herbaceous, 3 to 8 inches high; leaves in a 
whorl of 6 at the top, and a pair below; the 4 bracts 4 to 8 lines long. 

* * Flowers white or cream colored, cymose, not involuerate. 

3. C. Californica, C. A. Meyer. A shrub, 6 to 15 ft. high, with smooth, purplish 
branches; leaves ovate acute, obtuse at the base, 2 to 4 inches long, lighter colored 
beneath, with loose, silky hairs; flowers in small, dense, round-topped cymes. 

4. C. glabrata, Benth. Bark gray; leaves oblong to narrowly ovate, acute at each 
end, alike green on both sides; flowers in open, flat cymes. 

OARRTA ELLIPTIC A, Dougl. and G. ^remoTitu, Torr., dioeciouB shrubs, belong here. The ever- 
green coriaceous leaves are opposite on the 4-angled branchlets, the short petioles connate; the apeta- 
lous flowers in axillary aments. Leaves of the former elliptical, undulate margins; the staminats 
aments long; leaves of the latter ovate to oblong, not undulate, lighter green. 


Oedeb 28. CAPRIFOLIACE.ffi. 

In our species shrubs with opposite leaves, no stipules, the calyx adherent to the 
2-5-celled ovary, the stamens as many as the lobea of the rotate or tubular corolla. 

Corolla rotate, regularly 5-lobed; white Sambucus. 1 

Corolla bell-shaped, regularly 4-5-lobed, pinkish Symphoricarpus. 2 

Corolla tubular, irregular Lonicera. 3 

1. SAMBITCUS, Toum. Elder. 

Calyx teeth corolla lobes and stamens 5. Stigmas 3 to 5. Berries really drupes. 

Shrubs whose rank shoots are filled with a pith, half an inch in diameter. Leaves 
pinnately 5-11-foliolate. Flowers small, in large compound cymes. 

1. S. glauca, Nutt. Cyme flat, 5-parted; fruit black, with a white bloom- 

2. S. racemosa, L. Cyme ovate or pear-shaped; fruit bright red. Hare. 

2. SYMPHORICARPTJS, Dili {Snowberet). 

Calyx 5-toothed, occasionally 4-toothed, persistent. Corolla nearly or quite regular, 
from open campanulate to salver-form, 5-4-lobed. Stamens as many as the lobes of the 
corolla, inserted on its throat. Fruit globular, white. — Low shrubs, with oval or ob- 

BUBIACE^. (madder FAMILY.) 65 

long leaves, mostly entire; and 2-bracteoLi*e flowers in axillary and terminal clusters; 
rarely solitary. 

1. S. racemosus, Mich. Erect, smooth; corolla very villous within. 

2. S. mollis, Nutt. Low, diffuse or decumbent, softly pubescent; leaves small; 
eorolla slightly villous. 

2. LONICERA, L. Honeysuckle. 

Corolla tubular, the tube commonly gibbous at the base and irregularly lobed. Stamens 
6 inserted on the tube of the corolla. Style filiform; stigma capitate. 

1. L. hispidula, Dougl. Stems disposed to twine; leaves mostly oval, the lower 
short petioled, the upper pairs commonly connate; foliaceous stipule-like appendages 
between the leaves common; flowers sessile in a terminal head, pink or yellowish; berries 
red or orange. Variable. 

2. L. involucrata, Banks. An erect shrub, 4 to 10 ft. high; leaves ovate-oblong 
to broadly lanceolate, short-petioled; flowers a pair on axillary peduncles; below them a 
conspicuous involucre of 4 bracts, tinged with red or yellow; berries purple-black. 

Order 29. RUBIACEiE. 

Known by having opposite entire leaves with intervening stipules, or whorled leaves 
without stipules, along with an inferior ovary and regular 4-5-merou3 flowers; the teeth 
of the calyx sometimes wanting. Stamens alternate with the lobes of the corolla and 
borne on its tube, distinct. 

1. CEPHALANTHUS, L. Button-bush. 

Flowers in a dense spherical head. Calyx inversely pyramidal, •^^5-toothed. Corolla 
with a long, slender tube and a small 4-cleft limb. Stamens 4, borne on the throat of the 
corolla, short. Style very long and slender. — Shrub with opposite leaves and stipules, 
or in whorls of 3 or 4. Peduncles axillary; flowers white. 

1. C. occidentalis, L. Leaves ovate or lanceolate, 3 to 5 inches long; flower heads 
an inch in diameter. 

2. GALIUM, L. Cleavers. 

Limb of the calyx obsolete. Corolla rotate, 4-parted, rarely 3-parted. Styles 2. 
Ovary 2-lobed, Fruit twin, biglobular. Herbs, sometimes woody at the base, witL 
square stems, whorled leaves and minute flowers. 

Leaves in fours, hispid, ovate G. Califoniicum. 1 

Leaves in fours and pairs, smooth G. Nuttailii, 2 

Leaves mostly in whorls of eight G. Aparine, 3 

GG COMPOSITE. (aster FAiriLT.) 

Leaves in fives and sixes; fruit hairy G. txiflorum. 4 

Leaves 4, 5 or 6 in a whorl; flowers white G. trifidum. 5 

Leaves in fours, 3-nerved, lanceolate G. boreale. g 

1. G. Californicum, Hook and Am. Low, branching; sterile flowers terminal, in 
threes, corolla yellowish; fertile ones solitary, recurved in fruit; fruit purple. 

2. G. Nuttallii, Gr. Leaves 2 to 5 lines long, thickish, varying from ovate-oblong 
to linear-lanceolate, margins ciliate; flowers solitary. 

3. G. Aparine, L. The margins midrib, and angles of the branches armed with 
gpinulose bristles; peduncles 1-2-flowered; fruit large, white. (?) 

4. G. triflorum, Michx. Bright green, nearly smooth; leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
acute at both ends, the margins and midrib often beset with hooked bristles; peduncles 
once or twice 3-forked; with hooked bristles. 

5. G. trifidum, L. Nearly smooth, except the roughened angles of the slender 
Btems; leaves 3 to 9 lines long; lobes of the white corolla often only three; fruit smooth. 

6. G. boreale, L. Cymes many flowered, in a thyrsiform panicle. 

Order 30. VALERIAN ACEiE. 

Herbs with opposite leaves, no stipules; the distinct stamens fewer than the lobes of 
the corolla, and borne on its tube; the inferior ovary with two empty cells, and one con- 
taining a solitary ovule, ripening into a kind of akfine. 

1. PLECTRITIS, (Lindl.) DC. 

Limb of the calyx obsolete. Tube of the corolla very gibbous, spurred at the base; 
the short limb bilabiate; upper lip 2-cleft, lower 3-cleft. Fruit winged by the open 
sterile cells. Flowers white, small. 

1. P. congesta, DC. Corolla about 3 lines long; its spur much shorter than the 

2. P. macrocera, Torr. & Gr. Corolla smaller; its thick spur about the length oi 
the body. 

Order 31. COMPOSIT.ffi. 

Flowers, usually many in a dense head, sessile, on a common receptacle, surrounded 
by a calyx-like involucre; the calyx reduced to hairs or scales, or obsolete; the corolla 
tubular, equally lobed, ligulate or bilabiate, the 5 stamens united by their anthers into a 
tube inclosing the 2-parted style; the ovary inferior forming in fruit an akene which is 
usually crowned with the persistent calyx (pappus). 

This the largest of all the orders, is represented in California by over 500 species, 140 


of which grow within the limits of this Flora. Although the flower heads are frequently 
large, the separate flowers, with but few exceptions, are too small to be examined with- 
out the aid of a microscope skillfully used. The order is, therefore, far too diflBcult for 
the beginner. 

ORDER LOBELIACRS;. Dovmingia elegans, Torr., and D.pulchella, Torr., are two beautiful plants 
(the flowers resembling the cultivated Lobelias) sometimes cultivated under the name Clintonia, which 
properly belongs to an endogenous herb. The former has light blue flowers; the latter, deep i 
blue; both with white or yellowish centers. May be found In wet places. 

Oedeb 32. CAMPANULACE^. 

Herbs with alternate leaves without stipules and regular flowers, having the calyx 
adnata to the ovary, distinct stamens (5, rarely 4) inserted with the corolla, alternate 
with its lobes. — Calyx persistent. Stamens with introse anthers, opening in the bud. 
Style single, its upper portion beset with hairs which collect the pollen, its summit 2-5- 
lobed or cleft. 

* Ovary and capsule long and narrow. 

Capsule opening at the top; calyx-lobes long Githopsis. 1 

Capsule opening by 2 or 3 holes on the sides Specularia. 2 

• * Ovary and capsule short and broad, or globular. 

Capsule bursting indefinitely; calyx-lobes broad Heterocodon. 3 

(""apsule opening on the sides by 3 to 5 holes; calyx-lobes narrow Campanula. 4 

1. GITHOPSIS, Nutt. 

Mowers all alike. Calyx with a clavate 10-ribbed tube, and 5 long and narrow folia- 
ceous lobes. Corolla tubular-campanulate, 5-lobed. Filaments short, dilated at the base. 
Ovary 3-celled; stigmas 3. Capsule strongly ribbed, crowned with the rigid calyx-lobes 
of its own length or longer, opening between them by a round hole. 

1. G. specularioides, Nutt. An inch to a span high; leaves lanceolate-oblong or 
linear, sessile, coarsely toothed; flowers erect, deep blue, usually with a white center; 
the ovate lobes of the corolla about equaling the rigid calyx -lobes. 

2. SPECULARIA. Heister. 

Flowers in our species of two kinds; the lower and earlier usually with no corolla. 
Calyx-tube prismatic or elongated-obconical ; the lobes 5, narrow. Corolla short and 
broad, rotate when fully expanded, 5-lobed. Stigmas 3 or 2. Capsule opening by round 
holes on the sides. 

1. S. biflora, Gr. Stems slender; leaves sessile, ovate or oblong, crenately toothed, the 
upper reduced to lanceolate bracts; flowers 1, rarely 2, in each axil, nearly sessile; the 

68 EEICACEiE. (heath FAMILY.) 

lower mostly apetalous, with 3 or 4 short cal3rx-lobes; the upper with 5 longer calyx- 
lobes, which are shorter than the blue or purple corolla. Capsule with openings near 
the top. 
2. S. perfoliata, A. DC. Stouter, with clasping cordate leaves. 


Flowers of two sorts. Stamens and styles as in Campanula. Capsule 3-angled. 
Otherwise sufficiently characterised in the synopsis. 

1. H. rariflorum, Nutt. A delicate annual, with leafy filiform stems, diffusely 
branching; the thin leaves clasping by cordate bases, coarsely toothed. Corolla blue. 

4. CAMPANULA. Toum. Bellflower. 

Flowers all alike. Calyx-lobes narrow. Corolla campanulate or near it, 5-lobed. 
Stamens 5; filaments dilated at the base. Capsule 3-5-celled, opening on the sides or 
near the base by 3 to 5 small uplifting valves leaving round holes. 

1. C. prenanthoides, Dur. A foot or two high; stems several-flowered; leaves 
ovate-oblong or lanceolate, sharply serrate, sessile, or the lower short-petioled; lobes of 
the blue corolla narrowly lanceolate, widely spreading; style long exserted; capsule 

Okder 33. ERICACE-ffi. 

Woody plants or perennial herbs, with symmetrical and mostly regular flowers; the 
stamens as many or twice as many as the petals or lobes of the corolla, and inserted with 
but rarely upon it; the anthers 2-ceIIed, and the cells opening by a terminal pore; the 
ovary with as many cells as the divisions of the corolla or calyx; the seeds small. Corolla 
generally gamopetalous, sometimes of distinct petals, the insertion and that of the sta- 
mens hypogynous, or when the calyx is adnate epigynous around an annular disk. Style 
single. Leaves simple. 


Shrubs. Ovary wholly or partly inferior. Fruit a berry, crowned with 

the vestiges of the calyx-teeth Vaccinium. 1 

Sub-order 2. ERICINE^. 

Shrubs or trees. Calyx free. Corolla gamopetalous (in our own species). StamenB 
hypogynous. Anthers introse in the bud. 

EBIOACEiE. (heath FAMILY.) G9 

• Fruit a berry, or berry-like drupe; corolla-tube inflated or urn-shaped, 5-toothed. 


Tree; ovary 5-celled ; berry many-seeded Arbutus. 2 

Shrub; ovary 5-10-celled ; drupe few-seeded. Arctostaphylos. 3 

Shrub; low; berry purple-black Gaultheria. 4 

• * Fruit a naked capsule; corolla funnelform or campanulate, large, 5-lobed. 
Shrubs, with showy flowers Rhododendron. 5 

Sub-order 3. PYROLE.ffi. 

Calyx free. Corolla of 5 (rarely 4) separate petals. Anthers extrose in the bud, the 
pores downward; introse (by bending downward on the end of the filament) in the open 
flower, the pores upward. 

Stem woody, leaves whorled. Chimaphila. 6 

Flowers on a scape Pyrola. 7 


Root-parasitic, scaly-bracted herbs, wholly destitute of green foliage. 
Flowers racemose, corolla globular-ovate Pterospora. 8 

1. VACCINIUM, L. Blueberry, Bilberry, Etc. 

Calyx 4-5-toothed on the summit of the ovary. Corolla various. Stamens 8 to }&; 
the anthers with the two cells separate, tapering upward into a tube opening at the top. 
Style long. 

1. V. ovatum, Pursh. (California Huckleberry). Shrub, erect, 3 to 6 ft high; 
evergreen; leaves thick, shining, ovate, acute, serrate; flowers with the parts in fives, 
stamens 10; corolla campanulate, pink; berries purple-black. 

2. ARBUTUS, Toum. Madrono. 

Calyx 5-lobed. Corolla ovate, 5-toothed; the teeth recurved stamens 10, included; 
anthers flattened, furnished with a pair of reflexed awns. Style rather long; berry 
with a rough surface. 

1. A. Menziesil, Pursh. A handsome tree, witli smooth bark turning brownish- 
red, which exfoliates except on the trunks of the larger trees; corolla white; berries 
deep orange. 

3. ARCTOSTAPHYLOS. Adan. I^Ianzakita. 

Flowers like those of Arbutiia (but occasionally 4-merou3 and 8-androus), except that 
the 5 to 10 cells of the ovary contain each a single ovule, and the berry-like fruit has .5 

70 EEICACKE. (heath FAMILY.) 

to 10 bony seeds. — The white or rose-colored flowers in terminal racemes; the bark smooth, 


* Ovary and depressed-globose fruit morf, or less pubescent; branchlets often hispid. 

1. A. Andersonii, Gr. Erect, 6 or 10 ft. high; branchlets minutely tomentose, 
hispid with long, white, bristly hairs; leaves thin-coriaceous, green, lanceolate-oblong or 
ovate lanceolate, with a strongly sagittate-cordate base, sessile or nearly so, mostly 
Bpinulose-serrulate; fruit nearly or quite half an inch in diameter, with viscid bristles. 

2. A. tomentosa, Dougl. Leaves thick and very rigid-coriaceous, varying from oblong- 
lanceolate to ovate and even cordate, entire or rarely serrulate, usually becoming verti- 
cal, smaller than the last; flowers in very short clustered racemes; fruit not viscid. 

* * Ovary glabrous; no hispid hairs on the branches and petioles. 

3. A. pumila, Nutt. Erect, dwarf, less than a foot high, tufted; leaves broadest 
near the apex, less than an inch long. 

4. A. pungens, HBK. Leaves commonly becoming vertical by a twist of the dis- 
tinct or pretty long petiole, very rigid, often glaucous or pale, entire or with a few teeth, 
varying from oblong-lanceolate to oval; flowers on smooth pedicels; filaments ciUate, 
bearded; fruit yellowish, turning dull red. Very variable. 

A. GLAUCA, Lindl., if found, maybe recognized by its large fruit, -^rith the seeds consolidated 
Into one woody stone, half an inch in diameter. A. bicolor, Gr., is smaller and has small apparently 
one-seeded berries. 

4. QAULTHERIA, L. Wintergreen. Salal. 

Calyx 5-cleft, generally colored Like the corolla. Corolla 5-toothed. Stamens 10 
included, similar to those of Arbutus. Capsule 5-lobed, 5-ceUed, many-seeded, inclosed 
ill the calyx, which enlarges and makes a juicy berry-like fruit. 

1. G. Shallon, Pursh. Shrubby, stems ascending a foot or two in height; leaves 
ovate or slightly cordate, 2 to 4 inches long, finely serrate, shining; flowers white or rose- 
colored, in glandular- viscid racemes. 


Calyx very small. Corolla often slightly irregular. Stamens 5 to 10; filaments fili- 
form. Style long, commonly declined or incurved. Shrubs "with alternate, entire leaves, 
usually crowded on the flowering branchlets; the showy flowers in terminal umbels or 
corymbs from ample scaly buds. 

1. R. occidentale, Gr. (Azalea.) A deciduous shrub, 2 to 6 ft. high; leaves 
obovate-oblong, bright green and shining above; corolla minutely viscid-pubescent out- 
side, white, the upper lobe yellowish inside; the narrow funnel-form tube equaling the 
deeply 5-cleft slightly irregular limb; stamens and style much exserted, curved. — The 
showy fragrant flowers are sometimes nearly three inches long; rarely pinkish. 

B CALIFOKNICUM, Hook., Is a larger evergreen shrub, with large bell-shaped rose-purple flowen 
k D-uo iJ/iododendron, probably not found south of Mendocino County. 


6. CHIMAPHILA, Pursh. Pipsissewa- 

Corolla of rotately spreading, orbicular and concave petals. Stamens 10. Style very 
ehort, inversely conical, nearly immersed in the depressed ovary; stigma broad, its border 
somewhat 5-crenate. 

C. unlbellata, Nutt. A nearly herbaceous evergreen, 6 to IS inches high; the usually 
whorled leaves oblanceolate, bright green; peduncle bearing 3 to 7 white or flesh-colored, 
waxy flowers. — Mt. St. Helena, Miss E. Swett. 

7. PYROLA, Tourn. 

CoroUa of 5 concave and converging petals. Stamens as in Chimaphila. Style gen- 
erally long; stigma 5-lobed or 5-rayed. — Low and smooth perennial herbs, with broad 
and petioled leaves, close to the ground, and more or less scaly-bracted scape bearing a 
simple raceme of white, greenish or rose-colored, nodding flowers. 

1. P rotuudifolia, L. Leaves orbicular, varying to round-obovate or round-reni- 
form, on slender, naked petioles; scape 6 to 14 inches high; probably our plants are of the 
Var. bracteata, Gr. A large form, with leaves 2 or 3 inches long; scape often over a 
foot high. 

2. P. picta, Smith. Leaves thick, coriaceous; pale, sometimes purplish below; com- 
monly blotched with white, ovate to obovate and lanceolate-oblong, on short petioles, 1 
to 2 inches long; smaller than the last. 


Calyx deeply 5-parted, short, persistent. Corolla withering-persistent, globular-ovate, 
with contracted mouth; the 5 very short lobes, recurved. Stamens 10, included, short; 
stigma 5-lobed. 

1. P. andromedea, Nutt. A stout, purplish-brown or chestnut-colored and 
clammy-pubescent herb, 1 to 3 ft. high; raceme long, many -flowered; coroUa white, 3 
lines long. 

BARCODES SANOUINEA, Torr. The Snow Pi.ant of the Sierra Nevada belongs here. 

Oeder 34. PLUMBAGINACE-ai. 

Chiefly maritime herbs, with regular flowers, the parts in fives; the stamens opposite 
the petals. Calyx tubular or funnel-form, 5-plaited, 5-toothed. persistent. Corolla in 
our genera with the long-clawed petals scarcely united. Stamena adnate to the base of 
the petals. 

Flowers in a globose head on a simple scape. Anneria. 1 

Flowers on a branching scape Statdce. 2 


1. ARMERIA, WiUd. Thkitt. 

Calyx Bcarious, funnel-form. Styles 5, filiform. Stemlesa perennials, with linear 
grass-Uke leaves in close tufts, the naked scape bearing a head of rose-colored flowers. 

1. A. vulgaris, Willd. Scapes a foot or two high. On sandy hills along tht 

2. STATICE, L. Marsh-Rosemary. 

Flowers in small spikes or clusters, crowded at the extremities of a branching scape; 
their structore nearly as in Armeria. Leaves commonly with a broad blade, tapering 
into a petiole. 

1. S. Limonium, L. Leaves obovate-oblong ; spikelets 2-3-flowered- Salt 

Oeder 35. PRIMULACE-ffl. 

Herbs, with perfect, regular flowers, well marked, by having the stamens as long as 
the lobes of the corolla, and opposite to them, inserted on its tube, a single entire style 
and stigma, a one-celled ovary, and capsular fruit. Calyx 4r-8-cleft, commonly 5-cleft, 
hypogynous. — Leaves simple; stipules none. In Olaux the corolla is wanting; stamens 
on the calyx alternate with its lobes. 

* Flowers umbellate on a naked scape. 

Corolla deeply 4-5-parted, the lobes reflexed Dodecatheon. 1 

* * Flowers axillary, on leafy stems. 

Corolla 5-9-parted, rotate Trientalis. 2 

Corolla 5-parted; prostrate stems Anagallis. 3 

Corolla wanting; calyx colored Glaus. 4 


Calj'x deeply 5-cleft, the divisions reflexed in the flower, afterwards erect over the 
ovate or oblong capsule. Corolla with a very short tube, a dilated, thickened throat and 
an abruptly reflexed 4^5-parted limb; its divisions long and narrow, entire. Stamens 
inserted in the throat of the corolla, erect, cohering around the slender exserted style. — 
Acaulescent pereimial smooth herbs, with a tuft of radical leaves. Corolla purple, pink, 
or rarely white. Frequently the parts are in fours. 

1. D. Meadia, L. Leaves varying from obovate to lanceolate, entire or toothed; 
scape 3 to 15 inches high; umbel, 2-20-flowered. A variable species. Ours is chiefly 

Var. brevifolium, with leaves round-obovate or spatulate, less than an inch to an 
inch and a half long. 

ASCLEPiADACiia;. (milkweed familt.) 73 

2. TRIENTALIS, L. Star-flower. 

Calyx and wheel-shaped corolla about 7-parted. Filaments slender, spreading. — Low 
»nd glabrous perennials, with simple stems, which bear a whorl of leaves at the summit, 
In their axils slender peduncles supporting star-shaped, white or pinkish flowers. 

1. T. Europaea, L., Var. latifolia, Torr. Sterna 4 to 8 inches high, springing 
trom a Uttle tuber. 

3. ANAGAIjLIS, Toum. Pimpernei* 

Divisions of the rotate 5-parted corolla broad. Capsule globose. — Spreading, prostrate 
herbs, with opposite or whorled leaves and axillary flowers. 

1. A. arvensis, L. Leaves ovate, sessile, shorter than the peduncles, sometimes in 
threes; flowers scarlet, purple, or nearly salmon-colored, rarely blue. 

4. GLAUX, L. Sea Milkwort. 

Calyx campanulate, 5-cleft; the lobes ovate, petal-like. Filaments rather shorter than 
the calyx. Style filiform; stigma capitate. 

1. G. maritima, L. Low, glabrous; branching stems 3 to 9 inches high, leafy to 
the top; leaves commonly opposite, fleshy, oblong, half an inch or less long, minutely 
dotted; flowers axillary, almost sessile, white or purplish. 

Order OLEACE^ffi is represented by Fraxinus Oregana, Nutt., the Oregon Ash. 

Order APOCYNACE^ai is represented by Apocynum cannabinum, L. (Indian 
Hemp.) An herb with milky juice, tough bark, opposite entire exstipulate leaves, regular 
flowers, the sepals, petals and stamens five, the latter borne on the corolla alternate with 
its lobes and conniving around the stigma. The commonly sessile, oblong leaves often 3 
or 4 inches long. The greenish- white small flowers in close cymes. A. androsaenufolium^ 
L., has smaller ovate leaves, conspicuously petioled; flowers rose-colored. 


Herbs with milky juice, no stipules, and regular flowers, with the parts in fives, except 
that there are two carpels with distinct ovaries and a common stigma to which the sta- 
mens are attached; the latter (in our genera) with hood-Uke appendages. Leaves entire, 
generally opposite, sometimes whorled. Flowers usually in simple umbels. Fruit a 
pair of follicles. Seeds almost always with a coma of silky down. 

1. ASCLEPIAS, L. Milkweed. 
The calyx and corolla deeply 5-parted; the small divisions reflexed; filaments short, 
crowned behind each anther with a conspicuous hood from the cavity of which 
rises the subulate and usually falcate hem; anthers with thin scarious tips inflexed 


over the truncate summit of the stigma, their wing-like edges meeting and projecting 
between the hoods; pollen in 10 wax-Uke masses. Follicles ovate or lanceolate. Seeds 
numerous, flat, downwardly imbricated all over the large, soon detached placenta; the 
upper end with a long tuft of down (coma). — Hoods in our species erect and not exceed- 
ing the stamens and stigma. 

1. A. fascicularis, Decaisne. Smooth, slender, 1 to 6 ft. high; leaves in whorls of 
3 to 5, or some in pairs, linear and Hnear-lanceolate; flowers white or whitish; horns 
longer than the hoods. 

2. A. vestita. Hook & Am. White- woolly; leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate or 
oblong-lanceolate, almost sessile; umbels almost sessile; flowers about half an inch long, 
the hoods flesh-colored. 

No bom to the hood of the stamens; otherwise as Asclepias. 

§ 1. Hoods saccate, pointless, lower than the anthers, opening down the back, as i/S'Valved. 

1. G. tomeutosus, Gr. White-tomentose, closely resembling Asclepias vistitia; 
etem acutely angled; leaves ovate or oblong (about 4 inches long); corolla greenish-white 
or purplish, 

2. G. purpurascens, Gr. Canescently puberulent; stems 4 to 12 inches high; 
Leaves ovate and somewhat cordate, an inch or two long; flowers smaU; the corolla red- 
purple; the hoods white. 

§ 2. Hoods erect, open down the front, somewhat surpassing the anthers. 

3. G. cordifolius, Benth. Green and smooth, 2 or 3 ft. high; leaves ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate, with cordate clasping base, opposite, rarely in threes, 2 to 5 inches long; 
flowers large; corolla dark red-purple; the hoods purplish- 


Glabrous herbs, with colorless, bitter juice, entire opposite and sessile leaves, no sti- 
pules, perfect and regular flowers, stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and alternate 
with them, inserted on the tube, the anthers free from the stigma; ovary 1-celled; style 
one or none; the stigmas commonly two. Calyx persistent. 

§ 1. Corolla withering-persistent. Leaves opposite or whorled, entire, sessile. 

Corolla salver-form, red; calyx 5-parted Erythraea. 1 

Corolla short, salver-form, yellow; caylx 4-toothed Microcala. 2 

Corolla funnel-form, blue Gentiana, 3 

§ 2. Corolla deciduoxis. Leaves alternate, toith sheathing petioles. 
Flowers borne on a naked scape Menyanthes. 4 


1. ERYTHR^A, Pers. 

Stamens inserted on the throat of the corolla; filaments slender; anthers oblong or 
linear, twisting spirally after shedding the pollen. Style filiform; stigma wedge-shaped 
or fan-like. Capsule oblong, tapering upward. — Corolla occasionally only 4-parted. 

1. E. trichautha, Grise. A span or less high, branched; lobes of the rose-red corolla 
lanceolate, fully half the length of the tube at the time of expansion, 3 or 4 lines long; 
calyx-lobes filiform, 3-angled. 

2. E. Muhlenbergii, Grisc. Two inches to a span high, simple or branched; leaves 
oblong, half an inch long; lobes of the corolla oval, very obtuse, becoming oblong, 

2. MICROCAI.A, Link. 

Anthers round-cordate. Stigma peltate-dilated, at length separating or separable into 
2 platea. 

1. M. quadrangularis, Grise. An inch or two high, filiform, simple and l-fiowered, 
or branched at the base, with 1 to 3 pairs of minute oval or oblong leaves; peduncles 
naked, square; calyx short, square; corolla saffron-yellow. 

3. GENTIANA, L. Gektian. 

Calyx 4-6-toothed or cleft. Corolla 4-5-lobed, often with plaited and toothed folds in 
the sinuses. Stamens included; anthers sometimes cohering. Style none or very shcri; 
stigmas 2, thin and flat. 

1. G. afBnis, Grise., var. ovata, Gr. A span tea footer two high; leaves ovate 
or oblong; flowers mostly 5 or more, in a leafy thyrsus; corolla blue, an inch or more in 
length; appendages mostly 2-cleft or 2-4-cuspidate, shorter than the round-ovate lobes, 

4. MENYANTHES, Tourn. Buckbean. 

The campanulate corolla densely white-bearded on the upper surface, the lobes with 
the margins turned inward in the bud. 

1. M. trifoliata, L. The alternate leaves long petioled, 3-foliolate; scape termi- 
nated by a short raceme of white or pinkish flowers; anthers dark-brown, sagittate. — In 
shallow water or on wet ground. 


Chiefly herbs with simple or divided leaves, and no stipules; all the parts of the regu- 
lar flower five, except the pistil, which has a 3-celled ovary and a 3-lobed style. Calyx 
imbricated in the bud, persistent. Corolla convolute in the bud. Stamens on the corolla 
alternate with its lobes distinct; anthers introse. — In Gilia the cells of the ovary and the 
stigmas arc occasionally reduced to two. 


Leaves various but never simply pinnate with entire leaflets Gilia. 1 

Leaves simply pinnate; leaflets linear to ovate; corolla short Polemonitun. 2 

1. GILIA. Ruiz & Pav. 

Corolla funnel-form, salver-form, or sometimes short-campanulate or rotate, regular. 
A polymorphous genus, the sections having almost generic differences. 

Series I. Stamens attached to the corolla at unequal heights. 

Mostly viscid-pubescent or glandular; all but some of the lower leaves alternate; sta^ 
mens exserted. § Collomia. 

Sekies II. Stamens equally inserted, but sometimes with unequal filaments. 

• All of the leaves opposite, at least on the main stems, sessile and palmately parted or 

rarely entire. (Seeds mucilaginous in water. ) 

Corolla from short funnel-form to almost rotate; the lobes obovate; filaments slender; 

anthers oval. Low or slender, loosely and mostly small flowered aimuals; the leaves 

with filiform or setaceous divisions, appearing as if whorled. In ours, the flowers on 

filiform pedicels, loosely paniculate. § 1. Dactylophyllum. 

Corolla salver-form, but the tube shorter than the calyx, the broad cuneate-obovate 

lobes slightly crenulate, strongly convolute in the bud; stamens inserted low on the 

corolla tube, included; erect, smooth; leaves entire or 3-5-divided. § 2. Linanthus. 

CoroUa salver-form, with usually a filiform elongated tube, and the throat sometimes 

abruptly dilated; stamens inserted in the throat; anthers short. EIrect annuals, with 

leaves as in the last, and the flowers in a terminal capitate cluster. § 3. Leptoaiphon. 

* * All the leaves alternate and palmately parted. 
Corolla similar to § 3. Stems woody; leaves much fascicled in the axils, 3-7 parted, 
rigid; flowers sessile, solitary or few at the ends of short branches. § 4. Leptodaetylon, 

* * * All, or all but the lowest leaves alternate and pinnately compound, cleft or toothed, 

or rarely entire. 

Flowers capitate-glomerate or densely clustered, leafy-bracted; bracts and calyx-lobes 
often laciniate, rigid acerose or spinulose-tipped. Corolla slender tubular-funnelform, 
with small oblong lobes; cells of the ovary and stigmas sometimes only 2. Annuals, 
mostly viscid -pubescent, never white-woolly, with once or twice pinnatifid leaves, their 
lobes commonly pungent; the bracts sometimes palmately cleft. § 5. Navarretia. 

Flowers, inflorescence, etc., nearly as in § 5; but the anthers always exserted; corolla 
•alver-form, more conspicuous; plants all white-woolly, not viscid. § 6. Hugdia. 

Flowers capitate-glomerate, or panicled, or scattered, usually bractless; corolla (blue, 


purple or violet) from fuunel-form to campanulate or almost rotate; stamens included or 
not surpassing the corolla lobes; leaves most pinuately incised. § 7. Ewjiliti. 

§ Collomia. [See p. 138.] 
* Leaves simple, sessile, entire, lower ones often opposite. 

lo. G. grandiflora, Gr. Erect, a foot or two high; leaves linear to lance-ovate; 
calyx-lobes broad and obtuse; corolla buff or salmon-color, narrow-funnel-form, an inch 
long. The showy flowers are iu leafy-bracted heads. — Sonoma County, Lake County, 
E. Brooks. Collomia grandiflora, Dougl. of 4th Ed. 

16. G. gracilis. Gray. A span or two high, in age much branched; the flowers at 
length somewhat scattered; leaves lanceolate or linear, or the lowest oval or obolate, 
aji inch or less long; corolla rose-purple, turning bluish, less than half an inch long, 
narrow. Collomia gracilis, Dougl. of previous editions. 

* * Leaves, deeply cleft or compound, the lower petioled; stems loosely branched. 

Ic. G. divaricata, Nutt. A span to 3 ft. high; lower leaves simply pinnately parted 
into linear lateral lobes, or the terminal lobe oblong and toothed, upper leaves 3-5- 
divided; corolla pink or purplish, its slender tube about half an inch long, twice or 
thrice the length of the calyx; capsule globular, 3-seeded. Collomia gilioides* Benth. 

\d. G. Sessei, Don. A span or two high, diffuse; leaves mostly pinnately parted or 
the upper pinnatifid, and the lobes incised or cleft; the upper most often entire and 
broader, subtending the capitate-clustered flowers; corolla purplish, haK an inch long; 
stamens very unequally inserted. Collomia heterophylla, Hook. 

§ 1. Dactylophyllum. Benth. 

1. G. liniflora, Benth. From a few inches to over a foot high; leaves with nearly 
filiform divisions an inch long; corolla white, rotate, when fully open, 10 to 6 lines across, 
5-parted down to the very short tube. 

Var. phamaceoides, Gr., is similar but smaller; the (sometimes pinkish) corolla half 
an inch across, or less. 

2. G. pusilla Benth. Small, 2 to 6 inches high; leaves less than half an inch long, 
shorter than the scattered pedicels; corolla nearly white, or purplish with a yellow 
throat, 1^ to 2 lines long, little exceeding the calyx. 

Var. Califomica, Gr., has a corolla 3 lines long, twice the length of the calyx; the 
throat often brownish. The most frequent form. 

3. G. Bolanderi, Gr. Very like the last, but the tube of the blue or purple tingod 
corolla longer and narrower (3 or 4 lines long). 

4. G. aurea, Nutt. Diffuse, 2 to 4 inches high; divisions of roughish leaves nar- 
rowly Unear, 3 lines long; peduncles shorter or but little longer than the flowers; corolla 
usually yellow, short, funnel-form half an inch or less across; the roundish-obovate lobe* 
about the length of the obconical tliroat and the short proper tube. 


Var. decora, Gr. Corolla white or pale violet, with or without a brown-purple 
throat; peduncles longer. 

§ 2. Linanthus, Endl. 

5. G. dichotoma, Benth. A span to a foot high, remotely leaved; flowers nearly 
iiessile in the forks, or terminating the branches; calyx-tube white scarious; the teeth 
green; corolla white; the lobes from half to nearly an inch long; the tube sometimes 

§ 3. Leptosiphon, EndL 

6. G. densiflora, Benth. A span to 2 ft. high; leaves in somewhat distant apparent 
whorls; tube of the white or rose-purple corolla about equaling the viUous-hirsute bracts 
and calyx; its lobes nearly half an inch long, obovate. 

Xy 7. G- androsacea, Steud. Erect or spreading, 3 to 12 inches high; corolla lilac, 
rose, pink or almost white, with a yellow or dark throat; its tube about an inch long. 
Var. rosacea, Gr., is a dwarf tufted form with many rose-red flowers. 

8. G. micrantha, Steud. Slender, about a span high; tube of the corolla very 
Blender, 9 to 18 lines long; the lobes 2 or 3 lines long, from yellow to cream color and pale 
purple, or whitish. 

9. G. tenella, Benth. Low and mostly depressed; tube of the corolla 6 to 9 lines 
long, the ro^e colored or pink lobes barely a line and a haK long, the throat yellow; 
bracts and leaves hispidulous-ciliate. 

10. G. ciliata, Benth. More rigid and hirsute than the preceding, a span to a foot 
high; tube of the rose-colored or purple, or in age whitish corolla, little if at all exserted 
beyond the very hirsute or hispid-ciliate bracts and subtending leaves, the lobes only a 
line and a half long. 

§ 4. Leptodactylon, Hook & Am. 

11. G. Californica, Benth. Two or three feet high, with spreading rigid branches; 
corolla rose-color or lilac, an inch and a half in diameter, 

§ 5. Navarretia, Gr. 

* Staanena inclvded in the throat of the corolla, 

. 12. G. squarrosa, Hook & Am. Rigid, rather stout, becoming muon branched, 

very glandular- viscid, fetid with the odor of a skunk; upper leaves and bracts spinescent; 

corolla blue, 4 or 5 lines long. 

* * Stamens more or less exserted; corolla slender, 3 to 6 lines long. Leaves twice pinnatifid. 

13. G. cotalaefolia Steud. Rather stout and rigid, a foot or mucli less in height; 
villous pubescent and minutely glandular; upper bracts spinescent; tube of the violet or 
whitish corolla hardly longer than the calyx; capsule usually 1-seeded. Exhales the 
odor of Anthemis cotula (Mayweed). 

14. G. intertexta, Steud. At length diflPusely much branched, a span high, neither 


viscid nor glandular; stems retrorsely pubescent; leaves mainly smooth, scarcely bipin- 
aatifid; base of the bracts and tube of the calyx densely white-villous; corolla -white. 

15. G. leucocephala, Gr. A span high, rather slender, loosely branched, smooth, 
except a little wooUiness at the top; leaves soft; bracts hardly pungent; heads dense; 
corolla white, longer than the calyx. 

• * * Stamens exserted; leaves only once pinnatifid, rigid, linear; corolla violet or purple, 

barely half an inch long, about twice the length of the pungent calyx-lobes. 

16. G. viscidula, Gr. A span high or less, at length much branched, viscid-pu- 
bescent; bracts palmately cleft. 

17. G. atiactyloides, Steud. Much more rigid than the last; leaves broader, the 
floral ovate, all with subulate spiny lobes; few flowered. 

§ 6. Hugelia, Benth. 
* Root perennial; stems woody at the base. 

18. G, densifolia, Benth. A foot or two high; stems leafy, leaves linear, rigid, the 
short lobes subulate; flowers numerous in a compact head; corolla over half an inch 
long, violet blue, exceeding the calyx, the lobes 3 lines long; anthers sagittate. 

* * Root annual, stems slender, afoot or less in height; leaves and their few {if any) 
divisions filiform. 

19. G. virgata, Steud. Tube of the blue corolla longer than the calyx; antheia 

Var. floribunda, Gr. Low and rather stout; even the upper leaves pinnately 3-7 -parted; 
the numerous heads and flowers as large as O. densifolia. 

§ 7. Eugilia, Benth. 

• Flowers numerous in dense head-like clusters on long naked peduncles; stems erect; stamens 

inserted in the very sinuses of the short and broad corolla; leaves twice or thrice pin- 
nately dissected into linear divisions. 

20. Q. capitata, Dougl. Mostly smooth; stem slender, loosely branched above, a 
foot or two high; lobes of the light blue (rarely white) coroUa narrowly oblong, 2 lines 

21. G. achilleaefolia, Benth. Stouter and lower than the last, often glandular; 
the capitate clusters and flowers larger; calyx woolly; lobes of the deeper blue corolla 

• * Flowers in small, rather loose clusters, or scattered in an open panicle. 

22. G. miilticaulis, Benth. A span to a foot high, simple in early plants, loosely 
branched in later; flowers few in a cluster terminating the slender naked peduncles, 
almost sessile; the violet corolla 4 lines long, tube shorter than the viscid calyx; throat 
fonnel.form; capsule ovoid. 


Var. tenera, Gr., 13 a depauperate form; frequently the peduncles only 1-fl.owered. 

23. G. tricolor, Benth. A span to a foot or two high, in age diffusely branched; 
flowers few, in loose, rather short peduncled clusters; corolla with a very short proper 
tube and an ample campanulate throat which is pale yellow or orange below, dark pur- 
ple above; the lilac or violet lobes longer than the stamens. 

24. G. inconspicua, Dougl. A span to a foot high, somewhat viscid or glandular; 
corolla violet-purple or bluish, twice or thrice the length of the calyx, but small, the 
lobes only a line long. It passes by gradation into 

Var. sinuata, Gr., with the tube of the corolla more slender and exserted and the 
lobes often 2 lines long. 


Flowers as in Gilia, § Eugilia, but the corolla short and broad, the stamens somewhat 
declined, the filaments hairy appendaged at the base. Calyx herbaceous, its divisions 
and those of the pinnate leaves pointless. 

1. P. oaeruleum, L. (Greek Valerian.) Smooth or viscid-pubescent, 2 or 3 ft. 
high, leafy, usually bearing numerous flowers; corolla an inch or more across, bright blue 
varying to white; stamens and style exserted. [See bottom of p. 122.] 

Order 39. HYDROPHYLLACE-ffi. 

Inflorescence usually scorpioid; flowers perfect, regular, 5-androus, the two styles dis- 
tinct at least at the apex; stigmas terminal, small, capitate. Only in Romanzoffia are 
the stigmas as well as the styles united. Ovary commonly hispid or hirsute, at least at 
the top. — Mostly herbs, with alternate or rarely opposite leaves and no stipules. 

Tribe 1. HYDROPHYLLE.ffi. Ovary and capsule 1-celled. Style 2-cleft. 
Corolla almost always convolute in the bud. Herbs. 

Flowers solitary or loosely racemose. 

Calyx with reflexed appendages Nemophila. 1 

Calyx naked at the sinuses Ellisia. 2 

Tribe 2. PHACELIIi.Sj. Ovary 1-2-celled. Style 1-2-cleft. Corolla imbricated in 
the bud. Calyx naked at the sinuses. Herbs. 

Corolla not yellow, deciduous • Phacelia. 3 

Corolla yellow, persistent Etnmenanthe, 4 

Style and stigma entire RomanzofEa. 5 

Tribe 3. NAMIj.2B. Ovary, capsule, dehiscence, etc., nearly of Phaceliece. Styles 

distinct to the base, stigmas capitate. 
Low shrubs Eriodictyon. 6 


1. NEMOPHILA, Nutt. 
Calyx 5-parted. Corolla rotate-campanulate, deeply 5-lobed, the throat appendaged 
with 10 internal plates or scales — Tender herbs with diffuse and procumbent stems, and 
pinnately lobed or divided leaves, more or less hirsute. 

* Leaves mostly alternate; stems long and weak, beset with stiff rejlexed bristles. 

1. N. aurita, Lindl. Leaves large, with auriculate dilated and clasping base or 
winged petiole deeply pinnatifid into 5 to 9 retrorse lobes; corolla violet, 5 to 12 Hnes in 

* * Leaves opposite not auricled at base. 

2. N. maculata, Benth, Leaves lyrately pinnatifid into 5 to 9 short lobes, or the 
uppermost only 3-lobed; corolla white, with a violet spot at the top of each lobe, over 
an inch across. 

3. N. insignis, Dougl. Leaves similai to the last; corolla bright blue, its scales 
short and roundish, partly free. 

4. N. Menziesii, Hook & Am. Leaves less divided than the last; corolla from 
light blue to white and sprinkled with dots toward the center, its scales narrow and ad- 
herent by one edge. 

• * * Upper leaves often alternate, mostly longer than the peduncles, and slender-petioled, 
many only SS-lobed, one-sided. 

5. N. parviflora, Dougl. Slender and weak; corolla 2 to 5 lines across, light blut 
or white. 


Calyx 5-parted. Corolla campanulate, short in proportion to the calyx; scales minute 
or obsolete. Stamens and style not exserted. 

1. E, chrysanthemifolia, Benth. Stem 1 or 2 ft. high, erect, branched; leaves dis- 
sected into very many small and short divisions; flowers, small, white; capsule remark- 
able, Ariz. : the mostly four ordinary rough seeds enclosed between the placentae, while, 
between each placenta and the valve which it lines, is hidden a single thin, meniscoidal, 
smooth seed, 

3. PHACELIA, Juss. 

Calyx deeply 5-parted, the divisions usually narrow and similar; corolla from almost 
rotate to narrow- funnelform; commonly with appendages upon the inside of the tube in 
the form of 10 vertical plates, approximate in pairs between the bases of the filaments, 
or adnate to the filaments, one on each side. Stamens equally inserted low down or at 
the base of the corolla. Herbs, mostly hirsute or hispid and branched from the base; 
with simple or compound alternate leaves, or the lower opposite and more or less scor- 
pioid infloresence. Corolla never yellow except in the throat. Ovules and seeds 4 in all 
except the last species. (See Addenda. ) 


• Leaves simple and entire, or with a pair or two of similar and smaller leaflets or lobes. 

1. P. circinata, Jacq. f. A span to a foot or two high from a stout root, hispid and 
the foliage etrigose, either green, grayish or canescent, with a soft pubescence; leaves 
from lanceolate to ovate, acute, the lower tapering into a petiole and some bearing lateral 
leaflets; inflorescence in dense scorpioid hispid spikes, crowded; corolla dull or bluish 
white; filaments much exserted. — A very variable species; usually many stems from one 
root; some with large entire, ovate green leaves only. 

2. P. Breweri, Gr. Foliage and habit similar to the last, but smaller and more 
slender, from an annual root; leaves seldom an inch long, many of them 3-5-parted, the 
lanceolate lateral lobes ascending; corolla smaller (scarcely 3 lines long), blue or violet; 
filaments not exserted. 

* * Leaves simple, rounded, cordate, lobed and serrate. 

3. P. taalvaefolia, Cham. Stout, loosely branching, hispid with stinging hairs; 
leaves 2 inches or more in diameter; spikes soUtary, or in pairs; corolla 3 to 6 lines long, 
duU white or bluish; stamens much exserted. 

• • • Leaves once to thrice pinnatifid or pinnately compound, oblong in general outline. 

Calyx bristly hispid, its lobes not rarely unequal. Annuals, the species difficult to dis- 

4. P. tanacetifolia, Benth. Erect, 1 to 3 ft. high, roughish, hirsute or hispid; 
leaves 9-17-divided in narrow once or twice pinnately parted or cleft divisions, all sessile 
or nearly so; the scorpioid spikes clustered; the short pedicels erect or ascending; corolla 
usually of a dirty mottled white or bluish; stamens and style much exserted; calyx lobea 
not twice the length of the capsule. 

5. P. ramosissima, Dougl. Straggling, somewhat viscid above; leaves pinnately 
5-7-divided or parted into linear pinnatifid-incised divisions; the short pedicels soon 
horizontal; stamens and style moderately exserted; calyx lobes more than twice the 
length of the globular capsule ; flowers bluish. 

6. P. ciliata, Benth. A span to a foot high; leaves rarely divided but incised or 
cleft and toothed; spikes simple or in pairs; stamens usually not surpassing the onen 
corolla; calyx lobes ciUate with glandular bristles; corolla blue. 

* * * * Leaves entire, or the lower 1-2-lobcd, not cordate, the veins parallel or converging, cu 

in P. circinata; no glandular pubescence ; calyx with long hairs; seeds more tlmn 4- 

7. P. divaricata, Gr. Diffusely spreading, a span or more in height; leaves ovate 
or oblong; style 2-cleft at the apex only; corolla violet, about 10 lines in diameter. 

4. EMMENANTHE, Benth. 
Distinguished from Phacelia by the persistent yellow or cream-colored corolla. 


1. Xj. penduUflora, Benth. A span to a foot high; somewhat viscid; leaves pinna- 
tifid; pedicels filiform, about half an inch long, equaling the nodding corolla. 


Stamens unequal; style filiform. Low perennial herbs, with the aspect of saxifrages; 
the leaves mainly radical, roimd-cordate, or reniform, crenately 7-11-lobed, long petioled. 

1. R. Sitchensis, Bong. Scapes weak, a span long, bearing several pink or pur- 
ple, varying to white flowers; corolla veiny. 


Calyx deeply 5-parted. Corolla funnel- form to salver-form. Stamens included- — Low 
ehrubs; the leaves alternate, of rigid coriaceous texture, the finely reticulated veinleta 
conspicuous on a fine woolly ground, at least underneaWi, their margins beset with rigid 

1. E. glutinosum, Benth- (Mountain Balm, or Teeba Santa.) Smooth, glu- 
tinous with a resinous exudation, 3 to 5 ft. high; leaves /anceolate, 3 to 6 inches long; 
cymes in a naked panicle; corolla tubular, funnel-form, violet or nearly white, half an 
inch long. 

E. tomentoium, Bentb. , grows farther down the coast. It 1b larger with smaller almost salver-f orm 
Sowers; densely villous. 


Mostly roughly pubescent herbs, with alternate entire leaves without stipules, scor- 
pioid inflorescence, and perfectly regular 5-androu3 flowers; the ovary of 4 lobes or 
divisions around a central style, ripening into seed-like nutlets. Calyx free, 5-parted 
or 5-cleft, persistent. Corolla with a 5-lobed limb commonly imbricated in the bud. 
Stamens distinct, inserted in the tube or throat of 1 he corolla alternate with its lobes. 
The one-sided and coiled apparent spikes or racemes straighten as the blossoms develop. 

All our species except the first belong to the true Borrage Tribe. 

* Frv,U not prickly. 

CoroUa with plaited sinuses; stigma sessilo Heliotropium. 1 

Corolla yellow. Bristly-hispid plants Amsinckia. 2 

CoroUa white Eritrichium. 3 

* * The nutlets prickly, bur-like. 

Flowers sky-blue (rarely white) in bracteate racemes Echinospennum. 4 

Flower purple, blue and violet in a peduncled raceme Cynoglossum. 5 

Flowers minute; nutlets winged, or boat-shaped Pectocarya. 6 



Corolla with plaited sinuses. Filaments short or none; anthers connivent and somei 
times oohering. Style entire or none; stigma a fleshy ring or the edge of a peltate or 
umbrella-shaped disk. Fruit dry, splitting into 4 nutlets. 

1. H. Curassavicum, L. A smooth and somewhat glaucous succulent herb with 
spreading or prostrate stems; leaves oblanceolate, an inch or two long; flowers crowded, 
white or blue; stigma sessile, flat-topped. Blackens in drying. 

2. AMSINCKIA, Lehm. 

CoroUa salver-form, or somewhat funnel-form, more or less plaited in the bud at the 
sinuses, with the tube exceeding the calyx, lobes rounded- Filaments short. Style fili- 
form; stigma capitate-2-lobed. Nutlets ovate-triangular. Hispid annuals with oblong- 
ovate to linear leaves, and yellow flowers in at length loose scorpioid spikes or racemes, 
without bracts, except sometimes the lowest. 

• Nutlets rough, the back convex. 

1. A. spectabilis, Fisch, & Mey. Erect, a span to a foot high; leaves mostly linear; 
tube of the bright orange-yellow corolla, two or three times the length of the linear, 
rusty-hispid calyx, nearly half an inch long; the throat enlarged, and the expanded limb 
a third to half an inch in diameter. 

2. A. intermedia, Fisch. & Mey. Erect, usually a foot or two high; leaves linear 
or only the lower lanceolate; corolla bright yellow, 3 or 4 lines long; its tube a little 
surpassing the calyx-lobes; the limb 2 or 3 lines in diameter. 

3. A. lycopsoides, Lehm. Loosely branched, soon spreading, sometimes decum- 
bent, sparsely hispid with bristles, which on the leaves have conspicuous pustulate bases; 
leaves from lanceolate to ovate, the margins usually undulate; upper flowers mostly 
bractless; corolla light yellow, about 4 lines long; the throat little enlarged; the limb 2 
or 3 lines in diameter. Passes into 

Var. bracteosa, Gr., a smaller-flowered decumbent form, with most of the flowerf 

* * Nutlets nearly flat on the hack, coarsely granulate. 

4. A. tessellata, Gr. About a foot high, rather stout, coarsely hispid, the bris- 
tles of the calyx rusty; corolla orange-yellow, 3 or 4 lines long, the throat plaited, the 
tube rather longer than the obtuse calyx-lobes; nutlets broadly ovate, thickly covered 
with warty granulations closely fitting like the blocks of a pavement. 

* * * Nutlets at maturity, whitish, smooth and polished. 

5. A. vemicosa, Hook & Am. Sparsely bristly; leaves linear to ovate-lanceolate; 
corolla light yellow, 4 or 5 lines long, and the limb narrow; nutlets shaped like a grain 
of buckwheat. 


V'ar. grandiflora, Gr. Kobust, more hispid and large flowered, the limba broader; 
calyx lobes often con.^>ined, so as to appear as 3 or 4. 


Most obviously distinguished from Amsinckia and the nearer EcMnospermum by its 
isually smaller white flowers, with shorter coroUa tube. The species difficult of deter- 

1. E. Califomicum, DC The slender stems decumbent, a span or more long; 
the leaves narrowly linear; stems flowering from near the base; flowers almost sessile, 
mostly with leaves or bracts, at length scattered; the corolla only a line long; calyx open 
in fruit. Passes into 

Var. subglochidiatum, Gr. Slightly succulent; lower leaves inclined to spatulate, 
nutlets somewhat barbed. Wet ground. 

2. E. Scouleri, A.DC. Slender, erect a span to a foot high; leaves narrowly linear 
(1 or 2 inches long); flowers in geminate or sometimes paniculate slender naked spikes, 
most of them bractless; pedicels not more than a line long; calyx erect in fruit; corolla 
surpassing the calyx, the limb almost rotate, 2 to 5 lines in diameter. — Seems to pass 
into the next. 

3. E. Chorisianum, DC. At first erect, soon spreading or decumbent; larger leaves, 
2 to 4 inches long; flowers in lax, usually solitary racemes, many of them leafy-bracted; 
pedicels sometimes filiform and 2 to 9 lines long; corolla more funnel-form, its limb 3 
to 5 lines in diameter. — This may be a wet ground form of the last, which grows on dry 

4. E. fulvum, A. DO. A span to a foot high, slender branched from a leafy base, 
pubescent; leaves linear, or the lower lanceolate or spatulate; spikes at maturity nearly 
filiform, bracteate only at the base; calyx, etc., densely clothed with rusty or fulvous 
hairs; calyx deciduous, only the lower part remaining under the fruit; corolla limb 2 
lines across. 

5. E. canescens, Gr. Stouter and larger than the last; the pubescence whitish. 
Qot rusty; leaves linear; calyx hardly deciduous. 

6. E. osycarynm, Gr. May be known by the solitary ovate-acuminate, smooth, 
Bhining nutlet enclosed in the persistent bur-like calyx; corolla 2 lines wide. 


Calyx lobes spreading or reflexed in fruit. Corolla short, salver-form, and with con- 
spicuous arching crests at the throat. Short filaments, style, etc., as in Entrichium. 
Nutlets with barbed prickles. 

1. E. floribundum, Lehm. Esther strict, 2 ft. or more high, or sometimes smaller; 
leaves from oblong to linear-lanceolate; racemes numerous, usually geminate; the tri- 


angular nutlets armed with prickles on the margins; limb of the rotate corolla 2 to 6 
lines in diameter, blue, rarely white. 


Chiefly distinguished from the preceding by the broad large leaves, the bractles* 
racemes- and the nutlets clothed over the whole back with stout barbed prickles. 

1. C. grande, Dougl. About 2 ft. high, pubescence soft; radical and lower stem 
leaves ovate oblong, usually rounded or cordate at the base, long petioled; panicled 
racemes or cymes small, on a long naked terminal peduncle; corolla tube exceeding the 
calyx; its limb blue to violet, with usually purple crests; 3 to 5 lines wide. 


Structure of the minute white flowers similar to the preceding; nutlets widely spread- 
ing in pairs, horizontal, oblong or almost linear, surrounded by an incurved wing-hke 
border which is toothed, the apex beset with hooked bristles. 

1. P. penicillata, A. DC. Very slender, diffusely branching, spreading, with nar- 
row linear leaves, and small flowers scattered the whole length of the stem, on very short 
pedicels; nutlets only a line long. 


Herbs, usually twining or trailing, with alternate leaves (or scales) and regular perfect 
flowers; the stamens as many as the lobes or angles of the corolla and alternate with 
them (5, rarely 4); the free persistent calyx of mostly distinct imbricated sepals; ovary 
2-3-celled; capsules generally globular; seeds 1 to 4. Inflorescence axillary. 

Corolla plaited in the bud; style single Convolvulus. 1 

CoroUa 5-cleft; styles 2 Cressa. 2 

Twining parasites, leafless, yellowish Cuscuta. 3 


Corolla campanulate or short and open funnel-form, with a 5-angulate or obscurely 
5-lobed border, deeply plaited down the sinuses in the bud. Stamens included. Style 
filiform; stigmas 2, in ours flat, from linear to ovaL (See Addenda.) 

* A pair of bracts close to the calyx, enveloping it. 
1. C. Soldanella, L. Maritime, low, smooth; stems a foot or less in length, trail- 
ing; leaves reniform entire or obscurely angulate-lobed, an inch or two broad, long 
petioled; corolla pink, purplish, or nearly white. 


2. C. occidentalis, Gr. Mostly smooth; stems twining several feet high; leaves 
from broadly ovate-triangular -with a deep and narrow basal sinus to narrowly lanceolate- 
hastate; the posterior lobes often 1-2-toothed; peduncle elongated, not rarely 2-flowered 
within the bracts; these ovate or rarely oblong, commonly surpassing the enclosed calyx; 
corolla white or pinkish, 1 to 1^ inches broad; stigmas linear. 

3. C. Califomicus, Choi. Minutely and rather densely pubescent, a span or less 
high, or with trailing stems a foot long; leaves from ovate or obovate and obscurely 
hastate to triangular-hastate, the basal lobes sometimes 1-2-toothed, long-petioled; pe- 
duncles shorter than the petiole; bracts oblong or oval, about equaling the sepals, or 
shorter; corolla white, cream-color or flesh-color, 1^ to 2 inches long. 

4. C. villosus, Gr. Densely silky- villous or woolly; corolla cream colored, an inch 

• * No calyx-like bracts; sometimes a pair of leaves close under the fiower or a pair of 
bracts at soTue distance below it. 

5. C. luteolus, Gr. Stems twining several feet long; leaves triangular-hastate or 
sagittate, the basal lobes sometimes 2-lobed; peduncles bearing a pair of linear or lan- 
ceolate entire bracts, a little below the flower; a second fiower occasionally from the 
axil of one of them; coroUa pale yellow or purplish, an inch or more in length; stigmas 

2. CRESSA, L. 

Corolla deeply 5-cleft; the oblong or ovate lobes more than half the length of the 
somewhat campanulate tube. Stamens and the 2 distinct styles exserted. Stigmas 

1. C. Cretica, L. A span or two high, silky-villous and hoary ; leaves very 
numerous, 2 to 4 lines long, almost sessile; flowers scasile or nearly bo in the upper axils; 
corolla 2 or 3 lines long, white. — On saline or alkaline soil. 

3. CUSCUTA, Toum. Dodder. 

Calyx 5-4-cleft or parted. Corolla campanulate or short-tubular, the spreading limb 
5-4-parted. Styles in our species 2, distinct. Seeds germinating in the soil, but the 
thread-like, branching, leafless, yellowish or reddish twining stems becoming parasitic on 
the bark of herbs or small shrubs; being attached by means of suckers. Flowers small, 
cymose or densely clustered, white or whitish. 

• Capsule depressed-globose. 

1. C. Calif omica, Choisy. Flowers pedicelled in loose few-flowered cymes; lobes of 
the calyx acute; lobes of the corolla lanceolate-subulate, delicate white; no scales below 
the stamens. 

Var. breviflora, EngeL Flowers scarcely over a line long; calyx lobes equaling the 

88 soLANACRa;. (potato family.) 

Var. longiloba, EngeL Flowers IJ to 2J lines long; calyx-lobes often with recurved 
tips; capsule mostly only 1 -seeded, enveloped by the withered corolla. 

• * Capsule pointed, capped or enveloped by the withered corolla. 

2. C. salina, Engel. Flowers 1^ to 2J lines long delicate white; corolla lobes often 
overlapping, denticulate; capsule surrounded but not capped by the corolla, usually 
1-seeded. — Growing in saline marshes, usually on Salicornia. 

3. C. subinclusa, Dur. & Hilg. Flowers sessile or nearly so (at length in large 
clusters), 2\ to 4 lines long; lobes of the corolla short, the tube somewhat urn-shaped, 
only partly covered by the fleshy, usually reddish calyx.— The most common species 
growing on coarse herbs and shrubs. 

Order 42. SOLANACEiE. 

Herbs or shrubs, with alternate leaves and no stipules, regular 5-merous flowers on 
bractless pedicels, a single style and a 2-celled ovary; the fruit a many-seeded berry or 

This small order of, perhaps, not more than a dozen species west of the Sierra Nevada, 
and less than 70 ia North America, is remarkable for the diversity of properties exhibited 
by its members, and the almost universal use by man of several of its species. At first 
view, the classification seems absurd which puts fiery Cayenne pepper and insipid egg 
plants, the wholesome tomato and deadly night-shade, nutritious potatoes and poisonous 
tobacco together in one family. A careful examination shows that these seemingly very 
difi'erent plants are much alike after all. The four most important plants of tliis orJer— 
potato, tobacco, red or Cayenne pepper, and tomato — are natives of tropical America, 
and were consequently not used in the Old World before the sixteenth century. The 
following ornamental plants of the order are common in cultivation: Jerusalem Cherry 
{Solanum Pseudo-Capsicum), a small shrub, with red berries; Jasmine Solanum (S. Jas- 
minoides), a shrubby climber, with a profusion of nearly white blossoms a little smaller 
than those of the potato; the well-known Matrimony Vine {Lycium vulgare); Tree 
Datura or Stramonium (Datura arhorea), with hanging flowers six or seven inches in 
length; Cestrum, a shrub with drooping tubular red flowers in terminal bunches; and 
Petunia, with funnel-form corollas of various colors. 

Solanum Xanti, Gray, grows along the coast from Santa Barbara southward, and has been reported 
from Lake County. It is more herbaceous than S. wnbelliferum, and may be distinguished with the aid 
of a lens by its simple glandular hairs, instead of the branching hairs of the latter species. 

Physalis or Ground Cherry may bo found in cultivated ground. Its berries are enclosed by an 
Inflated calyx. 

Datura Mtteloides, DC, grows on the Salinas Eiver and southward. The flowers are white or vlolcl 
tinged, and 6 to 8 inches long, with a wide border; the capsule nodding. 


Corolla rotate; fruit a berry Solanum. 1 

Corolla funnel-form; capsule large, spiny Datura. 2 

Corolla funnel-form ; capsule smooth Nicotiana. 3 

1. SOLANUM, Toum. 
Lobes of the corolla valvate in the bud. Filaments short; anthers usually conniving. 
Style elongated. 

* Corolla small white; deeply 5-cleft. 

1. S. nigrum, L. (Black Nightshade.) Widely branching ; leaves usually ovate 
and sinuate toothed; flowers in umbellate clusters; berries black. Variable. 

Var. Douglasii, Gr. Leaves apt to be coarsely toothed; flowers sometimes half an 
inch broad. 

• * Corolla large, bltie, 5-angled. 

2. S. umbelliferum, Esch. Somewhat shrubby; flowers in umbel-like clusters, 
violet-blue to rarely white, about 9 lines broad. A variable species similar to S. Xanti, 
which is less shrubby and has larger flowers, a common species farther south. 

2. DATURA, L. Stramonium. 
Calyx prismatic, partly deciduous. Corolla with ample 6-pointed limb. Style lon^; 
stigma 2-lipped. Capsule spiny. 

1. D. StramoQium, L. Smooth, green; corolla white, about 3 inches long; cap- 
sule beset with short, stout prickles, the lower shorter. 

2. D. Tatula, L. Stem reddish-purple; corolla pale violet; prickles about equaL 

3. D. quercifolia, HBK. Green; corolla violet-tinged; prickles flattened, unequal, 
some an inch long. — Lower Russian River. 

3. NICOTIANA, Toum. Tobacco. 
Calyx campanulate or oblong, persistent. Corolla commonly funnel-form, the limb 
plaited. Style long; stigma capitate, somewhat 2-lobed. — Very viscid herbs. 

1. N. nistica, L. Leaves petioled, ovate, or the lower slightly cordate; corolla 
short and broad, dull white, less than an inch long. 

2. N. Bigelovii, Wat. Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, only the lower ones 
petioled, these scarcely exceeding 6 inches long; corolla nearly salver-form with tube IJ 
inches long, the limb an inch or more wide, its lobes acute. 

3. N. attenuata, Torr. (Slendee Tobacco.) Leaves petioled, the lower ovate or 
oblong, the upper lanceolate to linear lanceolate; calyx teeth short; corolla greenish 
white, salver-form, an inch or more long, and a half an inch or less across. Slender 
plants 3 or 4 feet high in cultivated ground. 

4. N. glauca, Graham. (Tobacco Tees.) A small tree, commonly cultivated; 
smooth, glaucous leaves long-petioled; tubular corolla greenish yellow, an inch or more 




A corolla more or less bilabiate, with the lobes imbricated in the bud; didynamous or 
diandrous stamens; a single style and a 2-celled ovary and capsule mark this large 
order. In Pentstemon there is a iifth rudimentary stamen. Verbasaim has five perfect 

Mimulus glutinosus. 

a. Ripe capsule of Mi- 
mulus luteus. b. The 
same seen edgewise burst- 
ing open. c. A cross 
section of the same, show- 
ing the placentae and 
seeds, d. Pistil of Mi- 
mulus luteus. e. Front 
view of one of the an- 
thers. /. Back view ol 
the same. Above these are the stamens of Mi- 
mulus glutinosus united in pairs. 

a. Single flower and bract of Pedicularis densi- 
flora (galea flattened laterally, the pistil protrud- 
ing; the lower lip of 3 small lobes, 2 of which 
are shown). b. A single flower of Castilleia. 

c. Single flower of Orthocarpus purpurascens. 

d. Front view of the same, with calyx removed. 
The lower lip (anterior or front part of the 
flower) 3-lobed, the galea beaked and surpassing 
the stigma. 

This large order, numbering nearly 2,000 species, is remarkable for the great Oeauty of 
fts flowers, and for the impartial distribution of its species over the whole world. Over 
300 species, belonging to 37 genera, are natives of the United States. About 75 species 
s?row east of the Mississippi, and about 100 west of the Sierra Nevada in this State. The 


most important American genera are Pentstemon, 75 species, found, with one exception, 
only in North America, and mostly within the limits of the United States between the 
Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada; Mimulus, represented iu other countries, but 
most largely in North America, where there are 30 species, about two thirds of which 
grow in California, west of the Sierra Nevada, only 2 species reaching the Atlantic 
States; Orthocarpus, 24 species, all North American, except one, and west of the 
Mississippi, 16 belonging to California; Gerardia, 24 species, mostly in the Atlantic 
States, and none reaching the Rocky Mountains; Castilleia, 23 species, 2 Asiatic, 3 in the 
Atlantic States, and 8 or 9 in California; Pedicularis, a large genus, mostly in the arctic 
regions and on high mountains of the temperate zone, 28 American species; Collinsia, 15 
species, all Califomian, except two, which grow in the Mississippi Valley. Several 
showy species of shrubby Veronicas are cultivated. This large genus, numbering 40 
species in New Zealand alone, is represented in the United States by only a few obscure 
herbs. Digitalis, commonly cultivated under the name of Foxglove, has run wild about 
Humboldt Bay and in the Willamette Valley. 

Many plants belonging to the genera Pentstemon, Collinsia, and Mimulus are culti- 
vated on account of their beautiful flowers. Pentstemons are mostly confined to hilly or 
mountainous districts. Collinsias grow everywhere. Most species of Mimulus prefer 
moist places, but the only shrubby species, M. gluiinoaus, grows on dry, rocky hillsides. 

Two species of Verbascum [Mullein) are found In the State, but probably not \rithin our limits; V. 
Thapsus, L., with woolly decnrrent leaves and V. virgatum. Withe., distinguished by nearly smooth not 
decurrent leaves and violet bearded filaments. 

* Leaves mostly alternate; corolla personate. 

Corolla spurred at base LinaricL 1 

Corolla gibbous at base Antirrliiaam. 2 

* * Leaves opposite or whorled. 
Corolla erect, the anterior lobe reflexed, the other 4 erect, a scale in the throat on 

the upper side Scrophularia. 3 

Corolla declined, the middle lower lobe infolding the stamens and style . . . Collinsia. 4 

Carolla with a fifth sterile filament on the upper side Pentstemon. 5 

Stigma 2-lipped or disk -like Mimulus. 6 

• * * Corolla rotate or short-campanulate. 

Calyx 5-toothed; corolla campanulate Limosella. 7 

Calyx 4-parted; corolla 4-lobed, rotate Veronica. 8 

• * * * Corolla tubular; the upper lip erect or incurved, laterally compressed, wrually en- 
closing the ascending stamens. 

Corolla narrow with almost obsolete lower lip Castilleia. 9 

Corolla with saccate lower lip of 3 lobes Orthocarpus. 10 


Lips of corolla, both short; the lower 3-crenulate Cordylanthus. H 

Upper lip of the corolla arched; many large radical leaves Pedicularis. 12 

1. LINARIA, Tourn. 

I Calyx 5-parted. Corolla with the throat nearly closed; the base in front (below) pro- 
j longed into a spur. 

1. L. Canadensis, Dum. (Toad Flax.) Smooth; leaves linear, alternate on the 
erect flowering stems, but smaller and broader ones often opposite or whorled on tha 
procumbent shoots; flowers blue in a terminal raceme. 

2. ANTIRRHINUM, Toum. Snapdragon. 

Like Linaria, except that the corolla has a saccate protuberance instead of a spur. In 
ours the upper lip is spreading and the lower lobes deflexed. 

1. A. glandalosum, Lindl. Glandular and viscid; leaves lanceolate, mostly sessile; 
flowers in a dense spike or raceme, half an inch or more long, pink with yellowish 

9.. A. vagans, Gr. Very diffuse, often glandular, branchlets frequently prehensile; 
leaves short, lanceolate to ovate; flowers scattered, purplish blue, half an inch loug. 

Var. Bolanderi, Gr. Has broader and thinner leaves, those on the prehensile branch- 
lets orbicular. 

3. A. Breweri, Gr. Has smaller flowers, only 3 lines long; style strongly deflexed. 

3. SCROPHITLARIA, Toum. Figwoet. 

Calyx deeply 5-cleft, the lobes broad. Corolla short, with an oblong tube unequally 
5-lobed, 4 erect, the two upper the longer. Stamens 4, inserted in pairs, low down on 
the corolla tube, a rudiment of the fifth stamen in the form of a scale above. Coarse 
herbs, with inconspicuous flowers. 

j I. S. Califomica, Cham. Nearly smooth, 2 to 6 ft. high, with deltoid or truncate- 
{ovate doubly toothed opposite leaves; flowers small greenish or lurid red (rarely yellow) 
in a terminal thyrsus, 

4. COLLINSIA, Nutt. 

Calyx deeply 5-cleft. Corolla with the tube gibbous or saccate on the upper side, 
commonly declined, conspicuously bilabiate; the upper lip 2-cleft, and its lobes recurv- 
ing; the lower 3-lobed and larger, its side lobes pendulous-spreading, the middle ono 
folded into a keel-shaped sac and including the declined stamens and style. Stamens in 
pairs, with long filaments, anthers round-reniform. A gland at the base of the corolla on 
the upper side answers to the fifth stamen. — Beautiful annuals with simple opposite or 
whorled leaves, all but the lower sessile; pedicels solitary or whorled in the axils of leavei 
uliich diminish to small bracts above. 


* Flowers short-pediceled or nearly sessile, verticillate. 

1. C. bicolor, Benth. A foot or more high; leaves oblong-lanoeolate, the upper 
nsually ovate-lanceolate and sessile by a nervose veined base; pedicels shorter than the 
acute lobes of the calyx; the lower lip or the corolla violet or rose-purple and the upper 
paler to nearly white; the saccate throat very oblique to the true tube, fully as broad as 
long; gland short. — The most showy species, with flowers nearly aa inch long. 

2. C. tinctoria, Hartw. Foliage, etc., like the preceding; generally more viscid- 
pubescent; flowers almost sessile; corolla yellowish, cream-color, or white, usually with 
purple dots or lines; upper lip very short. — East side of Sacramento Valley. 

3. C. bartsiaefolia, Benth. Puberulent and somewhat glandular; leaves from ovate- 
oblong to linear: flower-whorls 2 to 6, rarely only one; the lateral lobes of the lower lip 
emarginate or obcordate; gland elongated. Flowers nearly as large as the preceding, 
purplish, pale violet, or whitish; upper lip with a transverse callosity at the origin of th« 

4. C. Greenei, Gr. Upper lip of the violet purple corolla about half the length ol 
the lower, crested below with a pair of callous teeth on each side connected by a ridge. 
Corolla 5 lines long. — Lake County. 

* * Flowers on slender pedicels, solitary or umbellate'whorled. 

6. C. sparsiflora, Fisch. & Mey. Slender; tipper leaves linear-oblong or linear- 
lanceolate, merely opposite or the upper minute floral bracts in threes; pedicels solitary 
in the axils, longer or shorter than the flower which is 4 to 8 lines long; corolla mostly 
violet; the upper lip and the middle lobe of the lower commonly yellowish and purple- 
dotted; calyx usually purple-tinged. 

7. C. parviflora, Dough Low, at length diffuse about a span high; the blue, or 
partly white flowers solitary or 2 to 5 in a whorl, 2 to 4 lines long; stigma cleft, gland 
capitate, short-stipitate. 

5. PENTSTEMON, Mitch. 
Calyx 5-parted. Corolla with a conspicuous mostly elongated or ventricose tube; the 
limb more or less bilabiate; upper lip 2-lobed; the lower 3-cleft, recurved or spreading. — 
The conspicuous sterile filament strongly marks the genus, remarkable for its many beau- 
tiful species. (See Addenda. ) 

1. P. Menziesii, Hook. Tufted at the woody base, a span to a foot high; leaves oval 
or ovate, a half to an inch long; corolla about an inch long, pink-red; anthers with the 
diverging cells long- woolly. Mt. St. Helena, Mrs. M. L. Sweti. 

2. P. coryinbosus, Benth. A foot or two high, soft-pubescent or nearly smooth, 
leafy to the tip; corolla scarlet, an inch long; anthers smooth; steril filament, bearded 
down one side. 

3. P. breviflorus, LindL 3 to 6 ft. high, with long, slender, flowering branches; 
torolla yellowish with flesh-color, striped within with pink, about half an inch long; the 
tpper lip beset with long viscid hairs; sterile filament naked. 


4. P. Lemmoni, Gr. Is smaller and may be distinguished from the last by its 
yellow bearded sterile filament. 

5. P. heterophyllus, Lindl. Stems 1 to 5 ft. high from a woody base; leave» lan- 
ceolate or linear; corolla an inch or more in length, ventricose, rose-purple or pmk chang- 
ing to violet, an inch or more in length. Difficult to distinguish from the next. — Coast 

6. P. azureus, Benth. Usually smaller than the last; the larger corolla azure blue 
changing to violet; the base sometimes reddish; the expanded limb sometimes an inch 

broad. — Sierra Nevada. 



Calyx mostly plicately o-angled. CoroUa funnel-form, with the included or rarely 
exserted tube bilabiately 5-lobed; the lobes roundish, more or less spreading or the 
upper turned back; a pair of ridges running down the lower side of the throat. The 
anthers often approximate in pairs, their cells divergent. The lobes of the stigma com- 
monly petaloid-dilated or peltate-funnelform- — Flowers axillary on simple peduncles; 
commonly showy. 

1. M. tricolor, LindL Stem, when beginning to flower, only a quarter of an inch 
high, at length 3 inches. Corolla about 1^ inches long, with a long exserted slender 
tube, a short funnelform throat, and similar nearly equal lobes; pink, with a crimson 
spot on the base of each lobe, a yeUow stain along the lower lip. Leaves sessile. 

2. M. Douglasii, Gr. Similar to the last; leaves contracted into a petiole; lower 
lip of the coroUa much shorter than the erect upper one or even obsolete; the throat 
more ample. Stem from a J to 6 inches high. 

\ 3. M. glutinosus, Wendl. A brittle-stemmed shrub, 2 to 6 ft. high, with thick 
glutinous-sticky leaves and mostly buff or salmon-colored flowers, but r unnin g into 
varieties with red, red-brown, or scarlet flowers. 

4. M. cardinalis, Dougl. Villous, with viscid hairs; the large leaves ovate, the 
upper often connate; corolla frequently 2 inches long; the tube hardly exceeding the long 
calyx, the limb very obUque, scarlet. — Along water courses. 

5. M. luteus, L, Mostly smooth, varying greatly in size from a foot to even 4 ft. 
high; leaves ovate oval or cordate; corolla deep yellow, usually spotted within, and 
the base of the lower lip blotched with brown-purple, from 1 to 2 inches long. Moist 

6. M. inconspicuus, Gr. Smooth, 2 to 7 inches high; the ovate or lanceolate 
leaves sessile, a half inch or less long; corolla 5 lines long, yellow or rose-color; calyx 
teeth very short. 

7. M. moschatus, Dougl. (Musk Plant.) Very villous and usually musk-scented; 
stems spreading and creeping; flowers yellow. — Our form is chiefly 

Var. longiflorus, Gr., with 'very clammy leaves and flowers an inch long, scarcely 


8. M, pilosus, Wat. A span to a foot high, much branched, soft, villous and 
•lightly viscid, many flowered from near the base; leaves lanceolate to narrowly oblonf^ 
•essile, entire; calyx tube not prismatic; corolla yellow, obscurely bilabiate, 3 or 4 linea 
long, usually a pair of brown-purple spots on the lower lobe. 


Calyx campanulate. Corolla rotate-campanulate, nearly regular. Style short; stigma 
thickish. — Diminutive annuals, with narrow fleshy leaves in clusters around the 1 -flow- 
ered scapes. Flower small, white or purplish. 

1. L. aquatica, L. An inch to a span high, growing in brackish mud or in fresh 


The lower lobe and sometimes the lateral ones of the rotate corolla sometimes smallep 
than the others. Stamens 2, one on each side of the upper lobe of the corolla. Cap- 
sules compressed. Flowers small (a line or two broad), in racemes or spikes, or solitary 
in the axils; blue, purplish, or white. 

1. v. Americana, Schw. Stems a span to two feet long; leaves ovate or oblong, 
serrate, rather succulent, short-petioled, an inch or two long, opposite. Flowers in axil- 
lary racemes, bluish, with purple stripes. Common in damp places. 

2. V. peregrina, L. A span or more high, all the upper leaves alternate, linear- 
oblong; flowers minute, in the axils of the leaves, and mostly narrow bracts; capsola 

9. CASTHiLEIA, Mutis. Patnted-Cup. 

Calyx tubular, more or less cleft in front or behind, or both; the lobes 2 and lateral, or 
4. CoroUa tubular, laterally compressed, especially the long upper lip (galea) ; the lower 
lip very short or minute, 3-toothed, and somewhat saccate below the short teeth; the 
tube usually inclosed in the calyx. Stamens 4, inclosed in the galea; anthers 2-celled, 
the long cells unequal, the outer fixed by the middle, the inner ones smaller, pendulous. 
Style long; the capitate stigma sometimes 2-lobed. Herbs, sometimes woody at the base, 
with mostly alternate, sessile leaves, the floral ones or their tips, as well as the calyx 
lobes, commonly petaloid and colored red, yellow, or white. Flowers in terminal, simple, 
leafy spikes. 

1. C. a£Bnis, Hook. & Am. Annual; a foot or two high; leaves narrowly lanceo- 
late, entire; the upper floral bracts usually broader, the apex toothed, red; spike with 
scattered, frequently pedicellate flowers below; calyx red; an inch long, its front fissure 
hardly twice as deep as the back one, the narrow lobes acutely 2-cleft; corolla 1 to IJ 
inches long, exserted so as to expose the callous lip; the galea about equal to the tube, 
yellowish or tipped with red. 

2 C. latifolia, Hook. & Am. Perennial (as are all the following): branching from 


the base, 1 or 2 ft. high, villoua-hirsnte and viscid; leaves oval, obtuse, half an inch or 
more long, some above 3-5-lobed and red; calyx 2-cleft to the middle, the lobes entire or 
emarginate, almost equaling the coroUa; corolla 8 lines long, the short teeth of the lip 

3. C. parviflora, Bong. A span to 2 ft. high, villous-hirsute above; leaves variously 
cleft into linear or lanceolate lobes, or sometimes the canline are mainly entire and nar- 
row; calyx lobes oblong and 2-cleft at the apex or to below the middle; corolla an inch or 
less long; only the upper part of the narrow galea exserted — A variable species. As in 
the preceding species, the bracts and calyx are usually colored red or crimson, but some- 
times varying to yellow or even white. 

4. C. miniata, DougL Commonly 2 ft. high, strict, often slender; leaves lanceolate 
or linear-lanceolate, almost always entire, the broad floral ones of the close spike some- 
times incised or 3-cleft, usually bright red, rarely whitish; calyx lobes lanceolate, acutely 
2-cleft; corolla over an inch long, exserted, exposing the short ovate teeth of the lip. 

5. C. foliolosa, Hook. & Am. Densely white-woolly, the matted haira loosened with 
age; many-stemmed from a woody base; leaves narrowly linear, an inch or less long, 
crowded below and fascicled in the axils. 


Chiefly distinguished from Castillda by the upper lip of the oorolla (galea) which but 
little, if at all, surpasses the usually more conspicuous and inflated 1-3-saccate lower 

§ 1. CASTlLLElorDES, Gr. — Lower lip of the corolla simply or somewhat triply saccate, and 
bearing 3 conspicuous teeth; the galea broadish or narrow; stigma capitate; anthers aU 
2-celled; bracts with colored tips. 
• Filaments smooth; galea straight or nearly so, naked, narrow; the lip moderately 
ventricose ; its teeth erect. 

1. O. attenuatus, Gr. Slender, strict, a span or two high, mostly simple; leaves 
linear and attenuate, often with a pair of filiform lobes; spike slender; lower flowers 
scattered; bracts with slender lobes barely white-tipped; corolla narrow, half an inch 
long, white or whitish; narrow teeth of the purple-spotted lip nearly equaling the galea. 

2. O. densiflorus, Benth. Erect or diffusely branched from the base 6 to 12 inches 
high; spike dense, many flowered, at length cylindrical, or lowest flowers rather distant: 
bracts 3-cleft, about equaling the flowers, their linear lobes purple and white; corolla 
from 8 to 12 lines long, the tips usually purplish, the teeth of the lip shorter than the 

3. O. castilleioides, Benth. At length difiuse and corymbosely branched; leaves from 
lanceolate to oblong, usually laciniate; the upper and the bracts cimeate-dilated and 
incisely cleft, green or the obtuse tips whitish or yellowish; spikes dense, short and thick: 
corolla nearly an inch long, dull white or purplish-tipped; lip ventricose-dilated. 


• * Filaments pubescent ; galea densely red-bearded ; the obtuse tip incurved. 

4. O. purpurascens, Benth. Bracts and corolla usually crimson to rose-color. 
Distinguished by the bearded, hooked galea, and large stigma. 

§ 2. Triphtsakia, Benth, — Lower lip of the corolla conspicuously S-saccate, and very much 
larger than the slender galea, its teeth small, the tube filiform; stigma capitate, some- 
times 2-lobed; bracts like the leaves and not colored. 

5. O. pusillus, Benth. Small and weak or diffuse, branched from the base, 3 or 4 
inches high; leaves 1-2-pinnatifid, and bracts 3-5-parted into filiform divisions; flowers 
scattered, inconspicuous, shorter than the bracts; corolla purplish, 2 or 3 lines long; lip 
moderately 3-lobed; galea soon exposing the stamens. 

6. O. floribundus, Benth. Slender, erect, 4 to 12 inches high; spike many-flowered, 
dense above; corolla white or cream-color, half an inch long; the tube twice the length 
of the calyx; stamens about the length of the soon open galea; the lip with 3 divergent 
oval sacs, their scarious teeth erect. 

7. O. erianthus, Benth. Erect, a span or more high, much branched, pubescent; 
corolla sulphur-yellow, with the slightly falcate galea brown-purple; tube 6 to 8 lines 
long, filiform, densely pubescent, thrice the length of the calyx; the lip of 3 globular- 
inflated sacs, 1 to 2 lines long; the galea subulate, inclosing the stamens more strictly 
than the preceding. 

Var. roseus, Gr. Corolla rose-purple, shorter. 

8. O. fiaucibarbatus, Gr. Nearly smooth, less branched, and leaves with coarser 
divisions than the last; corolla with smaller sacs and less beard within the lip; th« 
straight galea pale. 

9. O. lithospermoides, Benth. Hirsute above; stem 4 to 12 inches high, strict, 
mostly simple, very leafy; bracts of the dense many-flowered spike about equaling the 
flowers; corolla an inch or less long, cream-color, often taming pale rose-color; sacs 3 
lines deep; the teeth inconspicuous; anthers 2-celled. 


Calyx of an anterior and a posterior leaf -like division, or the former wanting. Corolla 
tubular, a little enlarging upward; the lips short and of nearly equal length; the lower 
very obtusely and crenulately 3-toothed; the upper straight and compressed, with tha 
apex incurved. Style mostly hooked at the tip. — Branching annuals with alternate nar- 
row leaves either entire or 3-5-parted; the floral ones not brightly colored. Flowers one 
to each bract, dull-colored, yellowish or purplish; the corolla not much exceeding th« 

§ 1. Adenostegia, Gr. — Calyx 2-leaved; fawers short pediceled or nearly sessile, «ui> 

tended by 2 to 4^£ictlets; floral leaves and bracts tipped with a gland. 
1. C. filifolius, Nutt. A foot or two high; leaves filiform; the lower entire, t* t 


upper 3-5-parted, the floral with cuneate base and ciliate margins; corolla purplish, C to 
9 lines long, 

2. C. pilosus, Gr, Larger, soft-villoua and hoary; the floral leaves 3-toothed at the 
tip; corolla yellowish with some purple, less than an inch long. 

§ 2. Hemistegia, Gr. — Calyx 1-leaved; flowers vnthout hractlets, each sessile in the axil 
of a claspiny bract; no glands at the tips of the leaves. 

3. C. maritiinus, Nutt. Leaves smooth, somewhat fleshy, all entire; flowers in a 
capitate spike; corolla dull-purplish; pairs of filaments very unequaL — Li salt marshes. 

4. C. mollis, Gr. Stamens only 2, with smooth filaments; the upper leaves toothed 
or pinnatifid. — Salt marshes. 


Calyx 2-5-toothed, irregular. Corolla strongly bilabiate; the galea arched and laterally 
compressed; the lip 2-crested above, 3-lobed. Stamens 4, inclosed in the galea; anthers 
transverse, equally 2-ceUed. 

1. P. densiflora, Benth. Nearly smooth, stout, becoming a foot or more high; 
leaves broad-lanceolate in outline, twice-pinnatifid or pinnately parted, and the divisions 
irregularly and sharply incised or toothed; the upper bracts of the dense elongated spike 
or raceme simpler; calyx-teeth, 5; corolla red or scarlet. 


Root-parasitic herbs, destitute of leaves and green color. Distinguished from Scroph- 
ulariacecB by the 1-celled ovary. 

1. APHYLLON, Mitch. 

Calyx 5-cleft, or 5-parted, regular or nearly so. Corolla tubular and curved, almost 
regular, or bilabiate. Stamens included; cells of the anthers deeply separated from below 
upward, mucronate at base. Stigma peltate or bilameUar. — Low pale or brownish herbs; 
the flowers yellowish or purplish. 

* Scapes or peduncles naked; corolla with an almost regular 5-lohed border. 

1. A. unifloruin, Gr. CoraUa about an inch long, bluish purple, violet-scented. 

2. A. fasciculatum, Gr. Scaly stem rising out of the ground 2 or 3 inches, bearing 
many peduncles; lobes of the calyx not longer than the tube; flowers dull yellow or 

* Stems rising above the ground; flowers bracteate; corolla plainly bilabiate, 

3. A. comosum, Gr. Low, branching at or near the surface of the ground; flowers 


on slender pedicles in a corymb or short raceme; corolla rose-purple or purple, an inch 
or more long, or twice the length of the deeply parted calyx; anthers woolly. 

4. A. Califomicum, Gr. Flowers crowded in an oblong thyrsus or raceme; calyx 
lobes nearly equaling the tube of the yellowish or purplish corolla; anthers smooth or 
nearly so. 

5. A. tuberosum, G. Flowers small, sessile in a compact cluster; yellowish, 
BoschniaJeia ttrobilacea, Gr., if found may be known by its resemblance to a spruce cone, 3 or 4 

Inches long, the flowers striped with white and brownish red; scale-like bracts brown. 

Oeder 45. LABIATiE. 

Chiefly aromatic herbs with square stems, opposite simple leaves, and no stipules, 
bilabiate corolla, didynamous or diandrous stamens, and a 4-lobed ovary with a single 
style, forming seed -like nutlets in the bottom of the persistent calyx. — Flowers perfect, 
axillary. Calyx 3-5-toothed or cleft, or bilabiate. Stamens on the tubes of the corolla. 
Style, 2-cleft at the apex; often unequally so, or one of the lobes obsolete; stigmas 

Tribe 1. SATUREIEiE. Stamens erect or ascending; the posterior pair shorter 
or wanting; anthers 2-celled, and the short lobes never far separated, sometimes partly 
confluent but not blended. Upper lip of the corolla never hooded; ail the lobes flat or 
nearly so. 

• The small corolla about equally 4-lobed; tube naked within. 

Stamens 4, nearly equal Mentha. 1 

Stamens 2, with anthers; posterior pair sterile or wanting Lycopus. 2 

* * Corolla bilabiate; no hairy ring within the base of the tube. 
-f- Calyx about equally 5-toothed and iS-nerved; style beardless. 
Flowers glomerate-capitate. Stamens 4, straight. 

Stamens distant and divergent Pycnanthemum. 3 

Stamens exserted Monardella. 4 

Flowers solitary or clustered in the axils. 
Stamens 4, curving, shorter than the corolla Micromeria, 5 

+- +- Calyx unequally and deeply 5-cleft, mostly 15-nerved; style bearded above. 
Stamens 4, sometimes the upper pair sterile Pogogyne. 6 

* * * Corolla not Tnanifestly bilabiate; a Jiairy ring at the base of the tube within. 
Shrubby. Flowers large, campanulate Sphacele. 7 

Tribe 2. Mon arde^e. Stamens only 2, fertile, the upper pair rudimentary or want- 
tag; anthers apparently or really of a single linear-oblong cell, or of 2 cells widely sep- 
•rated upon the ends of a filament-like connective. 


Connective longer than the filament itself, which it strides, a narrow anther- 
cell at its upper end, a smaller one or a long process at the lower. Salvia. 8 

Connective much shorter than the slender filament and continuous or barely 
articulated with its apex, or apparently none; anther 1 -celled, no rudi- 
ment of the second ceU below Audibertia. 9 

Tribe 3. Stachtde^. Stamens 4, with anthers, ascending and parallel under the 
concave or galeate upper lip of the corolla. Calyx 5-10-nerved. Herbage less aromatic 
than the preceding tribes. 

Calyx with a projection on the upper side, casque-shaped Scutellaria. 10 

Calyx bilabiate. Filaments 2-forked, one fork bearing the anther Brunella. 11 

Calyx 5-10-nerved, nearly equally 5-toothed Stachys. 12 

Tribe 4. AjtrGorDKffi. Stamens parallel, and protruding from the cleft on the upper 
side of the corolla; the anterior longer. 
Corolla with 5 similar oblong lobes Trichostema. 13 

1. MENTHA, L. Mint. 

Calyx about equally 5-toothed. Corolla with a short included tube, and a campanulate 
border; the upper lobe broadest, entire or emarginate. Odorous herbs, with very small 
flowers in dense clusters forming an apparent whorl in the axils or spikate at the tops of 
the branches. 

1. M. Canadensis, L. Leaves from oblong-ovate to almost lanceolate, sharply ser- 
rate, acute, short-petioled; flowers all in axillary clusters, whitish or purplish. 

2, LYCOPUS, Toum. Watek Horehound. 

Chiefly distinguished from Mentha by the stamens. Flowers white, in false whorls. 
1. L. lucidus, Turcz., var. Americanus, Grl The subterranean runners producing 
Rubers; leaves lanceolate, 2 to 4 inches long, coarsely serrate, sessile or nearly so. 


Corolla short, with tube hardly exceeding the calyx. Anther-cells close and parallel 
Perennial erect herbs with smaU flowers. 

1. P. Califomicum, Torr. About 2 feet high, corymbosely branched, sweet-odor- 
ous, whitened with soft pubescence, or in age smoothish : leaves from ovate to ovate-lan- 
oeolate, closely sessile by a slightly cordate or roimdish base, sparingly denticulate or 
entire; heads of dowers very dense at the summit, white-viUous; flowers whitish. 

4. MONARDELLA, Benth. 

Marked by the flowers compacted in terminal heads involucrate with bracts, flesh-coloir 
or purpio. 

LABIATE. (mint family.) 99 

* Perennial, in tufts from a procumbent and almost woody base. 

1. M. villosa, Benth. Soft-pubescent or villous a foot or two high; leaves ovate, 
often with a few obtuse teeth, being 6 to 10 lines long, petioled. Sometimes nearly 

* * Annual; leaves entire or undulate. 

2. M. undulata, Benth. A span to a foot or more high; leaves from oblong 
Bpatulate to nearly linear with a narrowed base, obtuse, undulate-margined, about an inch 
long; bracts and calyx villous; corolla rose-color. Has the odor of Peppermint. 

3. M. Breweri, Gr. A span or more high; leaves oblong or ovate, pinnately veined, 
the larger an inch long; bracts broadly ovate, cuspidate, whitish-scarious, the outer 
pinnately and the inner nervosely 7-9-ribbed; corolla rose-purple. 

4. M. Douglasii, Benth. Loosely branched; leaves lanceolate, an inch long, taper- 
ing into the petiok; the silvery white or purple-tinged bracts mostly transparent, with a 
strong marginal vein connected with the midrib by pinnate veins — Strong-scented; co- 
rolla deep rose-color. 

5. MICROMERIA, Benth. 

Calyx not gibbous. Corolla short; upper lip erect, flattish, entire or emarginate; 
lower spreading, 3-parted. — Low plants, sweet-odorous, with small axillary flowers. 

1. M. Douglasii, Benth. Yerba Bttena. Perennial herb, with long slender creep- 
ing and trailing stems; leaves round-ovate, thin, sparingly toothed, short petioled, an 
inch long or less; flowers mostly solitary on a long filiform 2-bracteolate peduncle; co- 
rolla purplish or white, 4 lines long. 

2. M. purpurea, Gr. Erect, much branched; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, sparsely 
■errate; flowers in umbel-like clusters; corolla purple-blue, 2 lines long. 

6. POGOGYNE, Benth. 

Calyx cleft to below the middle; the 2 lower teeth longer; corolla straight, tubular- 
funnelform, with short lips; the erect and entire upper lip and the three lobes of the 
spreading lower one oval and somewhat alike. Stamens with the upper shorter pair 
sometimes sterile; the anther cells parallel and pointless. Style somewhat exserted, 
bearded above. — Low annuals, sweet-aromatic; with oblong or oblanceolated leaves nar- 
rowed into a petiole; flowers mostly crowded and interrupted spicate; bracts and calyx 
hirsnte-ciliate; the corolla blue or purplish. 

• Stamens all four with anthers; style conspicuously bearded above, and its subulate lobea 
almost *,qual; corolla 6 to 9 lines long; flowers densely crowded into an oblong cylindri- 
cal spike, which is conspicuously white-hirsute with tlie long, stiff, ciliate hairs of the 
1. P. Douglasii, Benth. Rather stout, a span to a foot high; leaves veiny, some- 

100 LABIATE. (mint FAMILX.) 

times sparingly toothed; bracts linear, acute; lower lobes of the calyx mnch longer than 
the others. 

2. P. parviflora, Benth. Smaller; bracts mostly obtuse; corolla 5 or 6 lines long. 

* * Upp^i" stamens sterile; style sparingly hairy, its lobes very unequal; fiowers barely S lines 


3. P. serp7lloides, Gr. Stems 3 to 6 inches high; leaves obovate-oval or spatulate, 
2 or 3 lines long; lower flowers remote and often solitary; the upper usually interruptedly 

7. SPHACELE, Benth. 

Calyx thin, membranaceous and reticulated. Corolla with 5 broad, rather erect lobes, 
the lower one longest. Anther cells diverging. Somewhat shrubby, veiny-leaved. 

S. calycina, Benth. Villoua-pubescent or tomentose, leafy, 2 to 5 ft. high; leaves 2 
to 4 inches long, ovate or oblong crenate or serrate, or almost entire; the floral, ovate- 
lanceolate, sessile; flowers an inch long, mostly solitary in the upper axils, purplish or 

8. SALVIA, L. Sage- 

Calyx bilabiate. CoroUa deeply 2-lipped, the upper lip erect, straight or falcate, 
2-lobed, the lower spreading or drooping, its middle lobe sometimes notched or obcor- 
date. In our species the upper lip of the calyx is longer than the lower, 3-2-toothed; the 
lower 2-parted; the teeth spinulose; corolla ringent 

1. S. carduacea, Benth. White-woolly with cobwebby hairs; stems nearly naked, 
•rarrounded at the base with thistle-like leaves; head-like false whorls 1 to 4, an inch or 
more in diameter, about equaling the involucre of spiny-toothed bracts; corolla 10 to 12 
lines long, blue or purple. 

2. S. Columbariae, Benth. (Chia.) Soft pubescent; flower whorls lor 2; in volu- 
crate bracts, sometimes purplish; corolla 3 or 4 lines long, blue; leaves not spinescent 

9. AUDIBERTIA, Benth. 

Sufficiently distinguished from Salvia in the synopsis. — Mostly hoary perennials, her- 
baceous or shrubby; with rugose-veiny, crenulate, sage-like leaves, and densely capitate- 
glomerate flowers. 

1. A. grandiflora, Benth. Stems 1 to 3 feet high from a somewhat woody base; 
lower leaves 3 to 8 inches long; floral ones broadly ovate and membranaceous; corolla an 
inch and a half long; purple-crimson; stamens much exserted- 

2. A. hiunilis, Benth. A span high, cespitose; leaves mainly radical; spike of 3 or 
4 small, sessile, head-like clusters; coroUa half an inch longer less, bluish purple. 

3. A. stachyoides, Benth. Shrubby, 3 to 8 feet high; style and stamens little 
exserted; cort^ila about as the last. 

liABUTJi:. (mint FATVm.Y.) 101 

10. SCUTELLARIA, L. Skullcap. 

Calyx^ with two entire lips and a gibbous projection on tlie back, closed after flower- 
ing. Corolla, with an elongated and curved ascending tube, a dilated throat, an erect 
arched or galeate upper lip, with which the lateral lobes appear to be connected; the 
anterior lobe appearing to form the whole lower lip. — Herbs, not aromatic; with single 
axillary, rather conspicuous flowers. 

1. S. angustifolia, Pursh. A span to a foot high; leaves about an inch long; the 
radical ones often roundish or even cordate; corolla blue or violet, an inch long, with a 
slender tube; lower lobe villous inside. — Ours is mainly 

Var. canescens, Gr. A form with soft, hoary pubescence, and the tube of the 
corolla bent so as to throw the upper part backward. 

2. S. Califomica, Gr. Puberulent; stems 8 to 20 inches high, slender; leaves 
from lanceolate-oblong to oval-ovate; the lower an inch or more long, often serrate; upper 
gradually reduced to half an inch or less; lips of the yellowish corolla about equal. 

3. S. tuberosa, Benth. Soft, pubescent or villous; stems slender, erect and short, 
or trailing a foot in length; the filiform subterranean shoots bearing tubers; leaves mostly 
ovate, coarsely and obtusely few-toothed or entire, 5 to 18 lines long; corolla deep blue 
or violet 

11. BRUNELLA, Toum. Self-heal. 

Calyx-Ups closed in fruit. Corolla with ascending tube, open lips, and slightly-con- 
tracted orifice; upper lip arched and entire; lower 3-lobed, its middle lobe drooping, 
rounded, concave, denticulate. — Low perennials, the flowers crowded in a terminal ob- 
long or cylindraceous head or spike. 

1. B. vulgaris, L. A span to a foot or more in height; leaves ovate or oblong, slen- 
der-petioled; corolla violet, purple, or rarely white; calyx purplish. 

12. STACHYS, L. 

Corolla with cylindrical tube not dilated at the throat; the upper lip erect and concave 
or arched; the lower spreading, its middle lobe larger. Stamens ascending under the 
upper lip; filaments naked; anthers approximate in pairs, 2-celled. — Herbs, not aro- 
matic, with flowers clustered, capitate, or scattered, often spicate at the end of the 
branches; flowers sessile or nearly so. 

• Corolla white or whitish; the upper Up bearded or woolly on the bach; herbage tomentose 
or soft hairy. 
1. S. ajugoides, Benth. A span to a foot high; silky-villous with whitish hairs; 
leaves oblong, very obtuse, crenately serrate, 1 to 3 inches long, the upper sessile; flow- 
ers about 3 in the axils of the distant upper leaves, and loosely leafy-spicate at the sum- 
mit. — Moist ground- 


2. S. albens, Gr. Soft-tomentose with whitish wool, 3 to 5 ft. high; leaves mostly 
cordate at base, obtuse, crenate, 2 or 3 inches long; flowers several or many in capitate 
clusters which usually exceed the small floral leaves and form an interrupted spike; corolla 
white with purple dots on the lower lip. 

3. S. pycnantha, Benth. Very hirsute, with long and mostly soft spreading hairs, 
not white, two feet high or more; flowers in a dense cylindraceous naked spike (an inch 
or two long), exceeding the small bract-hke floral leaves except in the lowest and some- 
times rather distant clusters; corolla white or cream-color, with purple on the lower lip. (?) 

• * Corolla purple, the upper lip hairy on the back; pubescence somewhat hispid; notomentum. 

4. S. bullata, Benth. Stem retrorsely hispid, especially on the angles, 1 to 3 ft. 
high; leaves somewhat rugose, nearly all petioled, 1 to 2 inches long; flowers usually 6 in 
the false whorls, these rather distant, forming a narrow interrupted spike; lower lip of 
the corolla fully as long as the tube, 4 or 5 lines long, the upper half as long. — Variable. 

• * * Tube of the rose-red corolla twice ow long as the calyx, 6 to 9 lines long. 

5. S, Chamissonis, Benth. Stem 2 to 5 ft. high, stout, mostly rough-hispid, with 
retrorse rigid bristles; leaves 2 to 5 inches long; lips of the corolla pubescent outside. — 
Wet ground. 

13. TRICHOSTISMA, L. Blue-citrls. 

Calyx campanulate and almost equally 5-cleft. Corolla with short or slender tube and 
an almost equally 5-parted limb. Stamens with long capillary curved filaments, some- 
times cohering at the base. — Strong scented herbs; with entire leaves, and blue or purple 
corolla and stamens. In ours the flowers are in cymose axillary clusters, somewhat 
raceme-like in age; the corolla about 5 lines long, and the stamens twice as long or more. 

1. T. lazum, Gr. Minutely soft pubescent, about a foot high, simple or loosely 
branched from the base; leaves rather distant, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, tapering 
into a petiole at the base; flower clusters distinctly peduncled, usually forked and in 
age equaling the leaves; corolla almost smooth. 

2. T. lanceolatum, Benth. Leafy; leaves much longer than the internodes, lance- 
olate or ovate-lanceolate, sessile by a broad base, 3-5-nerved, an inch or less long; flower 
clusters nearly sessile, short, one-sided; corolla somewhat pubescent. — Its odor sicken- 
ing, tarry. 

Obder 46. VERBENACE-ai. 

Herbs or shrubs diflfering from Labiaice mainly in the ovary and fruit, which is undi- 
vided and 2-4-celled, at maturity either dry and splitting into as many l-seeded nutlrta, 
or drupaceous, containing as many little stones. 



Calyx 5-toothed, one tooth often shorter. Corolla salver- form, the limb unequally 
5-cleft. Stamens included, the upper pair sometimes sterile. Stigma unequally lobed. 
Ovary 4-celled. — Herbs with small flowers, ours about 2 lines in diameter. 

1. V. officinalis, L. Some of the lower leaves pinnatifid; spikes mostly solitary, 
filiform; corolla purple or lilac, 2 or more lines in diameter. 

2. V. hastata, L. Stouter and taller, 3 to 6 ft. high; leaves serrate or incised, the 
lower liastate-3-lobed; spikes panicled, densely flowered; corolla blue, 2 lines in diameter. 

3. V. prostrata, E. Br. Soft hirsute, diffuse, a foot high; villous spikes long; 
corolla violet or blue. 

Stemless herbs with flowers in spikes, the 4-cleft regular corolla dry and scarious. 


Flowers in spikes or heads, bracteate. Calyx of 4 persistent sepals free from the ovary. 
Stamens 2 or 4 on the corolla alternate with its lobes, anthers versatile. Style filiform, 
bearded above. — Stemless herbs with nerved or ribbed radical leaves and naked scapes of 
•mall greenish flowers. 

* Flowers with 4 stameTis. 

1. P. major, L. Mostly smooth; leaves ovate or broadly oblong, abruptly con- 
tracted into a channeled petiole, 5-7-ribbed; spike long and slender; capsule 7-16-seeded. 

2. P. hirtella, HBK. Leaves smooth, rather fleshy, oblanceolate to obovate, 3-7- 
ribbed, tapering into a narrow base or wing-margined petiole; scape 1 to 3 ft. high; 
flowers large. 

3. P. lanceolata, L. Mostly hairy; leaves lanceolate, 3-5-ribbed; scape deeply 

4. P. maritima, L. Leaves linear, fleshy; scapes usually short. 

5. P. Patagonica, Jacq. Leaves linear to fiUform, thin, usually silky-woolly. — Dry 

• * Flowers with S stamens. 

6. P Bigelovil Or. Leaves linear; small — Salt marshes. 



Twining shrubs or low herbs -with perfect flowers, the conspicuous lurid calyx valvate 
in the bud and coherent with the 6-celled ovary, which forms a many-seeded 6-celled, 
pod or berry in fruit. Stamens 6-12, more or less united with the style; anthers adnate, 
extrorse. Leaves petioled, mostly heart-shaped and entire. Gray's Manual. 


Calyx tubular, inflated above the ovary. Stamens 6, the sessile anthers adnate to the 
short stigma. 

1. A. Califomica, Gr. (Pipe- Vine.) A tvrining shrub with large cordate leaves, 
flowers curved like a Dutch pipe, greenish, marked with brown or purple. 

2. ASARUM, Tourn. 

Calyx regular, 3-cleft or parted. Stamens 12, with more or less distinct filaments; 
their tips usually continued beyond the anther into a point. — Stemless herbs with creep- 
ing rootstocks, bearing 2 or 3 scales, then one or two leaves, and terminated by a short 
peduncled-flower close to the ground. 

1. A. caudatum, LindL (Wild Ginger.) The smooth broadly cordate leaves 
usually mottled with white; calyx bell-shaped, the acuminate lobes spreading, brownish 
purple. Common in forests; the flowers likely to be hidden under leaves. 


Herbs with mostly opposite and entire leaves, stems swollen at the joints, the tubular 
calyx corolla-like, its persistent base contracted, inclosing the 1-celled 1-seeded ovary, 
and becoming a sort of indehiscent pod. 

1. ABRONIA, Juss. 

Calyx salverform, with obcordate lobes. Stamens 5, included, adnate to the tuDe. 
S tylo included; stigma, capitate or clavate. Fruit 5- winged. Embryo by abortion mono- 
cotyledonous, enfolding mealy albumen. Low herbs, with the opposite thick petioled 
leaves unequal, and the flowers in involucrate heads. Common on sandy sea beaches. 
A viscid exudation causes sand to stick to every part of the plants. 

1, A. latifolia, Esch. (Yellow Sand- Verbena. ) Root perennial; stems procum- 
bent; leaves very thick, sub-cordate to reniform, on thick petioles; flowers orange-yel- 
low, fragrant. 


2. A. umbellata, Lamb. (Pink Sand-Verbena.) Annual; stems decumbent, leaves 
oblong or ovate, attenuate at base into slender petioles; flowers pink. 

3. A- maritima, Nutt. (Red Sand-Verbena.) Stouter than the last; leaves broader 
with shorter petioles; involucral bracts ovate; flowers bright red. From Santa Barbara 

4. A. fragrans, Nutt, of the Columbia River, has white flowers. 

Five other species belonging to tliis westei"n genus are found east of the SieiTa Nevada. 

Order 50. POLYGONACEiE. 

Herbs, with alternate entire leaves, and stipules in the form of sheaths, or obsolete, 
above the swollen joints of the stem; the flowers mostly perfect, with a more or less per- 
sistent calyx, a 1 -celled ovary, bearing 2 or 4 styles or stigmas, and a single seed. 
Stamens 4—12 inserted on the base of the 3-6-cleft calyx. 


Calyx 5 parted; the divisions petal-like, persistent in fruit, and surrounding the 
usually 3- angled akene. Stamens 3 to 8. Styles or stigmas 2 or 3. Herbs with small 
floN\ ers on jointed pedicels. 

Knot-weed or Yaid-grass and Smart-weed belong- to this genus. About 20 species ara 
found in California, of which 2 or 3 are probably introduced weeds. 

2. RUMEX, L. 

Caly^x of 6 sepals; the three outer herbaceous, spreading in fruit; the three inner 
larger somewhat petaloid, covering the akene in fiiiit (then called valves), and often 
bearhig grainlike appendages on the outside. Stamens 6. Styles 3; stigmas tufted. 
Introduced weeds with small greenish flowers crowded and whorled in panicled racemes. 

The Docks and Sheep-sorrel are examples of this genus. Of the dozen species on 
this coast, half are introduced weeds. 

3. ERIOGONUM, Michx, 

Flowers borne in a many-to-few-flowered calyx-like involucre of united bracts; the 
pedicels exserted, jointed to the flower, with bractlets at the base. Calyx corolla- like; 
6-parted or deeply 6-cleft. Stamens 9. Akene triangular. — Herbaceous or somewhat 
woody plants, usually with a woolly or scurfy pubescence; the entire leaves without 
stipules and mostly radical; juice frequently acid. Over 80 species grow west of the 
Mississippi, of which 50 are Californian, mostly Alpine. 

Chorizanthe is a similar genus, in -^hich the involucres are 1-flowered and rigid. 

Orders Amarantacem and Chenopodiacea are represented by homely introduced ana native weeds. Many 
of the latter order belong to the genus Chennpodium, viz.. Goosejoot, Lanib's-quarters, Pigweed, Jerusalem 


Oat, Womueed, etc. Salicomia (Glasswort) grows In salt marshes, and may be kno\ni by Ite leaby leaf- 
less Jointed stems, with opposite branches. The garden Beet belongs to this order. 

Order 51. PIPERACE-ffi. 

Herbs with jointed stems, alternate entire leaves and perfect flowers in spikes, en- 
tirely destitute of floral envelopes. 

1. ANEMOPSIS, Hook. 

Flowers in a simple conical spadix, which is surrounded by a 5-8-leaved persistent 
colored involucre, each flower subtended by a free colored bract. Stamens 6 to 8, free, 
growing upon the immersed ovary. 

1. A. Califomica, Hook. Stem simple, erect, 3 to 15 inches high, with a single 
broad clasping leaf in the middle, and an axillary branchlet reduced to 1 or more petioled 
leaves; radical leaves oblong-oval, cordate at base, 2 to 6 inches long; involucre 1 to 1^ 
inches broad, white, becoming brown. Used medicinally by the Mexicans, who call it 
Terba Mansa. 


The Order Betulaceae (Birch Family) is represented in California by two Birches, 
which scarcely attain to the dignity of trees, and are confined to the high Sierras, and 
four Alders, two of which grow in the central part of the State, viz. : 

Alnus rubra, Bong. (Red Alder), and the more common 

Alnus rhombifolia, Nutt (White Alder), which may be distinguished by its thinner 
leaves, not rusty beneath, and more slender branches not so distinctly dotted with white. 

Myrica Califomica, Cham. (Bayberry), representing the Order Myricaceae grows in 
moist places, and may be known by its thick oblanceolate serrate evergreen leaves and 
dense clusters of small fruit, whitened by a coat of wax. 

Umbellularia Califomica, Nutt (Order Latiraceae), is the well-known Laurel. 

Platanus racemosa, Nutt, is the California Sycamore. 

The Order Salicaceae is represented by 4 or 5 Willows; large enough to be called 
trees, and 3 Poplars, viz. : 

Populus tremuloides, Michx. (Quaking Asp), a small tree, with whitish bark 
and round ovate leaves. In the high Sierra. The only Califomian tree, except one or 
two willows, found east of the Rocky Mountains. 

P. trichacarpa, Torr. & Gr. (Cottonwood.) Petioles round; young bark brownish. 

P. Fremonti, Wat. (Fremont's Cottonwood.) Petioles flattened; young bark yellowdsh. 

The Walnut Family is represented by Juglans Califomica, the California Black 

Ten kinds of Oak Trees, and several shrubs of the same genus, with the chestnnt-lik« 
Chinquapin, represent the Order Cnpuliferae. 


Abortion, the imperfect formation or ab- 
sence of a part. 

Abrupt, ending suddenly. 

AcAULESCENT, apparently stemless. 

AccxTMBENT, the radicle lying against the 
edges of the cotyledons. 

AcEEOSE, needle-shaped, like pine leaves. 

Acuminate, ending in a tapering point. 

Acute, merely sharp-pointed. 

Adnate, growing fast to. When the an- 
ther seems to be attached by its whole 
length to the filament. 

Aggregate, crowded into a cluster. 

Akene, a 1 -seeded seed-Like fruit. 

Albumen, nourishment in the seed not 
forming part of the embryo. 

Anbrous, refers to stamens. 

Anterior, on the side of the flower next 
the bract. 

Apetalous, without petals. 

Appressed, lying flat, or close together. 

Ascending, rising obliquely. 

Attenuate, tapering gradually. 

AuRicULATE, ear-hke lobes at the base. 

Awn, an appendage like the beard of barley. 

Axil, the angle between leaf and stem. 

BiriD, 2-cleft to about the middle. 

BiLABLiTE, 2-lipped. 

Blade, the broad portion of a leaf 

Bract, the leaf which subtends the flower. 
Bractlet, a bract on a pediceL 

Caducous, falling oflf at the time of ex- 

Campanulate, bell-shaped. 

Canescent, whitened with fine close pu- 

Capillary, like a hair. 

Capitate, having a head, or collected into 
a head. 

Capsule, any compound dehiscent fruit 

Carpel, a simple pistil, or element of a 
compound one. 

Caudate, tailed. 

Caulescent, having an obvious stem. 

Caulinb, relating,to a stem. 

CiLiATE, fringed with hairs. 

Clavate, club-shaped. 

Claw, the narrowed base of a petaL 

Cleft, cut to about the middle. 

Cohesion, the union of Like organs. 

Confluent, running together, or blending. 

Conglomerate, thickly clustered. 

Connate, united from the first. 

Connective, the part of an anther con. 
necting the cells. 

CoNNTVENT, coming together or meeting. 

Convolute, rolled up. 

Cordate, heart-shaped with thA point ap. 


CoRTMB, a flat-topped flower cluster, the 

pedicels unequal. 
CosTATE, ribbed. 

Cotyledons, the leaves of the embryo. 
Creeping, running on the ground and 

Ceenate, the margin scolloped. 
CuKEATE, wedge-shaped. 
Cuspidate, tipped with a rigid point. 
Cyme, a flower cluster in which the oldest 

flowers are in the center. 

Dectditous, falling off before withering; or, 
if leaves, before winter. 

Declined, turned to one side. 

Decumbent, reclining on the groond, the 
end rising. 

Deflexed, bent downwards. 

Dehiscent Fruits, etc., open by 

Dehiscence, splitting as pods do. 

Dentate, toothed, the teeth pointing di- 
rectly away from the margin. 

Depressed, flattened from above. 

DiADELPHOus, stamens united by the fila- 
ments iu two sets. 

Dichotomous, forking into two branches. 

DicoTTLEDENOUS, having two seed leaves. 

Diffuse, widely and loosely spreading. 

Digitate, compound with the parts arising 
at one point. 

DiCECiou3, with stamens and pistils in 
separate blossoms on different indi- 

Dissected, cut into pieces, or nearly so. 

Distinct, when parts of the same name do 
not cohere. 

Divaeicate, separating widely. 

Diveroent, the summits inclined from each 

Dkupk, a Btone fruit (like a cherry). 

Embryo, the rudimentary plant in a seed. 
Entire, the margin whole and even, not 

lobed or toothed. 
Epigynous, growing on the ovary. 
Eeose, irregularly notched as if gnawed. 
Exserted, protruding beyond other organs. 
ExsTTPULATE, without stipules. 
ElXTRORSE, turned outward. 

Fascicle, a close cyme, a bundle of leaves. 

Ferttlb Flower, one having pistils. 

Filament, the stalk of an anther. 

FrLiFORM, like a thread. 

FoLiACEOUS, like a leaf. 

FoLiOLATE, consisting of leaflets (o-foUo- 

late means with five leaflets). 
Follicle, a simple pod opening down one 

Fruit, the seed and all that belong to it. 

Glaucous, covered with a whitish bloom 
which rubs off, as the surface of a 
cabbage leaf, or a plum. 

Glomerate, clustered into a balL 

Glomerule, a capitate cyme. 

Hastate, with a spreading lobe at the base 
on each side. 

Hirsute, clothed with coarse hairs. 

Hispid, beset with bristly hairs. 

Hoary, grayish white from a white pubes- 

Hypogynous, growing under the pistil, 
free from the calyx and corolla. 

Incumbent, when the radicle lies againat 

the back of one of the cotyledons. 
Inferior, underneath or anterior. 
Innate, borne on the apex or end. 
Introrse, turned inward. 

Involucre, a set of bracts eurrounding a 

flower cluster. 
Involute, rolled inward, 
Ikbeoitlab, unequal in size or shape. 

Laciniate, cut into narrow incisiona. 
Lamina, blade of a leaf or petaL 
Lateral, pertaining to the side. 
Legume, fruit like a pea-pod. 
Limb, the exposed part of a corolla, calyx, 

etc. , or the blade of a petal, etc. 
Line, the twelfth of an inch. 
LiNKAB, narrow and much longer than 

wide, the margins paralleL 
Lobe, any division or projecting part 

Merous, the parts of a flower (5-merons, 

the parts in fives). 
MucRONATE, abruptly tipped with a short 


Nerves, parallel and simple veins, 
NoDDiNO, the apex or top pointing down- 

Ob-, prefixed means reverse of; as, ob-cord- 

ate, inverted heart-shaped, ». «., the 

stem attached to the apex. 
Oblique, one-sided. 
Oblong, long-elliptical. 
OcHROLEUcous, pale dull yellow. 
Oval, broadly elliptical. 
OvART, that portion of the pistil which 

becomes the seed vessel. 
Ovate, like the longitudinal section of an 

Ovoid, egg-shaped. 

Palmate, lobed so that the lobes point 
away from the end of the petiole, as 
in an ivy or a maple leaf. 

Panicle, a raceme branching irregularly. 
Parted, cut almost through. 
Pectinate, like the teeth of a comb. 
Pedicel, the stalk of a single blossom in a 

Peduncle, the stalk of a cluster or of a 

solitary flower. 
Perfoliate, when the stem seems to pass 

through the leaf. 
Perforate, with holes or transparent dots. 
Perigynous, borne on the calyx. 
Persistent, remaining until the fruit has 

Petiole, the leaf stem. 
Petiolule, the stem of a leaflet. 
Pilose, with distinct straight hairs. 
Pinnate, a compound leaf with the leaflets 

along the side of a common petiole. 
Pinnately cleft, lobed, etc., with the 

lobes along the sides of a long leaf. 
Placenta, the part of the ovary which 

bears the seeds. 
Pod, a dry dehiscent fruit. 
Pome, a fruit like a pear or apple. 
Posterior, next the stem. 
Procumbent, lying along the ground. 
Prostrate, lying flat like a melon- vine. 
Pubescent, with soft or downy hairs. 
Punctate, dotted as if by holes. 
Pungent, rigid sharp-pointed. 

Raceme, elongated flower bunches, with 
the oldest flowers below and on ped- 

Radical, coming from the root (apparently). 

Radicle, the stem of an embryo, 

Reniform, kidney-shaped. 

Repand, the margin slightly wavy. 

Retrorse, directed backward- 

Retuse, slightly notched at a rounded apex. 


Rkvolute, rolled backward. 

Rachis, the main stem in a spike, etc. 

RooTSTOCK, an underground stem. 

Rotate, wheel-shaped. 

RTJNCII7ATE, teeth pointing backward. 

Sagittate, like an arrow-head. 

Salveb-shaped, tubular, the border spread- 
ing at right angles to the tube. 

Scape, a flower-stalk rising from the ground 
or near it. 

ScoEPloiD, coiled round like a scorpion. 

SECtrND, all turned to one side. 

Seerate, with teeth like a saw. 

Setaceous, like a bristle. 

Spatulate, like a druggist's spatula. 

Spike, a long inflorescence of sessile flowers. 

Stellate, star-shaped. 

Stigma, the part of a pistil which receives 
the pollen. 

Stipe, the stalk of an ovary. 

Stipel, the stipule of a leaflet. 

Stipellate, having stipels. 

Stipitate, having a stipe. 

Stipule, appendage on each side at the 

base of a leaf. 
Strict, very straight or close or upright. 
Steigose, clothed with close-pressed stout 

sharp hairs or scale-like bristles. 
Style, the slender part of a pistiL 
Subulate, tapering to a sharp rigid point. 
Suffrutescent, or suffruticose, shrubby at 

the base. 

Terete, cylindrical, long and round. 
Terminal, at the end or summit. 
Thtrse, a thick panicle (Lilac blossoms). 
Tomektose, clothed with a close and mat- 
ted down. 
ToRULOSE, swollen at intervals. 
Truncate, as if cut off at the end. 

Umbel, umbrella-like inflorescence. 

Veeticillate, whorled, forming a ring 

around the stem. 
Villous, with long soft hairs. 
Viscm, sticky. 


Adventitious, out of the usual place; as 

roots on stems. 
Caudex, an upright rootstock. 
Cusp, a spear-like point. 
Deltoid, triangular. 

Flaccid, soft, weak, drooping. 

Fusiform, spindle-shaped. 

Glabrous, smooth. 

Involuceate, provided with an involucre. 

LocuLiCTDAL, Splitting down the middle of 

the back of a cell. 
Lunate, crescent-shaped. 
MuoRONULATE, tipped with a minute point. 

Papilionaceous, like the corolla of a pea. 
Perianth, calyx and corolla together. 
Reticulated, netted-veined. 
Rugose, wrinkled, rough with wrinkles. 
Saccate, with sacks or pouches. 
Scabrous, rough or harsh. 
SCARious, thin, dry, membranous. 
Septicidal, splitting between the cells. 
Spadix, a fleshy spike of flowers. 
Spathe, a bract which inwraps flowers. 
Succulent, fleshy, juicy. 
Staminodia, Sterile stamens or bodies like 

Txtrbinate, top-shaped, an inverted cone. 




All the generic and specific names found in this work are here defined except a few 
of obscure or unknown meaning and some which have undoubtedly been overlooked. 
Conmiemorative names are followed by the names — when known to me — of those thus 
honored. Specific names are given sometimes in one gender, sometimes in another. The 
learner must know that, as a rule, if a specific name ends in lis, a, or urn, it may end in 
either of the other two to correspond with the gender of the generic name; as, Convol- 
vulus Califomicus (Masculine), Polygala Call/omica (Feminine), Galium Californicum 
(Neuter). Or, the specific name may end in w or e, the former agreeing with masculine 
and feminine generic names, the latter with neuter names. The meaning of each name, 
where possible, is given in a form suitable for a common or English name of the plant. 

AcHTLLE-ffiFOLiA, YaTTOW-leaved. 
AcoKiTUM, the ancient name. 
Ademostoma, glandular stoma (breathing 

Affinis, near, or related to. 
Ajucoides, Ajuga-Uke; i. e., Uke Bugle, a 

labiate plant. 
AlbEns, white. 
Albescens, becoming white. 
Albicaulis, white-stemmed. 
Alchemilla, the Arabic name. 
AxisaLEFOLius, Alisma- leaved, u e., leaves 

like those of Water Plantain. 
Alutjm, the Latin name of Garlic. 
Alnifolia, Alder-leaved. 
Ameianchier, the French name. 
Americana, American. 
Amcena, charming. 
Amorpha, without form (flower wanting 

four petals). 

Amplectans, twining or embracing. 

Amplexicaulis, stem-encircled, i. e., by 
embracing leaves. 

Amsinckia, William Amsinck, of Ham- 

Anagallis, from a Greek word meaning 
to laugh. 

Anagalloides, Anagallis-like; like Pim- 

Andersoni, Dr. C. L. Anderson, a Califor- 
nia botanist. 

Andrewsiana, Dr. Andrews, a pioneer 

Andrewsh, Dr. Andrews, a pioneer bot- 

Andromedia, in honor of the goddess of 
that name. 

Anemone, from Greek for wind. 

Angustifglia, narrow-leaved. 

Anserina, from the Latin for goose. 


Aparixe, the Greek name. 

APOCTJfUM, dog-bane; dog-poison. 

Aqitatalis, aquatic; water. 

Aquifolicm, Holly-leaved. 

Aquilegia, from Latin for eagle (the 

petals like eagles' claws). 
Arabis, from Arabia. 
Aeenaria, sand, belonging in sand. 
Arboreus, tree-like. 
Arbdtifolia, Arbutus-leaved. 
Arbutus, the ancient name. 
Arctostaphylos, Bearberry. 
Ari^folia, Aria-leaved. 
Armeria, the Monkish Latin for the Pink. 
Aromatica, aromatic. 
Arvensis, field (growing in cultivated 

AscLEPiAS, Esculapius, God of Medicine. 
AsPER, rough. 
Asperum, rough. 
AssuRGENTiFLORA, flowers bending up- 

Attenuatus, slender. 
AttenuifoliuM; slender-leaved. 
AuDiBERTiA, M. Audibert, a Frenchman. 
AuREA, golden. 
AuRiTA, little-eared (referring to the 

Azureus, blue. 

Barbigerum, bearded. 

Bartslefolia, Bartsia-leaved. 

Berberis, the Arabic name for the Bar- 

BicOLoR, two-colored. 

Biennis, biennial (/. e., flowering the sec- 
ond year and then dying). 

BirtDUM, bifid, divided. 

BrPLORA, two-flowered. 

Bdolium, two-leaved. 

BiGELOvn, Dr. J. M. Bigelow, a pioneer 


BiLOBA, two-lobed. 

BiscEPTRUM, two-stemmed, i. e., two scapes. 

BiSTORTA, twice-twisted. 

Blepharophylla, eyelash-leaved. 

Bloomeria, H. G. Bloomer, a pioneer bot- 

BoLANDERi, H. N. Bolander, a well-known 
botanist of this coast. 

Bore Alls, northern. 

BoscHNiAKiA, Boschniaki, a Russian. 

BoTKiNiA, Dr. Boykin, of Georgia. 

Brachycarpa, short-pod. 

Bracteata, bracted. 

Bracteosa, bracted. 

Brassica, old name for cabbage. 

Breviflora, short-flowered. 

Brevifolium, short-leaved. 

Breweri, Wm. H. Brewer, Botanist of the 
California Geological Survey. 

Brucella, from German name of a throat 
disease which this plant was supposed 
to cure. 

Bullata, jeweled; blistered. 

BuRSA-PASTORis, shepherd's purse. 

Ceruleus, deep blue. 
C^SPiTOSA, tufted. 
CALiFORiacA, California. 
Calochortus, beautiful grass. 
Caltcanthus, cup-flower. 
Caltcina, cup-like. 
Campanula, bell. 
Campestris, field (uncultivated). 
Canadensis, Canadian. 
Canescens, white-haired; hoary. 
Canlna, dog. 
Cannabinum, hemp-like. 
Capitata, capitate (bearing a head oi 


Capsella, little-pod. 
Cardamtne, heart-cure. 
Cardinaxis, cardinal; chief. 
Carduacea, thistle-like. 
Carolinense, Carolina. 
Caroliniandm, Carolina. 
Castilleia, Castillejo, a Spanish botanist. 
Castilleioides, Castilleia-like. 
Ceanothus, old name. 
Centranthifolius, Centranthus-leaved. 
Cerasiformis, cherry-like. 
Cerastium, from Greek for a horn (refer- 
ring to the horn-shaped pods). 
Cercocarpus, tailed-fruit. 
Chammissonis, a. von Chamisso, a poet 

and botanist who visited this coast 

with Eschscholtz early in this century. 
Chrtranthtfolia, wallflower-leaved. 
Cheiranthus, Arabic name. 
Ohilensis, Chili. 
Chimaphila, winter-lover. 
Chlorogalum, greenish milk. 
Chrysanthemifolia, Crysanthemum- 

Chrysantha, golden-flowered. 
CiLiATA, hair-fringed. 
CiRcaiA, Circe, the enchantress. 
CiRCiNATA, coiled; crosier-like. 
Clarkia, General Wm. Clarke, who 

crossed the continent in 1803-1806. 
Claytonia, Dr. John Clayton, an early 

botanist of Virginia. 
Clematis, ancient name of a climbing 

Clintonia, Governor De Witt Clinton, of 

New York. 
CoLLiNSiA, Zaccheus Collins, of Philadel- 

CoLLiNSioiDES, Collinsia-Uke. 
COLLOMIA, from Greek for glue, on account 

of the mucilaginous seeds. 

CoMOSUM, hair-tufted. 
CoNCiNNUM, beautiful 
CoNGESTA, bunched. 
CoRDiFouus, heart-leaved. 
CoRDYLANTHUS, club-flower. 
CoRYMBOSUs, corymbose (flowers in a cor- 
CoTULjEFOLiA, Cotula-leaved. 
Crassifolia, thick-leaved. 
Crenatus, crenate. 
Cressa, Cretan woman. 
Cretica, Cretan. 

Ckocea, yellow; saS'ron-colored. ' 

Crotellarle, rattle-pod. 
CuNEATUs, wedge-shaped. 
CuRViPES, curved-pedicel. 
CYNOGLOSsaJi, hound's-tongue. 
Cypripedittm, Venus's slipper. 
CyrisoroES, like snail-clover. 

Datura, an altered Arabic name. 
Decorum, comely; pretty. 
Delphinium, dolphin. 
Demissa, lowly; humble. 
Dendromecon, tree-poppy. 
Densiflorus, dense-flowering. 
Densifolia, densely-leaved. 
Dentata, dentate; notched. 
Denticulata, denticulate; finely toothed. 
Dicentra, twice-spurred; two spurs. 
Dichotomus, two-forked. 
Discolor, variable (as to color or form). 
DrvARiCATA, spreading. 
Dodecatheon, twelve gods. 
DouGLASii, David Douglas, a Scottish ex 

plorer of the Botany of tliis coast. 
DuMOSA, bushy. 

EcHiNOSPERMUM, hedgehog-seed. 
Elegans, elegant; beautiful. 
Ellisia, John Ellis, an English botanist. 
Emarginata, emarfltinate; notched. 


Emmenastthb, persistent-flower. 

Epilobittm, a violet on a pod. 

Erlanthtts, woolly-flowered. 

EriodtC!TTON, a network of wool (on the 

Eeiteichium, woolly-hair. 

ERODltru, from Greek for heron (the fruit 
like the bill of a heron), 

Ebtsimum, from a word meaning to blister. 

Ebtthr^ia, from a word meaning red. 

Eschscholtzia, J. F. Eschscholtz, a Ger- 
man botanist, who visited California 
early in this century. 

EUBBODI.SA, tme Brodisea. 

Falcifolium, falchion-leaved. 

Faeinosa, starchy. 

FascicxtIiATA, fascicled (referring to the 

Fattcibabsattjs, beard-throat. 
FiLTFOLiA, thread-leaved. 
Ft.ammttla, a little banner or flame. 
Floribunda, many-flowered. 
FoLiOLoaA, leafy. 
Formosa, beautifully formed. 
Fragaria, fragrance. 
Fraxintjs, from a Latin word meaning 

easily split. 
Fritillaria, from Latin for checker-board, 

the petals of the first-named species 

being checkered. 
Fucata, colored, 
FuLVUM, tawny; yellow. 

Gallica, Gallic (French). 

Gaultheria, Dr. Gaulthier, of Quebec. 

Gentiana, Gentius, king of Ulyria. 

GiOANTEA, gigantic; huge. 

GiLEA, Philip GiL 

GiTHOPSis, resembling Gith (Corn-cockle). 

Glabbus, smooth. 

Glabrattjs, smooth. 

Glandulosus, glandular. 

Glaucus, bluish-gray, or with a bloom. 

GiiAUX, from Greek for sea-green. ( 

Glutinosus, glutinous; sticky. 

Glycyrrhiza, sweet-root. 

GoDETiA, Dr. Godet. 

GoMPHOCARPtrs, nail-pod. 

Gracile, slender. 

Gracilentus, slender. 

Graciliflorus, slender-flowered. 

Grandiflora, grand-flowered. 

Greenei, Rev. E. L. Greene, who has dili- 
gently explored the Botany of this 

Gymnocarpxts, naked-fruited; naked-pod. 

Hastatus, spear-bearing. 

Hebecarpus, blunt-pod (?) 

Hederaceus, Ivy-like. 

Heliotropittm, from Greek for sun and 

Heterophyllxjs, variously leaved. 

Hetjchera, J. H. Heucher, a German bot- 

Hexandra, six-stamened. 

HrRStJTissiMus, bristly, or very hairy. 

HiSProTTLA, bristly; prickly. 

HTTMTT.Ta, low; small. 

Hypericum, the Greek name. 

Ilicieoltus, Holly-leaved. 
Incaitus, gray; hoary. 
ICISUM, incised; cut. 
Inconspictjus, inconspicuous. 
Insignis, remarkable; marked. 
Integerrimus, most vigorous. 
Integrtfolia, entire-leaved. 
Intermedius, intermediate. 
Intertextxts, intertwined. 
Involucratus, involucrate. 


Ibis, rainbow. 
IxioroES, Ixia-like. 

JuNCEA, rush-like. 

Jdssi^ia, Bernard de Jussieu, founder of 
the Natural System. 

Labiate, from labia, a lip. 

Lacinatus, laciniate. 

Lactea, milk-white. 

Lar^ncAUUS, smooth-stemmed. 

LACTJNOStrM, pitted- 

Lanceolatus, lanceolate. 

Latifolius, broad-leaved. 

Lathyeus, the Greek name of a similar 

Latipes, broad-pediceled. 
Laxus, loose. 
Lepigonum, scaly-joint. 
LEPiDrcTM, scale-pod. 
Leptophtllus, slender-leaved. 
Lepidotus, scaly (?) 
liEPrDTjs, charming. 
Leptosiphon, slender-tubed. 
Lemmoni, J. G. Lemmon, a very snccessfal 

California botanist. 
Leucodebmis, white-skinned. 
Leucocephalus, white-headed. 
Leucockinum, white-lily. 
LE0COPHYLLU3, white-leaved. 
Lewisia, Capt. M. Lewis, who crossed the 

continent with Clarke in 1803-1806. 
LiGUSTiciFOLius, Lovage-leaved. 
LiLiACEUS, lily-like. 
Ltmxanthes, pond-flower. 
LruoNXDM, mud-plant (an old generic 

LmoSELLA, from limus, mud. 
LiNABiA, from Linum, the botanical name 

of Flax. 
LiNEARiPOLiiru, narrow-leaved. 

LiNiFLORA, flax-flowered; the Latin name 

LiTHOSPERMorDES, like Lithospermom. 
LiTTORALis, sea-beach. 
LoBATUS, lobed. 
LoNGiPLORUS, long-flowered. 
LoNGiLOBA, long lobed. 
LoNGiPES, long-pediceled. 
LuTEOLUS, yellowish. 
LtJTEUS, yellow. 
LUPINUS, wolf. 
Lxn-ULiNus, hop-like. 
LtJCiDUS, bright, transparent 
Ltcopus, woLf-foot. 
Lycopsoibes, Lycopus-like. 
Lythbum, from Greek for blood. 

ALacranthus, lajge-flowered. 

Macroceba, large-homed. 

Macbocarpa, large-fruited. 

Macrostachya, large-spiked. 

Macrothecum, large-anthered. 

Maculatus, spotted. 

Maianthemtjm, mountain njmaph. 

Major, greater; larger., from a word meaning soft. 

MALV-asFLORUS, Mallows-flowered. 

MAXV.1EFOLIUS, MaUows-leaved. 

Mariposa, butterfly. 

Maritimum, coast. 

Meadia, Dr. Mead, of Illinois. 

Meconopsis, Poppy-like. 

Medicago, from Media, its native country. 

Medius, middle. 

Megaerhiza, big-root. 

Melilotus, honey-flower. 

Mentha, from the name of a Nymph fa- 
bled to have been changed to mint. 

Menyanthes, month-flower. 

Menziesh, Dr. Archibald Menzies, a com< 
panion of Vancouver. 


Mentzelia, Dr. C. Mentzel. 

Mertensia, Prof. F. C. Mertens, of Bre- 

Mesembryanthemxtm, midday-flower. 

MicPvANTHUS, small-flowered. 

MiCROCEPHALUM, small-headed. 

MiCROCARPUS, small-fruited. 

MiCROMERiA, small-part. 

MiMULUS, ape; mimic. 

MiNEATUs, vermilion'colored. 

Minimus, smallest. 

Minor, smaller. 

MoDESTUs, modest. 

MoLLUGO, the Latin name. 

MoNTANUs, mountain. 

MoNARDELLA, little Monarda, a genus 
named for Nicholas Monardes, a writer 
on medicinal plants. 

MosCHATUS, musky. 

"^^^xiHLENBERGii, Dr. H. Muhlenberg, an 
American botanist. 

^vluiLLA, Allium reversed. 

MiTLTiCAULis, many-stemmed. 

MuRiCATUS, rough, with hard points. 

Myrtifolius, myrtle-leaved. 

Nanus, dwarf. 

Nemerosa, wood; forest. 

Nemophila, grove-lover. 

NicoTiANA, John Nicot, who introduced 

tobacco into Europe, 
Niteus, beautiful; bright. 
NiTiPUM, shining. 
NuDiCAULE, naked-stemmed. 
NuDUS, naked. 
NuTTALLiA, Thomas Nuttall, botanist and 


Obtusifolia, blunt-leaved. 
OcELLATA, spotted with little eyas. 
OociDENTALis, wcstem. 

CEnothera, wine -sucker (roots cause 

Officinalis, medicinal. 
Orbicularis, round. 
Oregana, Oregon. 
Orthocarpus, erect-fruit. 
OvATA, egg-shaped (leaves). 
OxTCARPUM, sharp-fruited. 
OxYCARYUM, sharp-nut. 

P^ONiA, the ancient name. 

Pacifica, Pacific. 

Palustris, swamp; marsh. 

Papillosus, warty. 

Parviflorus, small-flowered. 

Parvifolius, small-leaved. 

Patagonica, Patagonian. 

Paucisecta, few-lobed. 

Pectocarya, comb-toothed nut. 

Pedatus, foot-shaped. 

Pedicularis, from pediculus, a louse. 

Peltatum, shield; shield-shaped. 

Pendulifloea, hanging flower; drooping 

Penicillata, brush-like. (Stigma with a 

tuft of hairs). 
Pentstemon, five stamens. 
Perfoliata, perfoliate (the stem growing 

through the leaf). 
Pharnaceoides, Ginseng-like. 
Philadelphus, Philadelphus, a King of 

Picta, painted; colored. 
Pilosissima, most-hairy. 
PiNNATA, pinnate; feather-like. 
PiRUS, old Latin name of the pear tree. 
Platystemon, flat-stamen. 
Platystigma, flat-stigma. 
Pluriflora, many-flowered. 
Pogogyne, bearded-pistil. 


PoLTGALA, much milk (said to increase 

secretion of milk). 
PoLYSEPALUM, many-scpaled 
POMERIDIANCTM, after-noon. 
Peenanthoides, Prenanthus-Uke. 
Prosartes, from Greek to h*ng. 
Prostata, prostrate. 
PsoRALiA, scurf. 
Pterospora, wing-seed. 
Ptelea, Greek for elm. 
PxTLCHELLA, beautiful. 
PuMiLA, dwarf; little. 
PUNGENS, pungent; biting. 
PuRPURASCENS, growing purple; purplish. 
Pycnanthemum, dense-flowers. 
Pycnantha, dense-flowering. 

QuERCiFOLiA, oak-leaved 
QuADRANOTJLAEis, four-sided. 

Racemosa, racemose; raceme<bearing. 

Radicans, rooting. 

Ramosissima, branching; full of branches. 

Rantjnculus, from Latin for frog (some 
of the species aquatic). 

Raphanus, quick-grower. 

Rariplortjm, seldom-flowering. 

Recdrva, recurved. 

Rediviva, reviving. 

RHOMBorDEA, rhomboidal. 

Rhus, red (the prevailing color of the 
plentiful fruit in the genus). 

Rises, the Arabic name. 

RiGiDUS, stifi"; rigid. 

RivxTLARis, river. 

RoMANZOFFiA, Nicholas Romanzoff, a Rus- 
sian nobleman, who early in this cen- 
tury sent Kotzebue (accompanied by 
Chamisso and Eschscholtz) to this 

BosA, the ancient name. 

RoSEUS, rosy. 

Rotunbifolia, round-leaved. 
RuBESCENS, reddening; reddish. 
RuBCS, red (the coior of the fruit). 
RusTiCA, country; rustic. 

Salvia, from a Latin word meaning to 

Sambucus, from the name of an ancient 
musical instrument, said to have been 
made of Elder. 

Sanguinea, bloody. 

Sarcodes, from the Greek for flesh. 

Sarmrntosa, running (as atrawberriea). 

Sativa, cultivated; tame. 

Saxifraga, rock-breaker. 

ScoLioPUS, worm-peduncle. 

ScROPHTTLARiA, scrofula cure. 

Scutellaria, from scutella, a dish (be- 
cause of the calyx). 

Serpylloedes, Thyme-like. 

Serratum, serrate; toothed" 

Sessile, sessile; steniless. 

Sessilifolia, sessile-leaved.' 

Shallok, the Indian name. 


SiLENE, from a Greek word meaning saliva. 

Simplex, simple. 

Sitchensis, Sitka. 

SoLDANELLA, the generic name of another 

SoREDiATUS, covered with granules. 
Sparsiflorus, sparse-flowered. 
Spathulata, spatulate. 
Speciosus, showy. 
Spectabilis, notable; admirable. 
Specularia, from speculum, a looking- 

.SpiRiEA, old name of Meadow Sweet. 
Stachys, the ancient name. 
Stachyoides, Stachys-like. 


Statice, the ancient name. 
Stellabia, from stella, a star. 
Stellata, starry; star-like. 
Stipulakis, stipulate. 
SnvERl, C. H. Stivers 
Strictum, upright. 
Strigulosus, bristly. 
Stbobilacea, cone>like (a pme cone). 
Strobilina, little cone. 
STEOPHOLnaoN, twisted-lily. 
SuBPnmATA, nearly-pinnate. 
Symphoricabpus, cluster-fruit. 
Symplocabpus, united-fruit 

Tanacetipolius, Tansy-leaved. 
Tatula, an old generic name (?). 
Tellima, anagram of Mitella. 
Tenax, tough. 
Tenella, tender; delicate. 
Tener, soft, tender. 
Tenttiloba, slender-lobed. 
Tenuifolius, thin-leaved. 
Tessellata, checkered (seeds). 
Thtsanocarpus, fringe-pod. 
Thyrsiplorus, thyrse-flowered- 
TiARELLA, a little mitre (the pod). 
TiNCTORiA, useful as a dye. 
ToMENTOSUS, woolly; tomentose. 
Trachtandra, rough anther. 
Tridentatus, three -toothed; three- 
Trichantha, hair-flowered. 
Trichophtllus, hair-leaved. 
Tricolor, three-colored. 
Trefidum, three-parted. 
Triplorus, three-flowered. 
Tripoliata, three-leaved. 
Tbipolium, three-leaves. 

TBiLLitm, triple (leaves, petab, •ts., is 

Trfncata, truncate. 
Tdbebosa, tuber-bearing. 

Umbellata, umbellate. 
Umbelltfebxtm, umbel-bearing. 
Undxjlata, wavy. 
Untflobus, one-flowering. 
Unipoliata, one-leaved. 
Ubsinus, bear. 

Vaccinnittm, the ancient name. 
Vagans, wandering; spreading. 
Vancoitveeia, Capt. Greorge Vancouver, 
who explored this coast in 1792-1794. 
Venenosus, deadly-poisonous. 
Venosus, veiny. 
Venustus, beautiful. 
Vestita, clothed; covered. 
Vebnicosa, varnished. 
Veronica, for St. Veronica (!). 
Verticillata, whorled. 
ViLLOSUS, hairy. 
ViscrouLA, sticky. 
ViRGiNiENSis, Virginian. 
Vrris, the ancient name. 
Vulgaris, common. 

Whipplea, Gen- A. W. Whipple, who 
visited this coast in 1849, in command 
of a Government Survey Party. 

Xebophylluu, dry-leaf. 

Yucca, the Indian name. 

Zauschkeria, M. Zauschner, a Bohemian 

Ztgadenus, yoked-glands. 


West Coast Botany, 


Sixteen Hundred Species of Flowering Plants, 


By VOLNEY rattan, 

Teacher of Natural Sciences in the State Normal School, 




This Key is preliminary to a West Coast Botany for beginners, which will probably 
be completed within three years. The object in publishing this skeleton in advance is 
twofold : it will be serviceable in connection with the Popular California Flora, while its 
am will discloae mistakes and weak places which can be corrected and strengthened for 
the betterment of the final work. 

The material has mostly been drawn from Gray's Synoptical Flora of North America 
and the California Botany. Free use has also been made of Gray's and Watson's Contri- 
bntioni to American Botany ; Greene's monographs in the Bulletin of the California 
Academy of Sciences, and the contributions of these and other authors in Coulter's 
Botanical Gazette and the Bulletin of the Torrey Club. 

The intention has been to describe all polypetalous and gamopetalous plants growing 
in the region indicated on the title page, except those belonging to the orders Umbellifers 
and Compositss ; also all the species in the endogenous orders Alismacesa, Orchidaces, 
Iridaces and Liliacese. The scope of the West Coast Botany will be a little broader, 
including some of the Apetalae and possibly a tribe of the Compositse. The introductory 
lessons and glossaries will be more ample than those of the California Flora. 

I shall be very thankful for notes of omissions, corrections, criticisms and sug' 

Sax Fkavoiboo, Jan. 22, 1887. 


I After yoa have carefully examined the plant and at least mentally described eTety 
I part of it, read the first line of the key on the opposite page. If the sepals and petals 
' together number 8 or 10 — as is usually the case — then the plant belongs to CLASS I., 
which refers us to the prominent heading below, under which we read, " Calyx and 
corolla both present." If so, read the next line, which, we will suppose, does not fit our 
plant ; then the petals must be united, and we turn to DIVISION 2, page 9, where we 
are called upon to say whether the ovary is inferior or not. Suppose it is superior. 
Turn, then, to '' B. Ovary saperior.^ But our flower is one-sided, so, instead of 
searching under "1. Flowers regular or nearly so," we look ahead till our eyes 
catch on page 10, the similar line, ** 2. Flowers irregular : style 1 ; stigma en- 
tire or 2-lobed." Strangely enough there is but one style, and there are ttoo flat stig- 
mas. The leaves being opposite we pass the first line and try the next, having the same 
marginal distance, readug, " Leaves opposite or whorled: stamens 2 or 4." Reading the 
three lines under this head, beginning with the word " Ovary," we easily determine from 
the negative evidence (the ovary not in 4 pieces; the flowers not small, or in spikes) that 
the plant belongs to the order Scrophulariacese, page 93. We are there confronted 
by another key. The leaves of our plant not being alternate, we must look under "" B." 
Reading the lines marked with asterisks we take the first, for our plant has 4 stamens. 
We then read aJl the lines under this head and decide that our genus must be No. 10; 
vix., " 10. mHULUS, Linnffius," which we find on page 98. Our plant, then, is one 
of the 40 species of Mimulxta there named. Fortunate indeed are we if it happens to be 
one of the distinctly marked species like Minultu ghUinonu, the Shrubby Mimulus; or 
Mimidua carditmlii, the Cardinal or Scarlet Mimulus. In any event we work with this 
key as with the others. The chief heads are indicated by stars. Suppose the corolla is 
\ yellow but the plaot not viscid | then it must be sought under the 6-starred head. Here 
we must read cdl the lines beginning with " Leaves." Having reached a conclusion, we 
look up the species under the number given at the end of the line ; say, No. 23, where 
we find a few more words descriptive of MitntUuM hUeuM. We next look in the index for 
" Mimulus " and there find a reference to p. 92 of the Popular Flora, where there is a 
more ample description of the species. Finally we turn to the Glossary of Generic and 
Specific Names, where we learn that mimulus means, ape, or mimic ; and luteus means, 
yellow. Perhaps Linnsus, who delighted in fanciful names, saw in the gaping corolla a 
monkey-like grin. Since there are many yellow species now known, the name is not 
•ignificant ; but we may oall it the Common Yellow Mimnlos, or Monkey Flower. 


n^ores in the mars^ refer to pages. When namea are not followed by flgnrea the gena» or ' 
dloated is not elsewhere desoribed In this book. 


Calyx and corolla together of either more or less than six parts CLASS X( fi 

Calyx and corolla together of just six parts: petals never five. 

Stamens six or three , 

Stamens many: sepals three, green ^ CliASS Q, 12 

Stamens one or two united to the style: ovary inferior. . . 

Stamens many: flowers solitary on long peduncles Papaveraceas, 18 

Stamens ten: petal one: a shrub LegauninosaB, 39 

Stamens nine: flowers apetalous, small; 

An aromatic tree: flowers greenish U mbeUvlaria, {LaureL) 

Herbs with several or many flowers in involucral cops Eriogonum, 


Oalyx and corolla both present. 

Petals not united (distinct) DrVTSION 1, 6 

• Petals more or less united (cohering) DIVISION 2, 9 

Calyx and corolla one or both wanting DIVISION 3, 10 



1. Stamens not adhering: to the sepals or petals (on the receptacle). 

* Pistils few to many diatinct carpeU. 

Calyx decidnoQs, sepals 5: no stipules HanunculacesB, 14 

Calyx persistent, sepals 3 or 4: growing in water NymphaeaceaB, 17 

Calyx persistent, sepals 5 or 10: leaves with stipules Bosacesa, 48 

Calyx of petal-Uke sepals: oovslU often wanting BAnunculaceas. 14 


• • Pistil compound f of tor more uniUd carpels; as shown by more than one stigma-lobe, 
stigma, style or eeU in the ovary; or by its not being at aU one sided. 

Petals more nometons than the sepals: 

Indefinitely numerous, slender, persistent. Aquatio plants. . N3riiipliSBace8B, 17 

Just twice as many (4 or 6) : sepals caducous Papaverace89, 18 

Five to sixteen; style 3-8-clef t: fleshy herbs. PorttQacacesB, 31 

Fetals of the same number (5) as the persistent sepals. 

Leaves opposite: sepals equal H3rpericace8B, S3 

Leaves alternate: sepals unequal CistaceaD, 26 

Leaves radical, hoUow, 2-appendaged at hooded top Sarraceniaceea, 18 

3. Stamens and petals on the free or adnate calyx. 

Leafless, thorny, fleshy plants: ovary prickly, inferior CactacesB, 64 

Leaves mostly opposite, very fleshy: ovary inferior FicoideCB, 65 

Leaves opposite. Shrub: sepals and petals numerous Calycanthacese, 53 

Shrubs: sepals 4 to 7 : flowers white SaxifragacesB, 54 

Leaves alternate or radical: herbs or shrubs Hosaceas, 48 

Leaves alternate; no stipules: rough herbs: ovary inferior liOasaceaa, 63 

8. Stamens on the claws of the petals. 

Stamens many, distinct, anthers long: oalyi a conical cap: petals 4. . Papaveracess, 18 

Btamens many, united into a tube: anthers small: petals 6 Malvacesa, 33 

Stamens 10 to 16, united half way: shrub StyracacefB, 77 


1. Ovary or ovaries superior (i.e., free from the calyTc) or mainly so, but 
sometimes included in the calyz-tube. 

• Pistils more than one, not united. 

Pistils of the same number as petals and sepals. 

Leaves simple, entbe, fleshy Crassulacea, 57 

Leaves pinnate : styles united, globular ovaries distinct Geraniacese, 36 

Pistils not of the same number as the sepals and petals. 

Two or three. Shrubs or trees: leaves opposite, compound Sapindaceae, 38 

Herbs; leaves simple SaxifragaceaB, 54 

lisny. Stamensonthe receptacle RanunculacesB, 14 

Stamens on tk« oalvz: leaves compound, mostly radical HosacesB, 48 


• • Pistil only om, simple or compound. 

a. Shrubs, trees or woody climbers. 
Style and stigma oce. 

Sepals, petals and stamens 6 each, opposite each other. . . . ^ . . .BerberidaceaB, 17 
Sepals, petals and stamens 4 or 5 each (or stamens 8 in 1st). 

Strongly aromatic or heavy-scented RutaceSB, 36 

Not aromatic: leaves simple, opposite CelastracesB, 37 

A vine climbing by tendrils VitacesB, 38 

Calyx 2-lipped: petals unequal : stamens 5-8, exserted SapindaceaB, 38 

Calyx 4-toothed: petals 2: stamens '2 to 4: fruit winged Oleaces, 77 

Calyx 4-cleft: petals 4: stamens 6: ovary long-stiped Isomeris, 25 

Calyx 4-toothed: petals 5, unequal: stamens 10 LegfuminosaB, 39 

Sepals 3 or 5, unequal: stamens 4 to 8, united below 'Polyg&la.ceea, 26 

Styles or stigmas more than one. 

Styles 2: leaves opposite: fruit 2-winged Sapindaceas, 38 

Styles 3-cleft: stamens 5, opposite small petals KhamnacesB, 37 

Stigmas 3: leaves alternate, 3-foIiolate or simple AnacardiaceeB, 39 

Stigmas 4 or 5: prostrate stems hardly woody Sazifragaceas, 54 

Stigma 5-lobed: small shrub: leaves opposite or whorled Ericaceas, 71 

6. Herbs: leaves mostly or all radical. 

Stamens 1 or 3: sepals 2: petals 2 to 5: stigmas 2 or 3 PortulacaceaB, 31 

Stamens 5, anthers united: lower petal spurred: style 1 Violaceae, 26 

Stamens 5, opposite the petals. Sepals 2: style 3-cleft PorttdacaceSB, 31 

Sepals colored, united: styles 6. . Plumbaginaceaa, 67 

Stamens, sepals and petals 5 each: styles 3 or 6: very glandular. . DroseracesB, 58 

Stamens 5 or 10, on the calyx: style 2 or 3 Saxifragacese, 54 

Stamens 10, on the receptacle: stigma 5-lobed Ericacese 71 

Stamens 10, styles 5: leaves 3-foliolate Oxalis in GeraniacesB, 36 

Stamens 6 united in S's: sepals 2: petals 4 in unequal pairs Ftunariacese, 19 

Stamens 6: flowers nodding on a scape Vanconveria in Berberidacesa, 17 

c. Herbs: leaves alternate. 
Corolla regular (petals alike) or nearly so. 

Stigma 1, often 2-lobed: stamens 6 (2 and 4) Cruciferss, 19 

stamens 6, equal: ovary on a stipe Capparidacea9, 25 

stamens 4 to 7 and as many petals on the calyx Lythraceee, 59 

Stigma 2-lobed: stamens 4: petals 2: sepals 2, white Maianthemam, 119 

Stigmas 5: sepals 5: petals 5: stamens 10 GeraniacesB, 36 


Styles 2 or 3: sepals 5: petals 5: stamens 5 or 10: leaves petioled . . Saxifragacese, 54 

Styles 2 to 5: sepals 5: petals 5: stamens 5: leaves sessile Linaceae. 35 

Style 3-cleft: sepals 2: petals 5: fleshy leaves Portxilacacese, 31 

Corolla irregular (petals not all alike): style one. 

Stamens 10, included by the cohering lower pair of petals IiegxuninosaB, 39 

Stamens 5: anthers united: lower petal spurred Violaceas, 2G 

Stamens 6, united in S's: petals 4, in pairs Fiimariacese, 19 

Stamens 6, unequal, distinct or 2 united Streptanthm, 22 

Stamens -6 to 8, united: ovary 2-celled: leaves entire PolygalacesB, 26 

d. Herbs: leaves opposite, simple, except in the last. 

Style 3-cleft: stamens 3 to 5: leaves a single pair PortTilacacees, 31 

Style none, stigmas 3: stamens 10 to 12: petals 6: leaves in 3's. . Papaveracese, 18 

Styles 3: flowers sessile: stamens 4 to 7: leaves revolute Frankeniaceee, 27 

Styles 3: flowers in axillary clusters: stamens 3 to 5 Mollwjo, G5 

Styles 2 to 5 : capsule 1 -celled : stamens 10 or 5 Caryophyllacese, 27 

Styles 2: capsule 4 celled: stamens 5 Linaceae, 35 

Styles 4 or 5: small white flowers in terminal clusters Saxifragaceae, 54 

Style 1 : stamens on the slightly cohering r«)tate petals PrimiilaceaB, 76 

Styles and other flower parts each 2 to 5 (stamens rarely twice \ ElatinacesB 

as many) / ' 

Styles or stigmas 5: 5 akenes separating when ripe Geraniacese, 


2. Ovary and fruit inferior or mainly so. 

Shrubs: sepals, petals and stamens each 4 or 5: leaves simple. 

Stamens opposite the small clawed petals: style 3-cleft Bhamnacese, 37 

Sepals petaloid: ovary globose; styles or stigmas 2 Sazi&agaceas, 64 

Sepals, petals and stamens 4 each: the flowers in cymes or inl -, 

heads with a white involucre | Cornaceffi, 6C 

flerbs. Sepals 5: petals 5: styles 2 to 5: leaves simple Saxifragacese, 54 

Flowers or flower clusters axillary. 

Flower parts in 2*3 or 4's, small: aquatic: leaves whorled. Halorageae, 59 

Flower parts in 4's (rarely in 2's or 6's): style 1 Onagracese, 59 

Flowers moncecious: climbing by tendrils Cucurbitaceas, 64 

Flowers in umbels or heads not axillary. 

Flowers in umbels or heads: petals 5: stamens 5. 

Styles 2: fruit dry UmbellifersB, 65 

Styles 2 to 5: fruit juicy Araliaceae, 13 

Flowers in a head with involucre of 4 white leaves ComacesB, 66 



A. OVABY INFERIOR (adherent to the calyx) or mainly so. 

Stamens 8 or 10: corolla-lobes 4 or 5: shrubs DricacesB, 71 

Stamens 10, those alternate with small corolla-lobes sterile, inflexed Samolus, 77 

Stamens 5 (rarely 4), united into a tube. 

Style 2-clef t: flowers in a flower-like head Compositae, 69 

Style and stigma entire: flowers irregular. (See p. 13) LobeliaceEe, 69 

Stamens 4 or 5, distinct, growing at the base of the corolla. Campanulacese, 70 

Stamens on the corolla- tube: leaves opposite or whorled. 

Leaves connate: corolla 4-lobed: stiff, prickly herbs Dipaacim, 69 

Leaves opposite, corolla mostly 5-lobed Caprifoliaceaa, 66 

Leaves whorled or sometimes opposite: corolla 4-lobed RuDiaceas, 68 

Leaves unequal: prostrate: calyx corolla-like. (See Cal. Flora.) Abronia. 

Stamens only 3: corolla 5-6-lobed: calyx-lobes minute or none. Herbs. 

Leaves opposite; stamens distinct: erect herbs Valeriauacess, 68 

Leaves palmately nerved, alternate: tendril-bearing vines Cucurbitaceee, 64 

Stamens apparently 1, really 3 united: flowers monoecious Cucurbitacess, 64 

B. OVARY SUPERIOR (free from the calyx) or nearly so. 

1. Flowers regrular or nearly so. 

* Slamena twice as many a» ihe lobta of the eoroUa. 

Corolla bell-shaped or inflated-ovoid Bncacess, 7l 

Corolla deeply 5-8-cleft, the base united with the filaments Styracacess, 77 

Corolla 5-clef t: pistils or styles 5: flesliy herbs CrassulacesB, 57 

* " Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes. 

a. Style i, stigma 1: leafless, root-parasite. ... Pholisma, 76 

h. Style 1, stigma 1: leaves entire (lobed in the first and last). 

Leaves mostly radical, reniform: stamens unequal Romanzoffia, 87 

Leaves all radical; flowers spicate, colorless, scarious Plastagiuacese, 109 

corolla reflexed: anthers purple-black Dodecatheon, 76 

Leaves alternate. Spikes coiled: ovary in 4 parts Borraginaceee, 87 

Flowers rotate to funnelform or tubular SolanacesB, 92 

Tall shrub: 3 to 5 calyx-like bracts: flowers yellow Fremontia, 35 

Leaves opposite (at least below), entire: juice milky: ovaries 2; stigmas united. 

Flowers white or pinkish in terminal cymose clusters Apocynaceae, 77 

Flowers in umbels: sepals and petals reflexed or rotate AsclepiadacesB, 77 

Leaves opposite, ovate, sessile: flowers rotate, axillary, solitary Anagallia, 77 

Leaves clustered at the top of the stem, bracts below: corolla rotate TrientaUs, 76 


e. Style one or none, stigmas two. 

Learea opposite or whorled, sessile, entire GentianacesB, 79 

Leayes opposite, lobed: flowers small in spikes Verbenacess, 105 

Leaves alternate or radical, 3-foliolate: corolla bearded Menyanthes, 80 

LeaTea alternate. Flowers not axillary Hydrophyllacese, 84 

Flowers in a head with acerose bracts Oilia, 80 

Flowers funnelfonn: twining or creeping vines. Convolvulus, 91 

X»e«Tea radical: flowers solitary on scapes Hesperochiron, 87 

i. Btylel, stigmas S PolemoniaceaB, 80 

«. Style 2-deJi ^ Hydrophyllacese, 84 

/ Styles S: leaves simple and alternate or none. 

blowers solitary, axillary, white: leaves silky Creasa, 91 

Mowers clostered on filiform, leafless orange or yellow twining stems Cuscuta, 91 

Flowers 6 or 6 lines long: shrubs or wood-based herbs Hydrophyllacese, 84 

• • • Stamens fevoer than the lobes of the slightly irregular corolla. 

Stamens 4: flowers in slender spikes: leaves opposite, lobed Verbenacess, 105 

Stamens 3: style 3-cleft: sepals 2: leaves opposite, entire. Montia, 32 

Stamens 2 or 4: ovary 2-celled Scrophulariacess, 93 

2. Flowers irregular: style 1; stigzxia entire or 2-lobed. 

Leaves or scales not opposite. 

Corolla flattened, heart-shaped : stamens 6, united in 3'a.^ .^ Dicentra, 19 

Ciorolla curved: leafless root-parasites: stamens 4 Orcbanchacese, 104 

Corolla more or less 2-lipped : ovary 2-celled : stamens 2 to 5 . . ScrophulariaceEe, 93 

Corolla 2-lipped, spurred: ovary 1-celled: stamens 2: aquatic. . Lentibulariaceae, 104 

Leaves opposite or whorled: stamens 2 or 4. 

Ovary 2-celled ..^Scrophulariacese, 93 

Ovary 4-parted, forming 4 seed-like nutlets ^ LabiatSB, 105 

Ovary 2-4-lobed: small flowers in spikes or heads ....« Verbenaceee. 105 


A. OVAB.Y INFEBIOB. (calyx adherent) or apparently so. 

Leaves cordate: calyx 3-lobed: ovary 6-celled. (See CaL Flora) . . AristolochiacesB. 

Leaves palmately lobed tendril-bearing vines Cucurbitaceae, 64 

Leaves pinnate: calyx- tube 3-4-angled, prickly. Hosaceae, 48 


LeaTes anequally pinnatifid: calyx-tube in fertile flowers 3> toothed DatiseOf 64 

Leaves glaacons: white flowers in clustered nmbeb Comandra, 

Leaves small, crenate: capsule axillary, obcordate Chrysosplenium, 66 

Leaves opposite. Calyx salverform: capsule 1 -seeded. (See Flora).. Nyctaginaces9. 

Calyx 4-lobed: stamens 4: flowers axillary Ludioigia, 60 

Calyx (corolla) tubular to rotate Caprifoliacess, 66 

Leaves in whorls. Calyx 4<lobed or entire. Aquatic Haloragreas, 69 

B. 0VAB7 ST7FEBI0S (fi«e from the calyx). 

a. Herbs: leave* alternate, radical or in a vohorL 

%pal8 petaloid, persistent; akene 1, 3-sided or flat. (See Flora) Polygonaces. 

persistent: fleshy root-parasite, waxy-white bracts Allotropa, 74 

deciduous: carpels several or many BanunculacesB, 14 

Sepals green: racemes close: capsules flat, 1-2-celled Cruciferss, 1 9 

minute flowers opposite the leaves AkhemiUa, 52 

Sepals none: dense oblong spike with petaloid involucre. (See Flora) Anetnopsis, 

spike naked: radical leaf 3-foliolate Achlys, 17 

b. Herbs: leaves opposite entire: capsule l-celled except in the last. 

Stems square: oalyx 4-toothed, with smaller teeth between, axillary Ammania, 59 

Involucre calyx-like or surrounding a head of flowers. (See Flora). . Nyctaginaceee. 

Flowers small, axillary, sessile white: stigma 1 Glaux, 76 

Flowers green, terminal: stigmas 3 to 6 CaryophyllaceaB, 27 

Flowers axillary: capsule 3-5-ceUed. Ficoidese, 6r> 

e. Shrubs or trees: leaves altemaie, entire (except in the last): flowers perfect. 

Calyx tubular, bearing the stamens: akene plumose-tailed Cercocarpus, 60 

Calyx 6-parted, yellowish: leaves very aromatic. (See Flora) Lauracess. 

Calyx 4-5-cleft, greenish: fruit berry-like, 2-4-aeeded RhamnaceaB, 37 

Calyx 3-4-lobed, yellow: stamens 6 to 12, exserted Dirca paluttris. 

Calyx 5-cleft, large, yellow: stamens 5, united Sterciiliaceaa, 35 

d. Trees or tooody climbers with opposite pinnate leaves. 

Trees: flowers dioecious: winged fruit in drooping panicles. OleacesB, 77 

flowers perfect : fruit 2- winged, 2-8eeded Sapindaceae, 38 

Climbers: sepals 4: stamens and pistils many: akenea tailed Clematis, 14 

«. Diacious shrubs with drooping silky gray aments Oarrya, 66 



A. OVARY STTPEB.IOB (Perianth not adherent) . 

Pistils 8 to many distinct or united carpels: flowers in whorls Alismacese, 109 

Kstil 3-oarpeled, ovary S-celled, or at least S-sided Idliacese, 113 

Pistil 2-celled: red flowers in an umbel Clintonia, 123 

small perianth 4-parted: stamens 4 Maianthemum, 1 19 

B. OVARY INTERIOR (Perianth adherent). 

Flowers irregular: anthers 1 or 2 on the pistil Ordiidacess, 110 

Flowers regular: anthers 3, eztrorae ..........^^ Iridacead. 112 


After Umbellifem, p. 6S, add:— 


A tall herb: leaves bipiiuiate or pinnate, very large : pedicels jointed. t 

Stem woody, prickly, 6-12 ft. high: leaves palmately labed: peuicels sst jodated 8 

1. ARATiTA, LinnseuB. 
1. A. Oalifomica, Watson. Root large, aromatic, used medicinally. {SpibenartH 

2. FATSIA, Bentham & Hooken 
I. F. honida, B. & £L Common in the forests of Oregon and northward. 


After Nemaoladoa, p. 69, add:— 

la. HOWELIilA, Gray. 
1. H. aqoatilis, Gr. Aquatic: submersed leaves slender, mostly alternate, entire} 
those above water broader and shorter, sometimes 1 - 2 • toothed: OOTrers short- 
pedoncled, axillary; corolla-lobea nearly equal, not surpassing the calyx. Fonda o« 
Saavies Island, Co-lnmUa Biyer. 



• Petals and sepals similarly colored. 

Bepals and petals slender: carpels 3 to 8 on stipes: smooth; evergreen B 

Petals 5 spar-like sacs: follicles 6: flowers nodding: leaves compound 10 

CTpper sepal with a spur enclosing spurs of two petals: petals 4 1- 

Opper sepal a hood enclosing spurs of two petals J2 

Minute white flowers in dense capitate racemes: pistil single lb 

Flowers pinkish or whitish on scapes 6 

Flowers solitary on scapes : receptacle elongated : leaves slender, entire 5 

• • Petals and sepals not similarly colored^ 

Petals yellow white or pinkish: akenes small, beaked 6 

Petals fleshy, dull purple: follicles large: leaves glauceus 14 

• • * Petals wanting : sepcUs petaloid. 

Woody climbers: leaves opposite: sepals 4: akenes plumose 1 

A whorl of leaves below the flower: akenes many 3 

Leaves cordate: sepals greenish, large: follicles 5 to 12 *« 

Leaves 2-3-temately compound : follicles pointed 6 

Flowers small, greenish, in panicles: leaves 2-3-temate 3 

Flowers small, white; panicles corymbose, akenes 4-angled, inflated .......*«. . • 

1. CIiEMATIS, Linnaeus. 

ligTisticifolia, Nuttall. Leaves 5-foliolate: sepals white, aiUcy. 
lasiantha, Nutt. Leaves 3-foliolate: peduncles»cteate. 
pauciflora, Nutt. Leaves fascicled: akenes smooth, 
verticillaris, DC. Flowers bluish purple, large, solitary. 

2. ANEMONE, LiiuuBUB. 

1. A. occidentalis, Watson. Akenes plumose-tailed: alpine. 

2. A, mxiltiflda, DC. Akenes densely woolly: sepals villoos. 

3. A, nemorosa, Linn. Leaves 3, petioled, temate, inciaely lobecL 

4. A. deltoidea, Hooker. Leaves usually entire, serrate. 










8. THAIilCTRTTM, Toumefort. 

1. T. polycarpum, Watson. Akenes in dense heads, 2 or 3 line* loag^ 

2. T. occidentalis, Gray. Akenes 1 to 6, 3 or 4 lines long, narrower. 
S. T. sparsifl.orura, Tarcz. Anthers obtuse; fruit heads nodding. 

4. TRAXJTVETTEBIA, Fischer & Meyer. 
1. T. graadis, Natt Slender: leaves few, 5-7-lobed, laciniate-toothed. 

5. MYOSUBXJS, Linnaeus. 

1. M. miniTwna^ Linn. Beceptacle in fruit 1 or 2 inches long. 

2. M. aristatus, Benth. Receptacle shorter, akenes beaked. 

3. U. sessilis, Watson. Flowers sessile: fruit heads 2 to 6 lines long. 


• Aqtiatic: leave* round-reniform and lobed or, token mbmened, JUifonn-diaaecUd. 

Petals white: akenes wrinkled crosswise 1, 2 

Petals yellow: akenes not wrinkled 6 

* * Not aquatic : leavta all radical : scapea naked or 1-i braeteate, mostly 1-Jlowered: 
sepals petaloid. 

Sepals white: petals minute: leaves cordate or reniform 3 

Sepals pinkish, penriatent petals pink: leaves compound 4 

* • • Usually grotmng in wet places. 

Leaves all entire, oval or narrower 7, 8, 9, 10 

Leaves rather fleshy, simple or 3-foliolate; lobes rounded 5, 13 

• * * • Not aquatic but some species growing in wet places: leaves variously divided 
or lobed. 

Alpine, tnf ted: leaves round-renifonn to cuneate, small 11 

Some or all the leaves temately compound: stems branching. 

Petals usually more than 6 15 

Petals usually 6 18, 16, 17, 18, 19 

aqiiatilis, Linn. var. heterophyllus. Sepals deciduous: receptacle hairy. 
Lobbii, Hiem. Sepals persistent enclosing the few akenes. 
hystriculUi, Gray. Akenes 2 or 3 Unes long, tapering ; beak hooked. 
Anderson!, Gr. Akenes bladdery, 4 or 5 lines long. 
Cymbalaria, Pursh. Akenes enlarging upward; beak oblique, 
mtiltifldus, Pursh. Petals 5 to 8 with a large scale; beak straight 
pusillus, var. landheimeri, Gr. Akenes granulate. 
Flanuntda, Linn, var. reptans, Gr. Akenes subgloboae. 








































•Mismasfolius, G-eyer. Smooth: akenes in globose head, 
liemmoni, Gr. Sepals villous: akenes pubescent, 
oxynotus, Gr. Leaves small: sepals hairy: heads oblong. 
Bloomeri, Watson. Akenes straight-beaked, 
occidentalis. Akenes flat, often rough ; beak curved, 
canus, Benth. Densely soft villous when young. 
Califomicus, Benth. Petals narrowly obovate, 6 to 20. 
hispidus, Michx. Hispid: calyx scarcely reflexed. 
orthorhynchus, Hooker. Akenes nearly 2 lines long, 
hebecarpus, Hook. & Arn. Flowers minute: akenes bristly, 
muricatus, Linn. Akenes prickly, large, strong-beaked. 

7. CAIiTHA, LinnsBus. 
1. C. leptosepala, D C. Scape-like stems l-flowered. 

8. COPTIS, Salisbury. 

1. C. asplenifolia. Salis. Small petals pouched: sepals slender. 

2. C. occidentalis, T. & G. Petals not pouched, linear. Or. 

9. ISOPYBUM, Linnaeus. 

1. I. occidentalis, Hook. & Am. Several flowers: follicles 6 lines long. 

2. I. stipitatum, Gray. One flower: follicles stipitate, 3 lines long, obtOM^ 

3. I. Hallii, Gray. Large: 7 to 9 flowers: folUcles smaller, acuminate. 

10. AaUILEGIA, Tournefort. 

1. A. truncata, F. k M. Petals truncate, red, yellow-tinged, CaL 

2. A. formosa, Fischer. Similar: petals longer outside. Oregon. 

3. A. cserulea, James. Flowers blue to white: spurs very slender. 

11. DELPHINIUM, Toam. 
Flowers blue, purple or white, in terminal racemes. 

Capsule pubescent 1, 2, 3, 5 

Capsule glabrous 4, 6, 7, 8 

Flowers red or yellowish in loose racemes. 9, 10 

1. D. simplex, Douglas. Stem and raceme strict: sepals* or 5 lines long. 

2. D. variegatum, T. & G. More hairy raceme loose: sepals 6 to 10 lines long. 

3. D. Menziesii, DC. A longer spur: upper petals purple-veined. 

4. D. decorum, F 4; M. Usually smooth: flowers like the last. 

fi. D. depauperatmn, Nuttall. Smaller: possibly variety of the last. 


6. D. Californicum, T. & G. Dull blue flowers velvety: raceme close. 

7. D. glaucum, Watson. Glaucous: pale blue flowers: raceme narrow. 

8. D. trollifolium, Gray. Smooth: leaves shining: flowers large. 

9. D. nudicaule, T. & G. Follicles narrowed at base: G to 12 lines long. 

10. D. cardinale, Hooker. Follicles broader at base, shorter: flowers larger. 

12. ACONITUM, Toumefort. 
1. A- Columbianam, Nutt. Blue flowers or rarely white: hood beaked. 

13. ACT.ffiA, Linnaeus. 
1. A. spicata, var. arg^ta, Torrey. Leaves 2-3-temate: berries red. 

14. P.aEOXIA, Linn. 
1. F. ' Brownii, Dougl. Leathery sepals persistent: seeds 5 or 6 linea long. 


Low shrubs with spiny-toothed pinnate leaves: flowers yellow 1 

Herb : leaves radical, temately compound : flowers nodding, white _ 9 

Herb: radical 3-foliolate leaf solitary: sepals and petals wanting » 8 

1. BERBERIS, Linnaeus. 

1. B. repens, LindUy, Leaflets 3 to 7, ovate, not shiny: not a foot high. 

2. B. Aquifolium, Pursh. Leaflets 7 or more, shiny: berries globose. 

3. B. pinnata. Lag. Petiole short or leaflets at the base: fruit long-ovold. 

4. B. nervosa, Pursh. Leaflets palmately nerved, 11 to 17. 

2. VANCOUVERIA, Morren & Decaisne. 
1. V. hexandra, M. & D. Panicle of white flowers on a scape. 
Var. aurea. Flowers yellow, larger. S. W. Or. ( V. aurea, Greene.) 

3. ACHLYS, DeQandolle. 
1. A. triphylla, DO. Scape ending in a slender spike of minute fl( 


Leaves elliptic-peltate, floating: stems jelly -coated »^.... ,.... 1 

Leaves oblong-cordate, large : flowers large, globose, yellow 9 


1. BRASENIA, Schreber. 
L B. peltata, Pursh, Leaves 2 to 4 inches long: white or purplish floweti. 

1. NUPHAB, Smith. 
1. N. poljrBepalxim, Engelm. Leaves 6 to 12 inches long} stigma broad. 


Darlingrtonia Califomica, Torrey. Hooded tubular leaves with a pair of mus- 
tache-like appendages above the opening: solitary flower nodding on a braoteate scape. 


* Herln vsiih entire narrow leaves; the uppermost vohorled or opposite: sepalaS, cadueoum 
petals 6 in 2 rows, white or yellowish. 

Filiform stigmas 6 to many; ovaries forming a cylinder 1 

Stigmas 3; capsule triangular-ovoid to obovoid or linear 2 

* * Herbs with divided or lobed alternate leaves. 

Sepals 3, winged on the back: half shrubby 8 

Sepals 3 or 2, sharp-homed: bristly with stiff prickles .^ ». . 4 

Sepals 2: stigma slightly 4-8-lobed: slender purplish filaments 6 

Sepals united into a conical cap: slender stigmas unequal ^.. 6 

* * * Shrubs or woody based perennials. 

Sepals 2: buds globular: stigmas 2: leaves entire 7 

Sepals 3: petals 6, very large, white: leaves pinnatifid i A .«...^. .... 8 

1. PLATYSTEMON, Bentham. 

1. P. Califomicns, Benth. Hirsute: peduncles long, axillary. 

2. PliATYSTIGMA, Bentham. 

1. P. lineare, Benth. Hirsute: stems short: peduncles long: stamens maaji 

2. P. Californictmi, B. & H. Capsule 9 to 15 lines long: stamens 10 to 12. 

3. P. Oreganum, B. & H. Capsule shorter: stamens 4 to 6: smaller. 

4. P. denticulatum, Greene. Leaves denticulate: stamens 6 to 9. 

3. ROMNEYA, Harvey. 
1. B.. Coulteri, Harv. White flowers 3 or more inches broad: glancoos leavMk 

4. ABGEMONE, Linnaeus. 
1. A. hispida, Gray. Densely prickly, petals and stamens only excepted. 


6. MECONOPSIS, Viguier. 
1. SL heterophylla, Benth. Capsule truncate, ribbed, beaked. 

6. ESCHSCHOLTZIA, Chamisso. 
[Cup-like toms enclosing the ovary 2-margined; the inner membranons, the onter aod 
lower uaaally thicker (First shown by E. L. Greene)]. 

• Outer margin of the obconical torus a broad green or reddish rim. 

1. E. Califomica, Cham. Smooth, perennial, often decumbent. 

" * Toms unthout conspicuous rim, cylindrical or nearly so. 

2. E. Austinss, Greene. Erect, branching, hairy below. 

3. B. tenujfolia, Benth. Scape-like peduncles square, very slender. 

4. E. rhoxnbipetala, Greene. Square peduncles rough, stout: petals fngadonib 

7. DENDROMECON, Bentham. 
1. 1), ri^dom, Benth. Leaves ovate or narrower, rigid, verticaL 


Corolla flattened heartshaped or 2-Bpurred at base ^ 1 

Corolla l-spurred at base, deciduous „ .,... 8 

1. DICENTRA, Borkhausen. 

• Flowers drooping on a scape : filaments lightly united. 
formosa, DC. Raceme com'pd : persistent petals united, rose color. 
Tuoiflora, Kellogg. Flower solitary, ^ inch long: capsule short, 
pauciflora, Watson. Flowers 1 to 3, 8 to 12 lines long: capsule ezaerted. 
cucvillaria, DC. Raceme simple: spurs divergent. 

" * Flowers narrow, erect, in panicles on leafy stems. 
chrysantha, H. & A. Petals yellow, 6-9 lines long, tips widely diyergent. 
ochroleuca, Eugelmann. Petals yellowish, longer, tips less divergent. 

2. COB.YDALIS, Ventenat. 
aurea, Willd. var. occidentalis, Gr. Flowers golden yellow. 
Scouleri, Hook. Flowers rose-colored in spreading racemes. 
Caseana, 6r. Flowers white or cream-color, bluish tipped. 
Bidwelliss, Watson. Similar, but crest entire, spur carved. 


f 1. Pods splitting when ripe, the sides (valves) separating from a central pair ol 
ribs (placenta) which beu the seeds and usually frame a transparent partition. 






















• Pod* flattened parallel with the partition, the placental rtba forming the margin: radide 
^ftke bent embryo lying against one edge of the cotyledons (accumbent). 
Pods orbicular, nerveless: flowers Bmall, white or yellowish. 

Pods large, flat: seeds orbicular, flat, thin-margined: scapes 1-flowered 1 

Pods less than 2 lines broad: flowers in racemes: leaves spatulate, entire 2 

Pods ovate or lanceolate to linear or oblong not an inch long 8 

j Pods narrowly linear, valves nerveless, partition thickened. 

■ Pods long-beaked: stem leaves few, close together near the top 4 

Pods short-beaked: leaves scattered: racemes longer 6 

Pods linear or narrower, an inch or more long, 1 -nerved: seeds flat. 

Anthers short: petals white, purple or rose-color: claw narrow, blade flat 6 

Anthers sagittate at base: petals usually unequal and crispate or twisted 7 

Sepals broad, not colored, the outer gibbous: petals broad, blade flat 8 

• * Pods terete or scarcely flattened, often 4-angled: radicle lying ctgainst the side of the 

cotyledons or embracing them (incumbent), or turned partly to one side (oblique). 
t Pods slender, 1 to 4 inches long; valves 1-nerved: needs oblong, slightly flattened; cotyledons 
often oblique. 
Flowers white to purple: anthers sagittate. 

Petals undulately crisped, little exceeding the large sepals: claw broad 9 

Petals with flat limb much exceeding the narrow sepals 10 

Flowers yellow, large: stem leaves narrow, mostly entire. 

Anthers linear, at length coiled: pods on long stipes, curved 11 

Anthers sagittate: stigma 2-lobed: pod 4-angled ; no stipe 12 

f t Pods linear, often less than an inch long: seeds in one row (except in 1st sp's. of No. 16 
and in No. 16): at least the lower leaves pinnatifld. ( 

Seeds globose: cotyledons infolding the radicle: anthers sagittate 13 

Seeds oblong: anthers oblong: leaves lyrately pinnatifld, smooth 14 

Seeds oblong, small: anthers sagittate: petals 1 to 3 lines long 15 

. Seeds in two rows: pods 4 to 6 lines long; valves nerveless -. 16 

+ T t Pods oblong-ovoid to globose, beaked with the slender style. 

Densely stellate-pubescent: leaves mostly entire: flowers yellow 17 

* • * Pods flattened contrary to the narrow partition. f 

Pods linear, i to 2^ inches long, on slender axillary peduncles 18 

Pods ovoid, scarcely flattened, on slender scapes. Aquatic 19 

Pods linear, nearly terete: cotyledons 3-parted: petals included 20 

Pods angular-obcordate or oblong-obovate, many-seeded 21 

Pods oblanceolate to obovate or caneate-oblong, 4-8-seeded 22 

Pods orbicular to obovate, 2-winged above, 2-seeded 23 

§ 2. Pods not splitting open when ripe: petals minute w wanting except in the last. 
Pods with 2 small globular seed-like cells, rough 24 


Pods elliptical, t\^sted, flat, 2 lines long, 6-10-seeded S5 

Pods minute, orbicular, bristly with hooked hairs, 1 -seeded 26 

Pods orbicular or obovate, broadly margined, plano-convex, 1 -seeded. 27 

Pods terete, spongy-inflated, tapering above, an inch or more long 28 

1. P. scapigenun, Hook. Glabrous, leaves mostly runcinately lobed. S. N. Mta. 

2. ALYSSUM, Tournefort. 

1. A. calycintun, L. Petals white or yellowish: sepals persistent: pods 4-seeded. 

2. A. maritimum, L. Petals white: pods 2-seeded (known as Sweet Alyssum). 

8. DBABA, Linnsens. 
Stems leafy. Nos. 1 to 4. Stems scape-like, few-flowered, not annuals. N oa. 6 to 10. 

1. D. cuneifolia, Nutt. Hirsute, 1 to 6 inches high: petals white, 1 or 2 lines long, 

2. D. stenoloba, Ledeb. Larger, montane or alpine: petals yellow, obtuse. 

3. D. aureola, Watson. Densely stellate-hairy: raceme dense: petals yellow. 

4. D. corrugata, Watson. Pubescence coarser: racemes looser: pod contorted. 

5. D. crassifolia, Graham. Glabrous: yellow petals a line long: pods acute. 

6. D. Douglasii, Gr. Glaucous: scapes 6 to 18 lines long: petals white. 

7. D. Lemmoni, Wats. Stout caudex branching: scapes an inch high: petals yellow. 

8. D. eurycarpa, Gr. Pod ovate, beaked, 5 to 10 lines long. Sonora Pass. 

9. D. alpina, L. Petals yellow, 1^ to 2^ lines long. Alpine, 

10. D. Howellii, Watson. Similar: petals 3 or 4 lines long: pods often one-sided. 
N.W. Cal. 

4. DENT ART A, Linnaeus. 

1. D. tenella, Pursh. Leaves 1 to 3, 2-5-parted: flowers 3 to 6 lines long. 

2. D. Califomica, Watson. Leaves 2 to 4, toothed, rarely 3-lobed: petals rose-color. 

5. CABDAIOINE, Linnseas. 

Leaves pinnate with several pairs of small leaflets 1, 2, 3 

Leaves pinnate with larger leaflets, or simple. 
Radical leaves 5-7-foliolate; stem leaves with 5 to 9 entire leaflets..... ....... ,.,..».. 4 

Radical leaves mostly simple; stem leaves 3-5-f oliolate ,. 6, 6 

Leaves all temate, the leaflets 3-5-lobed or toothed : tall 7 

Leaves all simple; margin sinuate or entire 8, 9 

1. C. Gambelii, Watson. Leaflets 9 to 13, sessile, acute: petals 4 lines long. 

2. 0. oligosperma, Nutt. Leaflets 7 to 11, petiolulate: petals 1 to 1^ lines long. 

3. 0. hirsuta, L. Stouter: leaflets sessile: flowers larger in longer racemes. 














cuneata, Greene. Tuberiferous like the next: leaflets petioluipite. 
paucisecta, Benth. Petals 6 to 9 lines long, white or pinkish. 
Breweri, Watson. Terminal leaflet much the largest: petals 2 lines long. 
ang^ata, Hook. Flowers few, .3 to 4 lines long: pods short. Oregon. 
COrdifolia, Gr. Stout: leaves cordate- orbicular or narrower. 
bellidifolia, L. Alpine, tufted, 2 or 3 in. high: leaves entire. 

6. ARABIS, Linnasus. 

Pods straight, strictly erect or ascending. 

Flowers white, 2 or 3 lines long, in dense elongated racemes » 1, 8 

Flowers light pink or rose color, 2 or 3 lines long. Alpine 3, 4 

Flowers rose-pnrple, 6 to 9 lines long : leaves dark green, ciliate 5 

Pods curved and usually (except No. 6) more or lees reflexed. 

Pods 3 in. long, ascending: stout, 2 ft. high, branching 6 

Pods I to 4 in. long, strongly reflexed: stem erect, i to 2 ft. high 7, 8 

Pods 3 or 4 in. long, scarcely a line wide, spreading, recurved 9 

Pods sunilar, shorter: stem simple, 2 to 10 in. high, villous 10 

1. A. perfoliata, Lam. Glaucous, stout, 2-4 ft. high: leaves crowded clasping. 

2. A. hirsuta, Scop. Smaller, more hairy: pods half as long, 1-2 in. Or. 

3. A. Iiyallii, Watson. Bright green or glaucous, slender: leaves clasping. 

4. A. platyspenna, Gr. Oanescent with stellate hairs: pods 2 lines wide. 

5. A. blepharophylla, H. & A. Smooth, often tufted. Coast. Monterey to S. P. 

6. A. repanda, Watson. Leaves 3-4 in. long, sinuate toothed: petals 2-3 lines long. 

7. A Holboellii, Hornem. Petals 3-4 lines long, white to purple, reflexed. 

8. A. subpinnatifida, Watson. Leaves coarsely toothed: petals pinkish. 

9. A. arcuata, Gr. Oanescent, hairs branching: petals violet 4-6 lines long. 

10. A. Breweri, Watson. Petals deep rose, 1-4 lines long: sepals purplish. 


Glabrous or glaucous: stem-leaves clasping by cordate or sagittate base. 

Stem-leaves thick, usually toothed, cordate to narrowly ovate 1 

Stem-leaves rounded cordate, often crowded, entire: pods curved 3 

Stem-leaves ovate to lanceolate, acute: pods nearly straight, slender 3 

Stem-leaves spatulate: sepals broad, 3 lines long: petal-blades purple 4 

Stem-leaves very narrow, pinnatifid; or some entire, small and cordate 6 

Stem -leaves very slender, margins involute: outer larger sepals subcordate.. 6 

Glaucous: racemes zigzag: calyx subglobose, black purple 7 

More or less hispid with simple hairs: flowers purple or red. 

Stem-leaves auriculate-clasping, toothed: racemes one-sided 8, 9 

Stem-leaves scarcely clasping: raceme short: flowers often recurved 10 














Stem-leaves an inch or leas long, not clasping: flowers and pods erect. 11 

1. S. cordatus, Nutt. Petals 4-6 lines long, yellowish to purple. 

tortuosus, Kellogg. Petals similar: pods narrower (a line wide). 

Breweri, Gr. Petals 3-5 lines long, purple: pods 1^ to 2J in. long. 

Howellii, Watson. Collected in S.W. Or. by Thos. Howell in 1884. 

diversifolius, Watson. Pods strongly reflexed, slender. Cosumnes River. 

polygaloides, Gr. Sepals yellow: petals purple scarcely exserted. 

niger, Greene. Petals with purple claw and minute veinlea white blade. 

peramsenus, Greene, calyx magenta: blade of petals white, purple-veined. 

glandulosus, Hook. Petals red-purple, 6 to 8 lines long, 
hispidus, Gr. Hirsute, 2-5 in. high: red-purple petals 4-6 lines long, 
flavescens. Hook. Petals yellowish, linear: sepals half as long, acute. 

8. CHEIRANTHUS, Linnaeus. 

1. C. Menziesii, B. & H. Smooth stems scape-like: petals purple. This ia Phomi- 
caulis Menziesii, Greene (the generic name given by Nuttall). 

2. C. asper, C. & S. Stems erect, leafy : petals orange or yellow. 

9. CAXJIiANTHUS, Watson. 
1. C. procerus, Wats. Glabrous, 4 to 7 ft. high, stout, branching: flowers greenish* 

10. THELYPODIUM, Endlicher. 

1. T. brachycarpum, Torr. Stem 1 to 5 ft. high: petals slender, white. S. N. Mta. 

2. T. flavescens, Watson, Sepals hairy, yellowish: pod 1^ in. long. 

3. T. lasiophyllum, Greene. {Sisymbrium rejlexum Nutt.) Leaves pinnatifid: stem* 
1 to 5 ft. high: pods defleied or erect. 

11. STANLEYA, NutxalL 
1. S, pimiatiflda, Nutt. Stems several, 1 to 8 ft. high: petab narrow. 

12. EBYSIiyrcrM, Linnaeus. 
1. £. aspenim, DC. Canescent, leafy: petals 8 to 12 lines long. 

13. BB.ASSICA, Linnaeus. 

1. B. nigra, Boisa. Leaves petioled: pods 4-angled, 6 to 9 lines long. 

2. B. campestris, L. Upper leavea clasping: pods 2 or 3 in. long; beak long. 

3. B. Smapistrnm, Boiss. Rough-hairy: pods 1 to IJ in. long, ^ beak. 

14. BARB ARE A, Robt. Brown. 
1. B. vulgaris, R. Br. Perennial, 1 to 3 ft. high: racemes dense, yellow. 
Var. arcuata, Koch., has poda and pedicles spreading. Wet ground. 


16. SISYMBRIUM, linnseuB. 

Learea 1-2-pinnate; segments usually pinnatifid: dense racemes: pods acute at both ends, 

3 to 6 lines long, pedicels spreading ^ 1, 3 

Leaves pinnatifid or entire: pods 10 to 18 lines long 3, 4 

Leaves runcinate, 3 to 6 in. long: divaricately branched 5 

1. S. canescens, Nutt. Stems (as in all the species) branching: seeds in 2 rows. 

2. S. incismn, Englem. Somewhat glandular: petals 1^ lines long. Montane. 

3. S. junceum, Bieb. Glaucous: petals 3 lines long. Oregon. 

4. S. acutangriiluin, DO. Hairy: leaves runcinate, 2 to 6 in. long. 

5. S. ofiacinale, Scop. Similar: pod 6 lines long, tapering to a point. 

16. NASTXJBTnJM, Robt. Brown. 

1. N. curvisiliqua, Nutt. Leaves pinnatifid: petals but little ezserted. 

2. N. obtusum, Nutt. Petals minute: pods 1^ to 3 lines long. 

3. N. oficinale, R. Br. Aquatic: petals white, 1^ to 2 lines long. 

17. VESIOAMA, Toumefort 

1. V. montana, Gr. Pods oblong-ovoid, 2i lines long. N. CaL 

2. V. Klngii, Wats. Leaves 2 to 6 lines long: pods hairy, ovoid. 

3. V. occidentalis. Flowers 4 lines long: pods globose. N. OaL 

L T. gracile, Hook. Leaves pinnatifid: flowers yellow, 3 to 6 lines long. CM. 

19. SUBULAJilA, Linnseus. 

1. S. aquatica, L. Flowers minute: pods IJ lines long. Mono Pass. 

20. STANFOBDIA, Watson. 
L S. Califomica, Wats. Flowers 3 or 4 lines long on hairy pedicels, pnrpla. 

21. CAFSELLA, Moench. 
L 0. divaricata, Walp. Very slender, difiFuse: pods elliptic oblong. 

2. C. Bursa-pastoris, Moench. Pods cuneate-obcordate. Everywhere. 

23. THLASPI, Linneens. 
L T. alpestre, L. Pods obovate to cuneate-oblong, not acute, beaked. 
2. T. Califomiciun, Watson. Pods oblanceolate, acute, 4 or 5 lines long. N. CaL 






















23. liEPIDIXTM, Liniuens. 

latlpes, Hook. Stont, rigid stem, 1 to 3 in. long; leaves longer: podslong^wingecL 
dictyotum, Gr. var. acutidena Gr. Stem slender, 1 to 3 in. high. 
oxycarpum, T. & G. Slender: petals none: stamens 2: smooth pods nodding. 
xdtidTun, Nutt. Petals small: pods shining, acutely margined, 
strictum. Often matted: sepals persistent: pods erect in dense rs«emei. 
Menziesii, DC. Hispid or pubescent: petals none: pods glabrcus. 
lasiocarpiuxi, Nutt. Rough-pubescent: pods hispid on margin. 
VirginicuTTi, L. Smooth stem erect, at length leafless below, panionlate^ 
Draba, L. Perennial: leaves not lobed: petals large: pods cordate, 
campestre, L. Stout: leaves serrate: pods ovate, broadly winged, scabroiu. 

24. SENEBIERA, De Candolle. 
L S. didyxna, Pers. Hacemes opposite pinnatifid leaves. Hi-scented. 

25. HETEKODRABA, E. L. Greene. 
L H. xmilateralis, Greene. Branching, nearly prostrate; pedicels reflexed. 

26. ATHYSANUS, E. L. Greene. 

1. A. pusillus, Greene. Very slender {Thysanocarpiis pusillus, Hooker^ 


1. T. curvipes, Hook. Leaves clasping: border of pods often perforate. 

2. T. laciniatus, Nutt. More slender: leaves scarcely clasping: pods entire. 

3. T. radians, Benth. Glabrous: pods with radiating ribs, 4 or 5 lines broad. 

28. BAPHANUS, Linnaus. 

1. B. sativus, L. Petals veiny, color variable: pithy pods 1 to 1^ in. long.. 

2. lb. Baphanistrum) L. Similar: pods more constricted between seeds. 


1. ISOMEBIS, NuttaU. 

L I. arborea, Nutt. Yellow flowers in bracteate racemes: stamens ezserted. 

2. CLEOME, Linnaeus. 

I, C. platycarpa, Torr. Erect annual: yellow flowers corymbose; pod hanging. 




5. SOOparitim, Natt. Woody-based stems, slender: flowers yellow. Cent. & S. Cal 


• Leaves aU cordate and reni/orm. 

6tema erect or prostrate: leaves flat ,^. ...... 6> 10, il 

Stemless: flowers white or blue ^ 1, 2 

• * Leaves not all cordate or reni/orm: not lobed. 

Prowers bine or violet and white 3, 4 

Flowers yellow 7, 8, O, 10, 12 

• * * Leaves lobed or divided. Flovoera yellow or yettow and purple or blue. 

Stems a few inches to a foot high 6, 12 

Stems short or none 13, 14, 15 

1. V. blanda, Willd. White flowers, Alpine in wet places. 

2. V. cucullata, Ait. Light blue to white petals, 5 to 8 lines long. 

3. v. canina, Linn. var. adunca Gr. Blue flowers, long spurred. 

4. v. cuneata, Watson. Leaves tapering at base: flowers purple and white. 

6. V. ocellata, T. & G. Leaves coarsely crenate: flowers white, purple marked. 

6. V. Hallii, Gr. Gray-green: upper petals purple; lower light yellow. 

7. v. pedunculata, T. & G. Orange-yellow petals brown on the back. 

8. V. praemorsa, Dougl. A variable species heretofore known as V. aurea, KelL 
Leaves ovate or narrower, crenate. 

9. V. Nuttallii, Purah. Leaves oblong, margins entire. N. Cal., Or. 

10. V. sarmentosa, Dougl. Slender stems prostrate: leaves smalL 

11. v. glabella, Nutt. Leaves large, bright green, thin, acute. 

12. V. lobata, Benth. Leaves pedately lobed or some entire. 
Var. integrifolia, Watson. Leaves not lobed: coarsely toothed. 

13. V. chrysantha, Hooker. Leaves bipinnatifid: flowers like No. ?• 

14. V. Beckwithii, T. & G. Flowers purple or blue and yellow. 

15. V. Sheltonii, Torr. Narrower petals yellow, purple veined. 


Side sepals petaloid, larger: petals 3 united with stamens, middle one hooded and 

beaked 1 

and petals 5 each, unequal: stamens 4: fruit prickly 2 


1. POLYGAIiA, Tournefort 

1. P. cucullatat Benth. Flowers rose-color: broad beak obtuse. Cal. 

2. P. Califomica, Nutt. Flowers greenish, purplish: sepals tomentose. CaL-Oi. 

2. TTR. A TVTTg'R.T A ^ Linnaeus. 
1. K. parvifolia, Benth. Low rigid shrub: upper petals united. San Diego. 


1. FBANKENTA, Linnaus. 
L 7> grandifolia, C & S. Gray-green: calyx-tube furrowed: petals pink. 


• Sepals united : petala long-clawed. 

Petals with erect bi&d appendages at the base of the blade. 

Styles 2 (lap. in No. 3). Styles 3 1 

Styles 5, rarely 3 or 4: alpine 2 

Petals not appendaged. Styles 2 3 

Styles 3: petals bifid, white Sp. No. 6 of 1 

• " Sepals distinct or nearly so: petals without daws or appendages. 

Stipules none: petals white (or pink in No. 9): rarely wanting. 

Petals bifid: pod cylindrical 4 

Petals bifid or wanting pod globular to oblong 5 

Petals entire or wanting: styles opposite sepals 6 

Styles not opposite sepals 7 

Stipules scarious: pedicel long, reflezed in fruit: leaves not rigid, fascicled, rather 

fleshy, filiform to linear: petals entire 8 

Styles 3, rarely 5 (petals wanting in 3d species) 9 

Stipules scarious: pedicels bracteate or none: stamens 3 to 5: style 3-cleft, or sessile 
stigmas 3: petals minute or wanting. 

Leaves not rigid: capsule globose 10 

Leaves and aepals rigid: capsule S-sided II 

1. SZLEXE, Linnaeus. 

• Blade of the petals entire or only < 

Hairy: pinkish flowers in a 1-sided leafy spike *...-...... 4 

Glabrous: glutinous rings on the stem: pedicels long ►. 6 

Viscid-pubescent; leafy: pedicels short: petals with 4 appendages 21 

* • Blade of the petals bifid or 2-lobed. 


m. Segmants or lobes of the petals entire. 

Bladt. a^br^ly 2-lobed: appendages entire: calyx ovoid or campannlate. 

Flowers Beveral, slender pedicelled, broMmish porple ...'.•»•... 9 

Flowers solitary, long pedoncled 8 

Flowers small, white: no appendages 6 

Blade cleit ^ «boat the middle or deeper, rose color (except 18). 

Appendages notcHed: claw filaments and stipe woolly ^ . .^ 17 

Appendages toothed: claw very narrowly auricled, smooth 16 

Appendages entire: claw not anricled, smooth: blade rose purple 16 

Appendages very small: petal lobes very narrow, white If 

Appendages narrow: claw broadly anricled: petal-lobes broad 1 

b. Segments lobed, toothed or notched. 

Lobes notched: short appendages toothed: claw not anricled « ^.^^.. 16 

Lobes with a tooth on the outside: claw broad, auricled. 22 

Lobes broad: appendages notched: claw auricled 20 

Lobes slender, bifid: narrow claws with projecting auricles 14 

• * * Blade of petals j^-S-parted. 

Flowers white or pinkish: lobes of the petals mostly filiform. 

Caljrx open campannlate, nodding: filaments exserted, hairy , 1 

Calyx OToid-cylindrical, deflexed in fruit: claws hairy 10 

Calyx oblong, erect, mnch surpassed by the rotate petals 7 

Calyx cylindrical, little surpassed by the equally 4-clef t petals 12 

Calyx little exceeded by narrow half -inch petals: filaments exserted 13 

Flowers scarlet or deep purple, large. 

Appendages oblong-lanceolate: claw ciliate: capsule ovoid 8 

Appendages ovate: claw smooth: capsule oblong 9 

Appendages linear, half as long aa the purple blade : claw slightly hairy ^.. 11 

1. S. campanolata, Watson. Filiform-disected petals reflexed. 

2. S. Lyalli, Watson. Stems slender, glabrous: anthers included. 

3. S. monantha, Watson. Stems weak, elongated. Columbia River. 

4. S. Gallica, Linn. Bough-hairy: small flowers nearly sessile: annual. 

6. S. antirrhina, Linn. Glabrous, slender: petals equaling the calyx: ftnTitm^, 

6. S. Menziesii, Hooker. Numerous weak stems: flowers small, white. 

7. S. Hookeri, Nutt. White-tomentose, leafy: erect flowers over an inch broad. 

8. S. Calif omiea, Durand. Glandular- pubescent: 6 inches to several feet high. 

9. S. laciniata, Cav. Narrower leaves: petals 4-clef t; segments entire. CaL 

10. S. Lemzaoni, Watson. Stems many, decumbent, branched: petals white or pinkish. 

11. S. occidentalis, Watson. Stems erect: petals 4-cleft: stipe 3 lines long. 
22. S. montana, Watson. Auricles and appendages of petals lacerate. 

JS. S. Palmeri, Watson. Stamens and style much exserted: filaments hairy. 


14. S. Oregana, Watson. Petals 2-parted, the segments filiform: ovary longnrtiped. 

15. S. pectinata, Watson, Viscid: calyx deeply cleft: petals deep purple. 

16. S. incompta, Gray. Viscid, tall: lobes of the petals often toothed. 

17. S. verecunda, Watson. Stems clustered, simple: capsule exserted. 

18. S. Bridgesii, Rohrb. White petals very narrow: styles long. 

19. S. Douglasii, Hooker. Similar to No. 17: ovary about equaling calyx. 

20. S. Scoiil«ri, Hooker. Stout: leaves distant: ovoid capsule, long-stiped. Or. 

21. S. Spaldingii, Watson. Viscid, leafy: capsule oblong, short-stiped. Or. 

22. S. Gxayii, Watson. Cespitose, grayish: petals and appendages broad. Alpine. 

2. liYCHNIS, Toumefort. 
1. L. Califomica, Watson. Petals bifid, lobes on the sides. Alpine. S. N. Mttk. 

3. SAPONABIA, L^aeus. 
Vaccaria, L. Glaucous: calyx 5-angled: entire petals not appendaged. Nat. 
officinalis, L. Calyx not angular: petals emarginate, crowned. Nat 

4. CERASTIUM, Linnaeus, 
nutans, Raf. Viscid, annual: capsule curved, long exserted. San Diego, 
arvense, L. Downy, cespitose: capsule nearly straight, short. 
viscos\im, L. Viscid, annual: leaves broad: capsule straight, long, 
vnlgatum, L. Leaves narrower: pedicels longer: capsule broader, 
pilosum, Ledeb. Flowers i in. or more broad: capsnle-teeth coiled. Coast 

6. STELIiARIA, Linnsos. 

Bracts small and scarious or none: leaves acute. 

Smooth and shining or glaucous: pedicels erect «.i.i.... 1^ 2 

Glabrous: flowers in umbel-like cyme, long-pediceled 8 

Bracts foUaceous: pedicels spreading or deflexed. 

Glabrous: petals 2-parted, included or wanting ^ . . . 4 

Pubescent, rather stout, 1 or 2 ft. high: petals exceeding calyx. 5» 6 

Pubescent, spreading: leaves ovate, petioled: petals included. 7 

1. S. nitens, Nutt. Annual: flowers erect; pedicels short: sepals 3-nerved. 

2. S. long^pes, Goldie. Often glaucous: leaves stiff: pedicels long. 

3. S. uznbellata, Turcz. SepjJs 1 -nerved: petals none: capsule exserted. 

4. S. borealis, Bigelow. Stems weak: pedicels 5-7 lines long: capsule ovoid. 
6. S. Jamesii, Torr. Viscid: leaves acuminate, long: petals 4-6 lines long. 

6. S. littoraUs, Torr. Leaves ovate, rounded at base: styles rarely 4. 

7. S. media, Linn. Weak: a hairy line on the stem: petals included, 2-parted. 
















6. AB.ENABIA, LimuBnt. 

• The S valve* of the eapntle S-clefi or parted: cespitose perennials with Unear-aiAuiate leaves 

and mostly scarious bracts. 

Petals exceeding the sepals; the capsule about equaling them li 3 

Petals abont equaling the sepals: leaves pungent 8» 4, 5 

* * The S valves entire', annuals; bracts leaf-like. 

Much branched: leaves filiform, 3-12 lines long 6, 8 

Smooth: leaves lanceolate, obtuse, 1 or 2 lines long 0, 10 

Leaves linear to lanceolate 6-12 lines long 7, 11 

• • • Parts of the flower sometimes in 4's: capsular valves bifid: haves bright green, 1 or 2 

iTiehes long 12, 13 

1. A. congesta, Nutt. Glaucous: flowers in dense fascicles: bracts broad. 

2. A. capillaris, Poir. Pubescent: flowers few: bracts small, lanceolate. 

3. A. pungens, Nutt. Stems 2 or 3 inches high, leafy, pubescent. Subalpine. 

4. A. Franklinii, DougL Stouter: sepals shining, margin scarious. Or. 

5. A. vexTia, Linn. Leaves erect, 2-3 lines long: sepals exceeding petals. 

6. A Bouglasii, T. & G. Capsule globose: seeds flat, smooth. 

7. A. HoweUii, Watson. Glandular-hispid, a foot high. Or. 

8. A. tenella, Nutt. Capsule oblong: seeds rough: sepals 3-nerved. Or. N. 

9. A. Califomica, Brewer. Sepals 3-nerved: Seeds rough. Cent. Cal. 

10. A. pusilla, Watson. Sepals 1 -nerved: petals minute or none: seeds smooth. 

11. A. palustris, Watson. Stems simple: leaves flacoid: few pedicels long. 

12. A. macrophylla. Hooker. Leaves acute, 3 or 4 pairs: petals obtuse. 

13. A. lateriflora, Linn. Leaves broader, obtuse: petals exserted. Or. 

7. SAGINA, Linnssus. 

1. S. occidentalis, Watson. Slender: 2-6 inches high: pedicels straight. 

2. S. Idnnsei, Presl. Densely matted: 1-2 in, high: fruiting pedicels curved. 

3. S. crassicaulis, Watson. Stout, branched: leaves fleshy, scarious at base. 

8. SFEB.GXJLA, Lionseus. 
L S* arvBZLsis, L. Leaves filiform, smooth: sepals and petals equaL 

0. LEPIGONTJM, Fries. 

1. Ij. macrothecmn, F. & M. Pubescent: sepals and petals 3 lines long i 

2. li- medium, Fries. More slender: flowers smaller, white. 

3. li. gracUe, Watson. Annual, smooth, slender: sepals ^-1 line long. 

10. POLYCABPON, Linnaeus. 
L P. depressum. Nutt. An inch high: petals included, entire. 


11. liCEFLINGIA, LiniUBUfc 
I*, squarross, Nutt. Glandular-pubescent: 2-6 inches high. 


PENTAC-ffiNA, Bartling. 

1. P. rajnosissima, H. & A. Prostrate: subulate pungent gray-green leaves crowded! 

stipules silveiy: sessile flowers clustered: sepals 5, hooded, ending in a spine. 


• SepaU S, united bdovo and adherent to the partly vtsferwr ovary. 

Flowers yellow or rose-red: capsule opening by a lid. 1 

* * Sepals S, persistent, not adherent to the superior ovary. 
Style 3-cleft (rarely 2-clef t in Calandrinia) : sepals green. 

Stamens more than 6: petals 5 or more • 2 

Stamens 5 (3 in No. 8): petals 6 3 

Stamens 3: petals 5, unequal, coherent: leaves or leaf and bract opposite 4 

Style 2-clef t: sepals membranous rounded-cordate exceeding the 2 or 4 petals 5 

• • " Sepals 4 fo 8, distinct, unequal, persistent 6 

1. POBTUIiACA, Toumefort. 

1. P. oleraceav L. Leaves obovate to spatulate: petals yellow, 1 to 2 lines. SsA. 

2. P. pilosa, L- Leaves linear: nearly terete: petals red, 2 or 3 lines long. 


Leafy stems, annnal: flowers in racemes: petals 3 to 5, rose-red,, 1, 2 

Leaves mostly all radical: perennial: sepals orbicular. 

Leaves linear, all radical: short scape 2-bracteate. Alpine 3, 4 

Leaves oblanceolate to obovate, all radical (except No. 5) 5, 6, 7 

1. C. Menziesii. Hooker. Sepals keeled, acute: capsule ovoid, acute. 

2. C. Braweri, Watson. Capsule longer, conical, obtuse on deflexed pedicels. 

3. C. pygnmsBa, Gray. Bracts scarious: sepals dentate: petals red. 

4. C. Nevadensis, Gr. Larger: bracts green: sepals entire: petals white. 

5. C. oppositifolia, Watson. Stem with 2 or 3 pairs of opposite leaves: petals whit«, 

6. C. cotyledon, Wat. Scape with lanceolate ciliate bracts: petals rose-red. 

7. C. Leana, Porter. Similar: petals 6 to 8. N. Cal. Or. 


8. CliAYTOinA, Linnsens. 

a. Annnab with fibroas roots, rarely with ijnlblets. 

Stems simple, bearing a single pair of united or distinct leaves. 

Xeayes united into a cup enclosing the raceme ►^^ 1 

jjeayes united at the base on one or both sides 2, 8 

Leaves distinct (No. 4 with bulblets at base) 2, 8, 4, 6, 11, 13 

Stems usually branching, leafy. 

Leaves opposite stems often rooting at joints and bulbiferouB. 6 

Leaves alternate 7, 8, 9, 10 

b. Perennials, with deep-seated tubers, stem leaves, a pair or a whorl. . 11, 12, 13 

1. C. perfoliata, Donn. From 1 to 12 inches high: radical leaves broad. 
Var. parviflora, Torr. Radical leaves all linear or spatulate. 

2. C, spathnlata, Dongl. Very slender: leaves distinct or united on one side. 

3. C. exig^ua, T. &. G. Glaucous: leaves nearly filiform; the pair broader, united 
at base. 

4. C. bolbifera, Gr. Stems lax: long pedicels with conspicuous bracts. 

5. C. cordifolia, Watson. Pair of leaves ovate, acute; radical, cordate: no bracts. 

6. C. Chamissonis, Esch. Leaves oblanceolate: petals white. 

7. C. parviflora, Mocino. Very slender: leaves broadly spatulate, small. 

8. C. dichotoma, Nutt. Small: leaves linear: petals unequal: stamens 3. 

9. C. linearis, Dougl. Leaves slender, clasping: sepals broad, often colored: petala 

10. C. diflPusa, Nutt. Leaves ovate or deltoid, petioled: racemes often axillary. 

11. C. Caroliniana, Michx., var. sessilifolia, Torr. Usually one radical leaf ; th« 
pair lanceolate to linear: a single scarious bract. 

12. C. triphylla, Watson. Leaves slender: raceme compound, bracts scarious. 

13. 0. Nevadensis, Watson. Leaves ovate to orbicular: petala 3-5 lines long, clawed. 

4. MONTIA, LinniBUB. 

1, M. fontana, L. Stems-weak, often matted: flowers minute: capsule globose. 

2. M. Howellii, Watson. Leaves opposite the scarious trianguljur bracts of racemeiL 


1. O. nmbellatuin, Greene, Umbel capitate: petals 4: stamens 3: style eiserted. 
This plant is Spraguea umbellata, Torr. 

2. C. quadripetaliuu, Watson. Petals 4: stamen 1: stigmas nearly sessile. 

3. O. roseum, Watson. Petals 2, much shorter than the unequal sepals. 

4. C >noDandrani, Nutt. Petals 2, equalling the sepals, a line long or lew*. 


6. liEWISIA, Punih. 

1. li. rediviva, Pnrsh. Scapes with a whorl of scarious bracts. 

2. L. brachycalyx, Engelm. Scapes 2-bracted at base: sepals 4. 


Small prostrate aqnatics with entire leaves: parts of the flower each 2 to 4 (except in 

sp. No. 3). Sepals obtnse: membranaceous 1 

Erect, glandnlar-pabescent: parts of the flower in 5's ^.». 2 

ELATINE, Linnsas. 

1. E. Americana, Amott. Seeds pitted in 9 to 10 lines, i line long. 

2. E. brachysperma, Gray. Seeds pitted in 6 or 7 lines, shorter. 

3. E. Califomica. Flowers not sessile: seeds much cnrred: stamena 6 to & 

BEBGIA, LdnnssTiB. 
1. & Texana, Senbert. Leaves sermlatn: flowers faadolad. 


HYFEBICUU, Linnnas. 

Stamens rery numerous: styles 3, long , 1, 9 

Stamens 16 to 20: styles 3, short: petals included 8 

1. H. formostim, HBE. var. Scouleri, Coulter. Flowers 6 lines broad. Wet ground. 

2. H. concizmtun, Benth. Leaves acute: flowers an inch broad. Dry ground. 

3. H. anagalloides, C. & S. Leaves 2-6 lines long: flowers 3^ lines broad. Wet 


Column of stamens bearing anthers at the «op'. carpels in a ring around the axis. 

Calyx-bracts 2 or 3, united below: an evergrjen ^ver-blooming shrub 1 

Calyx-bracts 3, distinct: flowers axillary, pinkish: leaves 5-7-lobed 3 

Calyx-bracts none: flowers racemose or spicate 3 

Calyx-bracts 1 to 3 or none: densely tomentos* (except in gp. 6 & 7) .... 4 

Calyx -bracts 1 or 2, slender: leaves 1-sided: flowers yeMowish 5 

Column of stamens naked at top, S-toothed: carpels forming a many-seeded capsule. 
Calyx-bracts many 6 


1. liAVATERA, Linnseus. 
It. assurgentiflora, Kellogg. Showy flowers in axillary clusten. 

2. MAIiVA, Linn. 
M. rotondifolia and M. borealis are introduced weeds. 

3. SIDAIiCEA, Gray. 

• Perennials with usually clustered stems decumbent at bate. 

Raceme loose : no stellate hairs : rose-purple petals an inch long 1 

Raceme spicate: simple and stellate hairs: petals notched, pinkish, 6 lines long. 2 

Like No. 2, but the larger flowers deep lilac-purple 3 

Stems branching: calyx globose in fruit: carpels smooth, straight 4 

Nearly glabrous, glaucous, pale, decumbent: petals obtuse or truncate 5 

Stellate pubescence short: large leaves dark green, slightly 5-lobed 6 

* • Annuls with erect branching sterna. 

Carpels strongly incurved and sharply rugose on back 7 

Carpels not incurved or rugose, conspicuously hairy-beaked 8 

Carpels several — nerved along the back: calyx-lobes abruptly acuminate J. 

Pedicels subtended by 5-7-parted hispid bracts: calyx-lobes slender 10 

Large, with cordate, 3-7-angIed leaves: white flowers in close clusters: 11 

1. S. malvaeflora, Gr. (S. humilis, Gr. of CaL Bot., etc.) Common coast species. 

2. S. spicata, Greene. Carpels small, hairy, not reticulaled. Sierra Nevada. 

3. S. campestris, Greene. Stems bristly with deflexed hairs: calyx stellate-hairy. 

4. S. Oregana, Gr. Glabrous below, 1 to 5 ft. high: corolla 6 lines long op more. 

5. S. glaucesens, Greene. Calyx lobes very slender. High Sierras. 

6. S. asprella, Greene. Decumbent, leaves shaped alike. Foot Hills, Sierras. 

7. S. Hartwegi, Gr. Glabrous except the hispid calyx and pedicels. Sac. Val. 

8. S. hirsuta, Gr. Stout and tall, branching: flower-clusters dense. Chico, Cal. 

9. S. calycosa, Jones. Corolla small, light purple: calyx long-ciliate. Cent. Cal. 

10. S. diploscypha, Gr. Hirsute: flowers large, umbellate clustered. Cent. Cal. 
Var. zninor, Gr. Flowers racemose: petals with a spot at base. Cent. Cal. 

n. S. malachroides, Gr. Petals obcordate: carpels smooth. Redwoods, Cal. CoMt» 


.Perennial, often shrubby: stems hoary or gray with soft pubescence .., 1 to 6 

Perennial: densely stellate-hairy or hispid: dense-flowered 6 

Annual erect with spreading hairs: leaves reniform, long petioled 7 

Annual, decumbent: small leaves 5-lobed: flowers mostly solitary 8 

1. M. Thurberi, Gr. Shrubby, branches slender: spikes naked: flowers smalL 


2. M. Fremonti, Torr. Similar: calyx globose in fruit, very woolly. 

3. M. splendidum, Kellogg. Tall shrub: flowers in large panicles, rose-red. S. CaL. 

4. M. m^rrubioides, D. & H. Low: leaves serrate, thick: calyx-lobes slender. C.Cai, 

5. M. Palmeri, Watson. Densely stellate-pubescent: large flowers yellowish. 

6. M. densifloriim, Watson. Hispid bracts very long: calyx-lobes long attenuate. 

7. M. rotundifolixini, Gr. Low: petals 6 lines long, a red spot at the base. S. CaL 

8. T/L. exile, Gr. Pedicels slender: petals obovate, 2 to 5 lines long. S. CaL 

5. SIDA, Linnaans. 
]. S. hederacea, Torr. Decumbent: leaves 1-sided: petals yellowish. 

6. HIBISCUS, Liniuens. 
1 . Calif omicua, Kellogg. Flowers axillary, white with pnrple, large. 


1. "F. Calif omica, Torx. Tall shrub: flowers yellow, axillary, apetalooa. S. N. Mta. 


lilNTTiyC, Linnseos. 

Styles 2: flowers yellow: leaves opposite, glabrous, oblong 1 

Styles 3: flower yellow: leaves alternate 2, 3 

Styles 3: flowers white to rose-color: leaves alternate (or whorled in 7). 

Petals with 3-parted or 31obed appendage at base 5, 6, 7 

Petals 2-toothed at base, scarcely longer than the sepals 8 

Styles 5: flowers large, blue: leaves alternate 9, 10 

1. L. digyntun, Gr. Sepals denticulate, a line long. Near Yosemite Valley. N. Cal. 

2. Ij. Brewerl, Gr. Glaucous: leaves small, very slender, basal glands large. 

3. li. adenophyllum, Gr. Leaves margined with stipitate glands. Cent. Cal. 

4. li. Califomiciun, Benth. Glaucous: petals 4 lines long: capsule acute. 

5. li. congestum, Gr. Calyx pubescent: flowers in close clusters. S. F. Bay. 

6. li. spergrulinvun, Gr. No stipular glands: petals 2-3 lines long. S. F. Bay, 

7. li. drymarioides, Curran. Pubescent: leaves ovate, margins glandular. C. CaL 

8. li. micranthtun, Gr. Flowers minute: capsule exserted. Mts. Cal. 
0, li. perenne, Linn. Perennial, glaucous: flowers large, blue. 

10. li. usatissimum, L. Similar but annual. The common cultivated flax. 



CarpelB 6, l-eeeded, separating with styles when ripe from the long Kds. 

Fertile stamens 10: tails of carpels coiled, not bearded ! 1 

Fertile stamens 5: tails of carpels twisted, bearded 2 

Carpels 5, 1-seeded, fleshy, globular: stamens 10 3 

Carpels united into a 5-celled ovary: capsule 6-sided. 4 

1. GEB.ANIUM, Ldnnaeus. 

1. Q. Caroliniaatmi, L, Petals 2 or 3 lines long. A common weed. 

2. G. incisom, Nntt. Flowers deep rose-purple, an inch broad. 

2. EB0DIT7M, L'Heritier. 

L E. cicutarium, L'H. Pinnate leaves: leaflets pinnatifid, ("Filaree.") 

2. E. moschatum, L'H. Leaflets doubly toothed: musky. 

3. E. Botrys, Bertoloni. Leaves oblong, pinnatifidly lobed. Cent. Cal. 

4. E. macrophyllum, H. & A. Leaves palmately lobed. Cent. & S. Cal. 

8. LIMNANTHES, Kobt. Brown. 

L "L. Bcmglasii, R. Br. Glabrous: petals yellow, white tipped. Cal. 

2. L. rosea, Hartweg. Glabrous: petals purple tinged, obovate. Sac. VaL 

i. Lt. alba, Hartweg. Pobescent: petals white or nearly so. Cal. 

4. OXAL.IS, Linnaeus. 

1. O. Oregana, Nntt. Flowers pinkish. In coast forests. 

2. O. trilliifolia, Hook. In Oregon (?). 

3. O. comiculata, L. Slender branching stems: flowers yellow. 


A tail shrub or tree: leay«8 3-foliolate: flowers in terminal clusters .^ 1 

A low shrub: leaves simple, opposite: flowers axillary -. 8 

1. PTEIiEA, Linnseus. 
1. P. aogustifolia, Benth. Fruit broadly winged, orbicular. Cent. Cal 

2. CXEOHIDIUIff, Hook. f. 
L O. doznOBiun, H. f. Leaves often fascicled: fruit drape-like. San Diego. 



A slender deciduous shrub with 4-angled branches: leaves 2-4 inches long 1 

A low much-branched evergreen: leaves 6- IS lines long, numerous 2 

1. EUONYMTJS, Tournefort. 
1. E. occidentalis, Toum. Flowers dark brown, parts in 5's, rotate, drooping. 

2. PACHYSTIMA, Kafinesque. 
1. P, Mersinites, Baf. Flowers greenish, parts in 4*8, about a line broad. 


Flowers greenish. Leaves alternate : flexuose branches spiny 1 

Leaves alternate: not spiny: fruit juicy. ; 2 

Leaves opposite, 1 or 2 lines long: fruit dry 3 

Flowers white or blue, in dense clusters: fruit dry 4 

1. ZIZYPHTJS, Jussieu. 
1. Z. Parryi, Terr. Peduncles axillary, recurved in fruit, 1-3-flowered. 

2. BHAMNTJS, Linnaeus. 

Flowers apetalons and mostly dioecious: seeds concave 1, 2 

Flowers with minute petals, mostly perfect: seeds convex on the back 3, 4 

1. B.. alnifolia, L'Her. Low: deciduous leaves acute at each end, serrate. 

2. R. crocea, Nutt. Leaves acutely denticulate, evergreen, thin. 

3. R. CaUfomica, Esch. Leaves elliptical to ovate-oblong, evergreen, thick. 
Var. tomentella, Gr. Densely white-tomentose. Both forms common in Cat 
4- R. Purshiana, DC. Elliptical leaves 2 to 7 inches long, decidaoua. 

3. ADOLPHIA, Meisner. 

1. A. CaUfomica, Watson. la dense clumps 2 or 3 ft. high, branchleta spiny. 

4. CEANOTHTJS, Linnseus. 
§ 1. Leaves all alternate: fruit not crested. 
Leaves 3-nerved from the base. 

Branches not rigid or spiny: leaves glandular serrate (except Na 1). 

Flowers white in large clusters «►... 1, 2, 8 

Flowers blue 4, 6, 6 


Branches rigid, spreading, often spinose: racemes simple. 

Leaves glandular-serrate: flowers blue 7, 8 

Leaves usually entire: branches grayish 9, 10, 1 1 

Leaves pinnately veined, obtuse: flowers blue (see No. 5) 12, 13, 14, 15 

§ 2. Leaves small, often opposite, very thick with numerous straight side veins, 
spinosely toothed or entire: stipules mostly large and warty: flowera in sessile or shortly 
peduncled axillary clusters: fruit with 3 projections: branches rigid 16 to 20 

1. C. integerrimus, H. & A. Slender branches round: leaves thin. 

2. 0. velutlnus, Dougl. Stout: leaves thick, resinous above. 

3. C. sang^neus, Pursh. Branches reddish: leaves thin; petioles slender. 

i. 0. thyrsiflorus, Esch. Branches angled: leaves shining above, ashy beneath. 

5. C. dentatUo, T. & G. Leaves mostly 3-4 lines long, thin: thyrse globose. 

6. C. decumbens, Watson. Trailing, hirsute: leaves thin, teeth green-glandular. 

7. C. hirsutus, Nutt. Silky, rarely spiny: leaves rounded or cordate at base, acute. 

8. C. eorediatus, H. <fe A. Leaves smooth above: racemes pubescent, peduncles short. 

9. C. divaricatus, Nutt. Branches sometimes green: racemes 1-4 inches long. 

10. C. incanus, T. & G. Leaves hoary beneath; racemes short: fruit warty. 

11. C. cordulatus, Kell. Pubescent, low, flat-topped: racemes an inch long or less. 

12. C. spinosus, Nutt. Often a tree: leaves entire, oblong, thick; petioles slender. 

13. 0. papillosus, T. &. G. Leaves narrow, dark green, shining and pimply above. 

14. 0. floribundus, Hooker. Leaves 3-4 lines long, acute, undulate, denticulate. 

15. C. Veitchianus, Hooker. Glabrous, leaves thick, obovate-cuneate. Rare. 

16. C. crassifolius, Torr. Branches hoary: leaves tomentose beneath. Cal. Coast, 

17. C. cuneatus, Nutt. Bark ashy gray: leaves cuneate-obovate, entire. Common. 

18. C. macrocarpus, Nutt. Tree-like, 8 to 12 ft. high: fruit very large. St. Barbara. 

19. C. rigidus, Nutt. Branchlets tomentose: leaves 2 to 5 lines long: flowers blue. 

20. C. prostratus, Benth. Prostrate: leaves spinose at apex only: flowers blue. 


VITIS, Tournefort. 
1. V. Calif omicSt Benth. Leaves round-cordate, serrate. (Wild Grape.) 


Flowers in large terminal erect thyrses: calyx tubular: clawed petals unequal 1 

Flowers small, the fertile ones in drooping clusters: ovary 2-lobed: fruit 2- winged. 

Leaves palmately lobed. * 


Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate 3 

Flowers in drooping racemes: stamens 5, much exserted: leaves 3-foliolate, serrulate... 4 

1. .ffiSCXJLTJS, Linnaeus. 
1. M. CalifomictlS, Nutt. Leaves palmately 4-7-foliolate. (Buckeye.) 

2. ACER, Toumefort. 

1. A. macrophylluin, Pursh. Yellowish flowers in dense racemes: fruit hairy. 

2. A. circinatum, Pursh. Corymbs 10-20 flowered: sepals red or purplish. 

3. A. glabrum, Terr. Sepals and petals greenish yellow: filaments naked. 

3. NEGUNDO, Mcench. 
L N. Califormcom, T. & G. Calyx minute: petals none, dioecious. (Box-Elder.) 

4. STAPHYIiEA, Linnaeus. 
2. S. Bolanderi, Gr. Leaflets broad, stipellate: fruit bladdery, Shasta. 


RHUS, Linnaeus. 
Slender deciduous shrubs: leaves 3-foliolate: fruit compressed globose. 

Flowers in dense axillary panicles: fruit smooth, dry, whitish , 1 

Flowers in short scaly-bracted spikes: fruit hairy, gummy, scarlet 2 

Stout, diffuse evergreen shrubs: leaves simple, coriaceous: frait ovoid. 

^ Flowers rose-color: leaves ovate on short petioles 3 

Flowers yellowish: leaves lanceolate on slender petioles 4 

1. E. diversiloba, T, & Gr. Stems erect or climbing by rootlets (Poison Oak). 

2. R. aromatica. Ait. var. trilobata, Gr. Diffusely slender-branched. 

3. R. integrifolia, B. & H Leaves entire or spinosely-toothed: fruit red, frosty. 

4. R. latirina, Nutt. Leaves glaucous, entire: panicles 2-4 inches long. 


§ 1. Stamens distinct: shrubs (except No. 1). 

Leaves palmately 3-foliolate: yellow flowers in terminal close racemes. 1 

Stiff, much branched, evergreen: flowers red-purple, solitary, axillary 2 

Leaves pinnate: flowers purple in dense axillary spikes: petal 1 


Leaves simple, entire, cordate: flowers rose-purple in axillary clusters 14 

§ 2. Stamens all united or one above distinct: herbs (except some in 3 & 7). 

* Leaves pcdmate vnth more than S leaflets: flowers in heads or racemes. 
Leaflets entire. Spikes or racemes terminal: anthers of 2 kinds 3 

Yellow flowers 1 to 5 with a bract Sp. No. 10 in 7 

Purplish flowers: stipules not adnate, deciduous 8 

Leaflets toothed or entire: stipules adnate: anthers alike § 1 in 4 

" * Leaves S-foliolate, palmaXe or pinnate. 

Leaves palmate: flowers in heads or short spikes: corolla persistent. 4 

Leaves pinnate: flowers in axillary spikes or racemes. 

Corolla yellow or white: pod wrinkled: leaves fragrant 5 

Corolla purple or greenish: leaflets entire: stipules free 8 

Corolla yellow or purple: leaflets toothed : pod curved or coiled 6 

Leaves pinnate. Flowers in small axillary clusters, yellow: pod spiral, prickly 6 

Flowers solitary or in wheel-like clusters, axillary 7 

* * * Leaves pinnately Jf-many-foliolate with a terminal leaflet. 

Flowers solitary or in umbellate whorls, axillary 7 

Flowers in axillary spikes: pod prickly: leaves sticky 10 

Flowers in axillary spikes or heads: pod often inflated, often 2-celled 11 

• * * * Leaves pinnate, ending in a bristle, imperfect leaflet or a tendril. 

Style filiform, hairy around the apex 12 

Style flattened, usually twisted half around, one side hairy 13 

1. THERMOPSIS, Robt. Brown. 

1. T. Californica, Watson. Short-woolly: pod 6-8-ovuled, stipe short. 

2. T. montana, Nutt. Rather silky: leaflets smooth above: pod 10-12- seeded 

3. T. macrophylla, H. & A. Villous: leaves oblong-elliptical acute: seeds 4 or 5. 

2. PICKEKINGIA, Nattall. 
1. P. montana, Nutt. Leaves 1-3-foliolate, numerous: atamenB persistent. 

I 3. IjUPINUS, Linnaeus. 

"A. Perennials, more or less shrubby, leafy, silky: ovules 6 to 12 1, 2, 3, 4 

!b. Perennial herbs, mostly tall; floioers large; bracts deciduous: ovules 6 or more. 

Woody at base: silky: calyx -lips nearly equal 1, 2, 3 

Stems mostly stout an'd hollow: leaflets glabrous above 5, 6 

Stems slender, not erect: leaflets an inch long or less 7 

Stems leafy and branching: petioles and bracts short 8, 9, 10 

C. Perennial herbs: flowers small: (Ex. No. IS J: not yellow: ovules 3 to €. 

Leaves distant, not glabrous above; lower petioles long: keel ciliate 11 to 16 


Leafy: petioles and peduncles mostly short: bracts deciduous: ovules 3 to 5 . . 17, 18, 19 

D. Dwarf alpint perennials, mostly tufted: lower calyx-lip S-toothed: keel ciliate; pod 
hairy, 3-4- seeded 20 to 23 

E. Annuals: leaflets mostly 5 to 7 (8 to 10 in No. 29): bracts falling with or before the 
petals: upper calyx-lip 2-parted or bifid: pod 4-8-8eeded. 

Bracts deciduous: flowers in whorls, 5 or 6 lines long 24, 25 

2 or 3 lines long 26 to 28 

Bracts deciduous or persistent for a while: flowers scattered 29 to 35 

F. Annuals: ieaflets cuneate-oblong or obovate: bracts conspicuous, persistent in fruit: ovules 
^ and seeds 2 36 to 38 

1. Ii. arboreus, Sims. A shrub: flowers yellow, rarely purplish, fragrant. Cal. 

2. Ii. Chamissoms, Esch. A low shrub: flowers blue, rarely violet, pink or white. 

3. L. Donglasii, Agardh. Woody at base: much like forms of the last. Cal. 

4. L. Ludovicianus, Greene. Shrubby: very villous: flowers purple: pod 5-seeded. 

5. L. polyphyllus, Lindl. Leaflets numerous, large: raceme purple, long. 

6. L. rivularis, Dougl. Stipules very slender: leaflets 7 to 10: petioles short. 

7. Ii. littoralis, Dougl. Leaflets 6 to 12 lines long: racemes short: ovules 10 to 12. 

8. L. Sabinii, Dougl. Stipules long, setaceous: flowers bright yellow. Blue Mts. 

9. L. albicaulis, Dougl. Reflexed margin of the acute standard coherent at apex. 

10. L. ornatus, Dougl. Standard silky: keel ciliate: stipules setaceous: seeds white. 

11. lu sericeus, Pursh. Bracts long: calyx densely silky, gibbous: pod densely hairy. 

12. Ii. leucophyllus, Dougl. Densely silky: dense racemes sessile: standard hairy. 

13. Ii. Grayi, Watson. A span high: very hoary-tomentose: racemes short, loose. 

14. L. lepidus, Dougl. Low, slender, silky: peduncle and raceme long: petals viole*. 

15. Ii. confertus, Kell. Similar but bracts persistent: corolla blue to rose. 

16. Ii. onustus, Watson. Decumbent woody base: flowers deep blue, scattered. 

17. Ii. parviflorus, Nutt. Stems slender, 2 or 3 ft. high, strict, glabrous above. 

18. Ii. Andersoni, Watson. Appressed-pubescent, much branched: racemes short. 

19. Ii. laxiflorus, Dougl. Silky: raceme slender: calyx saccate or spurred. 

20. Ii. aridus, Dougl. Raceme dense, 2 or 3 inches long: peduncle short: petals purple. 

21. Ii. minimus, Dougl. Similar, more silky: peduncles longer: standard broader. 

22. Ii. Breweri, Gr. Stems from spreading woody base: densely silky: leaflets obovate. 

23. Ii. Iiyallii, Gr. Similar: petioles longer: standard narrower: petals violet. Or. 

24. L. afiB.lus, Agardh. A foot high: leaflets broadly obovate: bracts short. Cal. 

25. Ii. nanus, Dougl. Slender: bracts long: petals broad, purple and white. Cal. 

26. Ii. micrantlius, Dougl. Slender, branched, decumbent, villous: racemes short. 

27. Ii. trifidus, Torr. Similar: lower calyx-lip 3-cleft: pod 5-6-seeded. SanF'coBay. 

28. Ii. citrinus, Kell. Similar: calyx-lip 3-toothed: flowers orange or yellow. Fresno. 

29. Ii. leptophyllus, Benth. Bracts very long: standard with a crimson spot. CaL 

30. L. spar siflorus, Benth. Similar: bracts short, persisting longer: petals violet. 

31. Ii. truncatus, Xutt. Linear leaflets truncate or 3-toothed, smooth above: petala 


purple. This and the last two in Cent. Cal., southward. 
32. li. Stiveri, Eell. Leaflets broad: petioles short: standard yellow: wings rose. 
38. li. hirsutissimus, Benth. Very hispid with viscid stinging hairs: petals purple. 

34. L. concinnus, Agardh. Very villous: lower calyx-lip trifed: standard with yellow. 

35. li. gracilis, Agardh. Leaflets broad, 3 to 6 lines long: petals 2 or 3 lines long, 
blue and white. Monterey, S. Eare. 

36. L. microcarpus, Sims. Calyx very villous: flowers usually blue or purple. 

37. li. densiflorus, Benth. Calyx only finely pubescent: flowers usually yellowish, 

38. li. luteolus, Kell. Leaves scattered: petioles short: flowers pale yellow. CaL 

4. TBIFOIiinM, LinnsuB. 

Leaflets mostly 6 to 7 •• 1 to 4 

Leaflets 3: heads with no involucre. 

Flowers white or yellowish: leaflets linear to oblong 5, 6, 7, 12 

Flowers red, 6 lines long or more 8, 9 

Flowers small, at length reflexed 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 

Leaflets 3: heads with an involucre: peduncles axillary. 

Livolucre green, rotate, the lobes laciniately toothed. 17 to 20 

Involucre with entire lobes 21, 25, 26 

Livolucre cup-shaped or broad, lobes toothed 22, 23, 24 

Involucre very small or reduced to a ring 26 

§ 1. Leaflets 5 to 7, rarely 3: calyx teeth filiform, plumose. Alpine perennials. 

1. T. megacephalum, Nutt. Leaflets obovate or narrower, toothed; flowers spicate. 

2. T. Anderson!, Gr. Densely silky: leaflets entire, acute: flowers umbellate. 

3. T. liemmoni, Watson. Leaflets coarsely serrate: flowers reflexed: ovules 2. 

4. T. Plummeree, Wat. Matted, hoary: leaflets 3 to 5, oblanceolate: ovary hairy. 

§ 2. Leaflets 3: heads not involucrate, terminal or apparently so, pedunculate: flotoert 
sessile or nearly so (except No. 12) : only No. IS annual (its heads in one form, sessile). 

5. T. eriocephalum, Nutt. Flowers in dense spikes, soon reflexed: ovaiy hairy. 

6. T. plumosvun, Dougl. Similar: flowers not reflexed; ovary smooth. 

7. T. longipes, Nutt. Similar: ovoid heads smaller: nearly glabrous. 

8. T. altissimum, Dougl. Leaflets very acute: 4 calyx teeth curved or twisted. 

9. T. Beckwithii, Brewer. Leaflets broader: heads globose: calyx teeth straight. 

10. T. Kingii, Watson. Leaflets acute: rachis produced: flowers rose-purple. 

11. T. Bolanderi, Gr. Cespitose the short stems decumbent: ovary smooth, 2-ovuled. 

12. T. Breweri, Watson. Very slender, diffuse: flowers few, nearly white, pediceled. 

13. T. Macraei, H. & A. Erect slender, 6 to 12 inches high: heads ovoid: pedunclea 
long, or, in var. dicbotomum, Brewer, short. (?) 

§ 3. LeaJUta 3: heads small, not involucraie, ptduncxtlate, axillary: flowers on short, 
at length reflexed pedicels: glalrrou* annuals: ovules 2. 


14. T. gracilentoin, T. & G. Flowers pale-rose to red-purple: calyx-teeth snbalate. 

15. T. ciliatxun, Gr. Similar: calyx teeth scarious margined, ciliolate. 

16. T. bifidum, Gr. Like 14 but smaller, the narrow leaflets bifid. 

§ 4. Leaflets S: heads tubtended by an involucre: peduncles axillary: flovoera in whorU, 
tetaUe or nearly so: annuals. 

* Involucre deeply many-cleft, ladniate: eoroUa not becoming inflated. 

17. T. involucratiixn, Willd. Leaflets mostly oblanceolate, acute. 

Var. heterodon, Watson. Larger heads: leaflets broader: ovules same, mostly 5 or 6. 

18. T. tridentatum, Lindl. Slender and erect: leaflets very narrow: ovules 2. 
Var. obtusiflorum, Watson. Stout decumbent, glandular: leaflets broader. 
Var. nxelanthtun, Watson. Smooth, slender: heads of dark purple flowers small. 

19. T. pauoiflorum, Nutt. Slender, weak: heads few-flowered: calyx teeth long. 

20. T. monantlium, Gr. Decumbent stems 1 to 4 inches long: heads 1 to 4-flowered. 
• * Involucre light green, often whitish-acarious at base, not deeply lobed, broad as the the 

head, and saucer-shaped or cup-like: corolla not becoming inflated, or moderately 
so in No. S4- 

21. T. microcephalimi, Pursh. Soft hairy: involucre about 9-lobed, lobes entire. 

22. T. microdon, H. & A. Involucral lobes 3-toothed: calyx -teeth scarious-serrulatflL 

23. T. cyathiferuin, Lindl. Smooth: bristly -branched calyx -teeth equaling the 
corolla. Eel Eiv. and Sierra Val. to the Columbia Riv. 

24. T. barbigerum, Torr. Mostly less than a span high: calyx teeth bristly, long. 
Var. Adrewsii, Gr. Stouter, more hairy: plumose calyx teeth very long. 

* * * Involucre rotate, lobes entire or wanting: corolla inflated in fruit. 

25. T. fucatum, Lindl. Yellowish or white flowers often reddish tinged, large. 

26. T. depauperatvun, Desvaux. Slender: flowers small: involucre often a ring. 
Var. amplectans has a larger 4-5-parted involucre. Heads in both forms smalL 

5. MELHiOTTJS, Toumefort. 

1. M. parviflora, Desf. Flowers yellow a line long: spikes slender. (Sweet Cloven) 

2. M. officinalis, Willd. Similar flowers 2 lines long on slender pedicels. 

3. M. alba, Lam. Flowers white. All introduced from Eu. The first common. 

6. MEDICAGO, Linnsus. 

1. M. sativa, L. Flowers blue-purple in close nearly capitate racemes. (Alfalfa. ) 
2 M. denticiilata, Willd. Flowers yellow: pod globose-coiled, prickly. (Bur Clover.) 
8. M. znacolata, Willd. Similar: leaflets with a dark spot. All iotroduced from En. 

7. HOSACKIA, Douglas. 
Flowers solitary OT rarely 2 in the axils: no stipules. 

Peduncle bracteate or rarely naked 9 to 18 


Peduncle none or very short 14, 16 

Flowers in pedunculate umbels or whorls. 

Peduncle with a compound or simple bract. 

Bract below the top of the peduncle : stipules large 1,2,3 

Bract at the top of the peduncle. 

Stipulate leaves smooth 4, 5 

Stipulate leaves pubescent 1, 6, 7, 8 

Stipules none. Pod with 5 or more seeds 8 to 12 

Pod 1-2-seeded 17, 19, 22 to 25 

Peduncle not bracteate. Stout, erect: pod more than 5-seeded 4 

Slender, prostrate : pod 1-2-seeded 19, 20 

Flowers in nearly or quite sessile umbellate clusters: pod l-2-8eeded. 

Nearly smooth, somewhat woody 16, 18 

Very pubescent (silky or tomentose) 21, 23, 24, 25 

§ 1. Pod linear, straight or nearly so, 5-20-seeded (2-4- seeded in 15) glabrous or nearly so 
(except in 10 and 16). 

• Leaves with stipules, leaflets 6 to SO: umbels pedunculate: fiowers 6 lines long or longer: 

heel obtuse: erect perennials. 
t Flowers dull-colored, yellowish and purple. 

1. H. incana, Torr. Low, stout, densely silky: peduncles about 6 lines long. 

2. H. stipnlaris, Benth. Taller, villous, glandular: peduncles longer, 

3. H. crassifolia, Benth. Erect, tall, nearly or quite glabrous: peduncles long. 

1 1 Flowers rather showy, larger. 

4. H. bicolor, Dougl. Glabrous: flowers yellow with whitish wings. 

5. H. g^racilis, Benth. Similar: larger flowers with purplish wings. 

6. H. oblongifolia, Benth. Flowers yellow and purple, standard orange. 
Var. angusttfolia, Watson. A span high: leaflets narrow: umbels 1-5-flowered. 

7. H. Torreyi, Gr. Silky: standard yellow, wings and keel white. 

8. H. macrantha, Greene. Stipules deciduous: petals yellow standard 6 lines broad. 

• * Stipules reduced to dark, often minute, glands (see No. S): leaflets S to 9 (1 to S in No. 

14): claws of petals not exserted. 

t Peduncles long, 1-8 -flowered: flowers exceeding 5 lines long: perennials: more or less 

oppressed silky: leaflets obovate or narrower, rather acute. 

9. H. grandiflora, Benth. Flowers yellowish or greenish white, rarely purple 

10. H. rigida, Benth. Petioles short or none: flowers yellow, becoming brown. 

t T Peduncles 1-6-flowered, about equaling the leaves: flowers less than 6 lines long: yellow 
in 11, 12; pinkish in 13, I4. 

11. H. maritima, Nutt. Leaflets fleshy, 4 to 6 lines long, obovate or narrower. 

12. H. strigosa, Nutt. Diffuse, strigose: leaflets linear, rarely ovate, smalL 

13. H. parviflora, Benth. Very slender: flowers 2 or 3 lines long, rarely yellow. 

14. H. Piirshiana, Benth. Widely branching, silky: flowering July to October. 


1 1 1 Flowera nearly sessile and mostly solitary, not bracteate {see 12): leaves with a broad 
rachis which bears 3 to 6 leaflets at the end and one side. 

15. H. subpinnata, T. &, G. Much branched, usually decumbent or aacending and 
a few inches high: flowers yellow. Very common in Central Cal. 

Var. major. Erect, corymbosely branched above, 6 inches to 3 ft. high, flowers pinkish. 
Northern Cal. to Washington. 

16. H. brachycarpa, Benth. Soft-hairy: flowers yellow: hairy pod 2-4-seeded. 

§ 2. Pod with a long slender incurved beak, 1-2- seeded: claw of the standard remote from 

the rest: umbels sessile or on short peduncles (except Nos. 18, 20): flowers less than 

6 lines long: stipules minute dark colored glands: leaflets 3 to 7. 

• Nearly glabrous: slender stems virgately branched: pod only slightly pubescent, S-seeded. 

+ Somewhat woody at the base: stems angled: leaflets mostly 3. 

17. H. glabra, Torr. Stems very many erect or decumbent: leaves and fl's crowded. 

18. H. cytisoides, Benth. Similar: peduncles with a bract: calyx-teeth often recurved. 

19. H. juncea, Benth. Leaflets broader: some of the flowers pedunculate. 

1 1 Not woody, stems terete: leaflets usually 5 to 7, and 2 or S lines long. 

20. H. prostrata, Nutt. Leaflets obovate, acute: flowers 2 or 3 lines long. 

21. H. micrantha, Nutt. Flowers smaller: peduncle naked: style hairy. 

* * Very silky or tomentose; herbaceous stems terete: pod hairy: mostly 1-seeded: leaflets 6 to 

7 (usually 3 in 22). 

22. H. sericea, Benth. Densely white-silky: umbels loosely few-flowered. 

23. H. argophylla, Gr. Umbels 6-10-flowered: flowers orange or yellow. Sierras. 

24. H. decumbens, Benth. Villous and tomentose: stems diff'use: Ivs and fls crowded. 

25. H. tomentosa, H. & A. Very tomentose, prostrate: flowers 3 or 4 lines long. 

26. H. Heermannii, D. & H. Less tomentose more branched: leaflets and fl's smaller. 

8. PSOBAIiEA, Linnseus. 

Leaflets 3, orbicular on long petioles from creeping stem .^ 1 

Leaflets 3, rombic-ovate to narrowly ovate: stems erect 2, 3, 4 

Leaflets 5, rarely 7 : clustered stems very short 5 

1. P. obicularis, Lindl. Peduncles a foot or two long. In wet ground. Cal. 

2. P. strobilina, H. & A. Stems 2-3 ft. high: peduncles shorter than the leaves. CaL 

3. P. macrostachya, DC. Often 6 ft. high or more: peduncles exceeding the leaves. 

4. P. physodes, Dougl. Stems numerous, 1 or 2 ft. high: flowers greenish. Coast. 

5. P. Califomica, Watson. Silky-gray: leaves exceeding the close racemes. Rare, 

9. AMORPHA, Linnaeus. 

1. A. Califomica, Nutt. Glandular, 3 to 10 ft. high: standard exceed by stamena. 

10. GL.YCYRRHIZA, Linnaeus. 
1. Q. lepidota, Nutt. var. glutinosa, Watson. Flowers white or pinkish, 6 lines long. 


11. ASTRAGALUS, Toumefort. 

" Annticds: pods ^-celled. 

Pods 1 or 2 lines long, 2-seeded, wrinkled: spikes short 1, 2 

Pod linear, straight, 5 to many seeds: flowers capitate 8, 4 

Pods 3 to 5 lines long: spikes of small white flowers very long 5 

Pods ovoid, long-beaked, gray-silky : flowers capitate, white 6 

• * Perennials: pods 1-celled, with thin walls, infMed, bladder-like. 

Pods on stipes equaling or little exceeding the calyx 7, 8, 9 

Pods on filiform, stipes much exceeding the calyx: stem erect 10, 11, 12 

Pods sessile in the calyx, 1-2 inches long: many seeds 13 to 17 

5 to 8 lines long: stems low: flowers 3 lines long 18, 19 

• " • Perennials: pod* turgid, not bladder-like, coriaceous, densely long-woolly or downy, 

incurved 20, 21, 22 

* * * * Perennials: pods often turgid, not bladder-like, not long-hairy or woolly. ^ 

Pods stipitate, 1-celled, sutures not inflexed 23 to 26 

2.celled: cross section obcordately 2-lobed 27 

Pods not stipitate, 1 or 2 inches long, 1-celled 28, 29 

2 or 3 lines long, 2-celled 30 

2 lines long, hoary, cylindric-oval 31 

3 lines long, 1-celled: leaflets spiny-tipped 32 

1. A. didymocarpus, H. & A Calyx equaling the erect pod, black-hairy. 

2. A . nigrescens, Nutt. Calyx ^ as long as the pendulous lightly wrinkled pods. 

3. A. tener, Gr. Violet and white flowers: pods 5-7 lines long, drooping. 

4. A. Rattani, Gr. Flowers larger, violet: pods slender, 1-1^ inches long, erect 

5. A. Clevelandii, Greene. Tall: leaflets ^-f in. long, mncronate. 

6. A. Breweri, Gr. Similar in habit to No. 4: pods 3-4 lines long, beaks longer. 

7. A. Hookerianus, Dietr. Diffuse, silky, a span high: pod obovoid, obtuse. 

8. A. oxyphysus, Gr. Erect, 2 or 3 ft. high, silky: pod slender-obovoid, acuminate. 

9. A. curtipes, Gr. Lower, not silky: stipules united: pod ovoid or oval, acute. 

10. A. leucophyllus, T. & G. Oval pod one-sided, filiform hairy stipe very long. 

11. A. leucopsis, T. & G. Similar pod tapering into a smooth stipe half as long. 

12. A. trichopodus, Gr. Pods smaller, 6 lines long or more, stipe 3 lines long. 

13. A. oocarpus, Gr. Straggling stems 3-6 ft. long: green stipules mostly deflexed 

14. A. Crotalariaa, Gr. Scarious stipules distinct: ovoid pod 1-1^ inches long. 
16. A. Menziesii, Gr. Similar: upper stipules united: pod larger, more bladdery. 

16. A. macrodon, Gr. Like the preceding: flowers smaller: peduncles short. 

17. A. Douglasii, Gr. Spike an inch long or less: pod ovoid 1^-2 inches long, 

18. A. Homii, Gr. Pods iu a dense head or short spike, ovoid, acuminate, hairy. 

19. A. Pulsiferae, Gr. White hairy: pods few ovoid, curved, 3-8-seeded. hairy. 
20 A. PursLii, DougL Tufted, silky: peduncles 5-6-flowered: pod ovoic 
























Andersoni, Gr. Densely white-hairy: leaflets 13-25 pairs: pods falcate. 
Congdoni, Watson. Less hairy: leaflets 8-10 pairs: pod narrower. 
Gibbsii, Kellogg. Soft-hairy: pod much curved, an inch or more long, 
collinus, Dougl. Hoary: pod slightly curved, erect, less than 1 inch long. 
Califomicus, Greene. Stouter: pod straight, purple-bloched, 1^ inches long. 
Antiselli, Gr. Ashy -hairy; leaflets 21-29: straight pod, 8-9 lines long. 
Bolanderi, Gr. Scarious stipules united: pcd ovoid, curved, veiny. 
Webberi, Gr. Silvery-silky: pods thick- walled, glabrous, sutures prominent, 
pychnostachyus, Gr. Stout, hoary: pods reticulated, thin- walled, acute. 
Lemmoni, Gr. Slender, procumbent, green: leaflets 9-11, mucronate. 
Austinse, Gr. Tufted, silvery-silky: flowers in a close head, whitish. 
32. A Kentrophyta, Gr. Flowers 1-3 on very short peduncles, 2 lines long. 

12. VICIA, Toumefort. 

Perennials: peduncles 4-18-flowered 1, 2 

Annuals: peduncles short, 1-2-flowered 8, 4 

1. v. gigrantea, Hooker. Stout, 5-10 ft. high: petals dull-purplish. 

2. V. Americana, Muhl. Glabrous, 1-4 ft. high: leaflets 8-16, variable. 
Var, truncata, Brewer. Leaflets truncate or toothed at apex, somewhat hairy. 
Var. linearis, Watson. Leaflets linear: mostly low and slender. 

3. V. exigua, Nutt. Mostly low: leaflets about 8: flowers 3 lines long, purplish. 

4. V. sativa, Linn. Stouter: flowers nearly sessile, 1 inch long, violet 

13. LATHYRTJS, Linnasus. 
Leaves with tendrils: racemes several — many-flovxred. 

Pod not on a stipe. Stipules large: glabrous 1, 2, 3 

Stipules narrow: more or less pubescent 7, 8 

Pod on a short stipe. Stems stout, tall 4, 5, 6 

Leaves without tendrils, or rarely with them: pods on short stipes 9, 10, 11 

1. It. maritimus, Bigelow. Leaflets 3-5 pairs, close flowers purple. 

2. Ij. polyphyllus, Nutt. Similar: leaflets 6-10 pairs, thin, not sessile. 

3. L. sulphnreus. Brewer. Flowers sulphur or dull yellow, 5-7 lines long. 

4. Ij. Nuttallii, Watson. Loosely woolly-hairy: petals red-purple, 6-8 lines long. 

5. li. Califomicus, Watson. Stem winged: leaflets soft-pubescent: petals 7-9 linei 
J long, yellowish or pinkish. This and next under L. venosus, in Bot. Cal., etc. 

6. Ij. Eolanderi, Watson. Stems wingless: glabrous: flowers purple. 

7. Ij. vestitus, Nutt. Slender: stems wingless: flowers pale rose or violet. 

8. Ij. palustris, L. Leaflets 2-4 pairs, linear: flowers few, purplish, small 

9. li. litoralis, Endl. Densely silky: a small terminal leaflet: pod hairy, 

10. li. Nevadensis, Watson. Slender: standau-d purplish; wings and keel yellowish. 


11. li. Torreyi, Gr. Acute leaflets 6 lines long: purplish flowers solitary. 

14. CEBCIS, Linnaeus. 
C. OCCidentalis, Terr. Small standard enclosed by the wings: pods red. 


* Shrubs or Trees. 

a. Flowers white, S lines or more across: carpels 1-6, distinct. 

Carpel 1, becoming a drupe (like a cherry or plum) 1 

Carpels 5 (or often wanting), stamens 15: racemes drooping: cherry-like 2 

Carpels 2-5, becoming inflated, usually reddening: stamens 20 or more 7 

Caqjels 5, hairy: leaves bipinnate, leaflets minute: panicles leafy 8 

Carpel 1, becoming an akene: low shrub: leaves tripinnate 9 

b. Flowers white, 2 lines broad or less, in dense panicles: carpels 1 to 12. 

Stamens 20 or more: flowers in plumose panicles: leaves large, lobed 6 

Stamens 10-15: evergreen leaves 2-4 lines long: panicles erect 18 

c. Flowers rose-color or pale purple, small: carpels 6, distinct 3 

d. Flowers 3 lines or more across: carpels 2-5, enclosed by thefieshy calyx-tube forming an 

inferior ovary {partly inferior in 24)' 

Evergreen leaves serrate: carpels 2: stamens 10: berries scarlet 24 

Deciduous leaves simple: flowers corymbose. 

Fruit red or yellow: no spines or thorns 25 

Fruit black or purple: spinose 26 

Deciduous leaves simple: flowers racemose: petals oblong 27 

<• Flowers 6 lines broad or more: stamens and carpels numerous', fruit like a blackberry or 

raspberry 10 

/. Flowers solitary, axillary, small: petals none: calyx white, the limb deciduous: carpel 1 

(rarely 2), long plumose tailed 11 

g. Flowers rose-colored an inch or more across: stamens many: ovary apparently inferior: 

stems slender, prickly: leaves pinncUe 23 

• Herbs. 

a. Flowers 6 lines broad or more: akenes forming a berry 10 

b. Flowers very small {except 1 sp. in S), white: calyx lobes 6 {no intermediate lobes or bract- 

lets): stamens 20 or more: carpels 3-10. 

Leaves very large, tripinnate : spikes in large panicles .- 4 

Leaves twice or thrice 3-cleft: raceme shv/m 5 

Leaves entire, rosulate, silky: scape low 3d sp. in 3 

Leaves 5-7-lobed with small basal leaflets: petals 2-3 lines long 4th sp. in 3 


«. FLowera yellow, white or purple: calyx appendaged between the lobes, or apparerUly un- 
equally 10-lobed. 
Stamens 20 or more: carpels very numerous: receptacle conical to clavate 

Akenes with hooked or plumose tails 12 

Akenes seed-like on a juicy receptacle: leaves 3-foliolate 13 

Akenes seed-like on a dry receptacle. (Try No. 16 and 17.) 14 

Stamens 20 or less: carpels few or many on a dry receptacle. 

Stamens 10 (or 20 and corolla pink): corolla white: receptacle nearly naked 16 

Stamens 5 to 20; Blaments slender: carpels few or 1 : receptacle hairy 17 

Stamens 5: carpels 5 to 10: leaflets 3, cuneate, 3-5-toothed 15 

d. Flowers small: carpels 1 to 3 becoming akenes enclosed by the firm calyx-tube forming a 
apparently inferior ovary. 

Leaves pinnate flowers in heads or spikes. 

Calyx with barbed prickles : petals none: anthers purple 21 

Calyx with a margin of hooked prickles: petals yellow 20 

Calyx 4-angled, naked, limb petaloid : petals none 22 

Leaves palmately lobed: greenish apetalous flowers axillary 19 

1. PRUNUS, Tournefort 

Flowers white; scraggy or spiny: leaves ovate, an inch long or less 1, 8 

branches slender: leaves 1 to 4 inches long 2, 4 

low: leaves spatulate, entire, 6 lines long, sessile 7 

evergreen leaves, shining, prickly toothed, broad 5 

Flowers rose-color: low, spiny: leaves oblanceolate, 6 to 12 lines long 6 

[The first species is a small plum, the others scarcely edible cherries.] 

1. P. subcordata, Benth. Bark ashy gray: flowers in small lateral clusters. 

2. P. emarginata, Walpers. Bark chestnut brown: corymbs 6-12-flowered. 
Var. mollis, Brewer. Taller, becoming 25 ft. high, woolly. Oregon. 

3. P. Fremonti, Walp. Flowers solitary or few together: ovary densely hairy. 

4. P. demissa, Walp. Dense racemes 3-4 inches long, erect: leaves large. 

6. P. ilicifolia, Walp. Racemes small, axillary: fruit ripening in November. 

6. P. Andersoni, Gr. Low, diffuse: leaves oblanceolate, acute: fruit velvety. 

7. P. fasciculata, Gr. Similar: slender petals recurved: stamens 10-15: 

2. NXJTTAIiLIA, Gray. 

1. N. cerasiformiSt T. & G. Dioecious: 1 to 4 of the carpels maturing drapei. 

8. SPIRufflA, Linnaeus. 
• Shrubs with rose-colored or purplish Howera: carpels 6. 
1. 8. bettilasfolia: Pallas. Pale purple flowers in corymbs. Alpine. 


2. S. Douglasii, Hooker. Darker flowers in dense panicles. Wet places. 

• * Herbaceous with a woody base: flowers white. 

3. S. csespitosa, Nutt. Tufted: flowers in dense spikes on leafy scapes. 

4. S. occidentalis, Watson. Simple glabrous stems 2-6 ft. high: panicle cymoMw 

4. ARXJNCUS. Linnaeus. 
1. A. Sylvester, Eost. Smooth, 3-5 ft. high: flowers dioecions: stamens exserted. 

5. ERIOGYNIA, Hooker. 
1. £. pectinata, Hook. Cespitose, creeping; branches erect: stamens included. 

6. HOIiODISCXJS, Maximowicz. 
1. H. discolor, Mcix. Flowers mostly dull white or light buff: carpels haiiy. 

7. PHYSOCAB.PUS, Maximowicz. 
I. P. opulifolia, Max. Bark shreddy: leaves 3-lobed: corymbs 2 inches broad. 

8. CTTATVr^BATTARIA, Maximowicz. 
1. C. MillefoliuTn, Max. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, 1 -.?. inches long. 

9. CHAM ^iB ATI A, Bentham. 
1. C. foliolosa, Benth. Strong scented, viscid: leaves ovate to oblong. 

10. B.XJBXJS. Linnaeus. 

Stems woody: leaves simple, palmately lobed : no prickles 1 

Stems woody: leaves mostly 3-foliolate: more or less prickly 2. 3, 4 

Stems herbaceous, trailing, not prickly : carpels few 5, 6 

1. R. Nutkanus, Mocino. Large leaves: large rose-like flowers. 

2. R. leucodermis, Dougl. Leaves white below, veins pricky. (Kaspberry.) 

3. R. spectabilis, Pursh. Flowers large, red-purple: fruit yellow or crimson. 

4. R. ursinus, C. & S. Stems weak, often long-trailing: very prickly. (Blackberry.) 

5. R pedatus. Smith. Leaves 3-foliolate or nearly 5-foliolate: fruit red. 

6. R. lasiococcus, Gr. Stouter: leaves mostly 3-5-lobed: fruit tomentose. 


i. C. parvifolius, Nutt. Evergreen: leaves veiny, serrate above: wood hard. 

\ 0.. ledifolius, Nutt. Leaves narrow, entire margins revolute. (Mt. Mahogony.) 











12. GEUSI, Linnsas. 

1. G. macrophylltun, Wild. Flowers yellow: style jointed: akene-tails hooked. 

2. G. triflorum, Pursh. Flowers pnrplish: styles plumose: akene-tails feathery. 

13. FB.AGAB.IA, Tournefort. 

* Akenes deeply pitted in the depressed-globose fruit. 
Chilensis, Ehrh, Leaves thick, dark green, shining: flowers large. Coast. 
Virginiana, Ehrh. Similar: flowers smaller: fruit darker. 

* * Akenes on the surface of the ovoid fruit. 
Califomlca, C. & S. Light green thin leaves: petioles not silky. 
vesca, L. Similar: larger. Perhaps No. 3 is only a variety of this. 

14. POTENTELLA, Linnsus. 

* Style attached at or below the middle of the ovary. 

A foot or two high: leaflets 5-9, coarsely serrate: petals yellow or white 1 

Creeping: leaves and peduncles radical: leaflets 7 to many: petals yellow. 2 

Stems stout, rooting at the joints: flowers dark lurid-purple 3 

Shrubby leaflets entire, silky, margins revolute 4 

* * Style attached at or near the top of the ovary: stamens 20. 
Alpine or subalpine (altitude 7,000 ft. or more) leaflets an inch long or less. 

Densely white tomentose: leaflets 7 to 13: carpels stipitate 5 

Silky -villous: leaflets closely pinnate or palmate 8, 9 

Glabrous: leaflets 3, broadly cuneiform, 7-9-toothed 11 

In the mountains but mostly lower than 7,000 ft. 

Leaflets 6-15, deeply serrate or pinnatifid 6, 7 

Leaflets 3, toothed above 10, 11 

1. P. glandulosa, Lindley. Petals usually shorter than the calyx. 
Var. Ifevadensis, Watson. More slender: stamens sometimes only 20. 

2. P. Anserina, L. Long runners: leaflets with smaller ones between. Wet places. 

3. P. palustris. Scop. Many fibrous roots: leaves palmate: leaflets serrate. Swamps- 
P. fruticosa, L. Much branched: stamens 30: carpels very villous. 

5. P. Breweri, Watson. Leaflets nearly equal, 3-6 lines long: petals large. 

6. P. Plattensis, Nutt. Slender stems 3-12 inches long: leaflets pinnatifld. 

7. P. gracilis, Dougl. TaUer, more hairy: leaflets and flowers larger. 
Var. rigida, Watson. Tall and stout, not tomentose. The common form. 

8. P. dissecta, Pursh. Leaflets pinnatifid or coarsely serrate: tufted-hairy, 

9. P. Wheeleri, Watson. Leaflets cuneate, 3-5- toothed, 6 lines long or less. 

10. P. Grayi, Watson. Low stems 3-6-flowered: leaflets 5-7-toothed. 

11. P. gelida, C. A. Meyer. Leaflets larger, broader, end one nearly sessile. 


16. SLBALDIA, Linnaens. 
I. S. procumbens, L. Stems creeping: calyx lobes exceeding the minute petklSi 

16. HORKELIA, C. & S. 

Styles thickened at the base: leaflets incised 6-12 lines long 1- 

Calyx-bracts nearly as broad as the lobes: leaflets 3-8 lines long 3 

Calyx-bracts much narrower than the lobes. 

Leaflets deeply incised or lobed 3, 4, 6, 6 

Leaflets few-toothed at the truncate apex 7 

Leaflets bifid, 2 or 3 lines long, silky 8 

1. H. fusca, Lindl. Cymes dense: petals 2 lines long, sepals longer. 

2. H. Californica, C. & S. Glandular: sepals and petals 3-6 lines long. 
Var. sericea, Gr. Stouter: leaflets larger: canescent with silky hairs. 

8. H. congesta, Hook. Sparsely stiflF-hairy: leaflets 6-9 lines long. 

4. H. tenuiloba, Gr. White-hairy: leaflets 8-12 pairs, 2-3 lines long, 

5 H. Bolanderi, Gr. Densely hoary, pubescent, tufted, 3-4 inches high. 

6. H. purpurascens, Watson. Purplish calyx 3-4 lines long: petals rose-co'tu*.. 

7. H. tridentata, Torr. Silky: leaflets 2-5 pairs, mostly 3-toothed at apex. 
B. H. sericata, Watson. Tufted: some stem leaflets entire: petals notched. 

17. IVESIA, Torrey & Gray. 

Flowers in rather close panicled cymes: stems mostly leafy 1, 2, 3 

Flowers yellow, in cymes on nearly naked stems. Alpine 4, 6 

Flowers white, in diflFuse panicles upon leafj' stems 6 

1. I. Pickeringii, Torr. Densely white-silky: petals yellowish, spatulate. 

2. I. unguiculata, Gr. Similar: petals white, clawed, orbicular: carpels 5-8. 

3. I. Webberi, Gr. Low, loosely villous: petals yellow: stamens o-lO. 

4. I. Grordoni, T. & G, Viscid: 3-10 inches high: stem leaves pinnatifid. 
Var. pygmaea, Watson. An inch or two high: stamens sometimes 10. 

Var. lycopsoides, Watson. Nearly glabrous: leaflets thick, rounded, imbricated. 

5. I. Mtiirii, Gr. Densely silky, an inch high: leaves terete: carpels 2. 

6. I. santalinoides, Gr. Stems 6-18 inches high: leaves silky: terete: carpel 1. 


1. A. fasciciilatum, H. & A. Bark becoming shreddy: leaves snbnlate, acnt*. 

2. A. sparsifolium, Torr. Resinous: leaves scattered, obtuse. San Diego, 

19. AliCHEMTTJiA, Toomefort. 
1. A. arvensis, ScopolL An obscure under-herb: stipules enclosing the Cower*. 



20. AGB.IMONIA, Toumefort. 
L A. Eupitoria* L. Hairy: 2-4 ft. high: racemes spicaterakenesabgloboie. 

21. AC^NA, Liniueas. 
1. A. trifida, R. & P. Leaves crowded at base: green flowers in tarminAl iplket 

22. POTEBITJM, Linnseus, 

1. P. ofQcinale, B. & H. Flowers deep purple or red in a short apika. 

2. P. annuxun, Nntt. Smaller: leaflets pinnatifid: flowers greenish. 

23. KOSA, Toumefort. 

1. B. Nutkana, PresL Spines stout: stipules broad; flowers 2 or 3 inches broad. 

2. S. pisocarpa, Gr. Globose fruit smaller, with a neck. 

3. B. Califomica, C. & S. Often tall: fruit ovoid, with a neck. 

4. B. spithamea, Watson. A span high or less: globose fruit glandolar-priokly. 

5. B. g^mnocarpa, Nutt. Slender: calyx-lobes deciduous, leaving fruit naked. 

24. HETEBOMELES, J. Roemer. 
1. H. arbutifolia, Roem. Panicles terminal: fruit ripe in December. (Toyon.) 

25. PIBUS, Linnseus. 

1. P. rivnlaris, Dougl. Leaves simple, woolly: fruit ovoid. 

2. P. sambucifolia, C. & S. Leaves pinnate: fruit globose, red. 

26. CBAT.S:GUS, Linnseus. 

1. C. rivTilaris, Nutt. Leaves ovate, serrate, rarely lobed. {natothom,) 

2. 0. Douglasii, LindL A large tree: leaves often incised: fruit 6 lines thick. 

27. ATVrET.ANCHLEB, Medicus. 
1. A. alnifolia, Nutt. Flowers in short racemes: petals not orate. {Shad-berrif.) 


1. CAIiYCANTHTJS, Linnaeus. 
0. oceidentalis, H. & A Inner sepals and outer petals lurid purple or red^ Mi 
inch or more long, slender, leathery: inner petals shorter^ incurved. 



i 1. Herbs with leayes alternate or all radical (except No. 2 in 7): styles 2 or 3 (sessile 
stigmas 3 or 4 in 11): carpels united or rarely distinct, the tips divergent (flattened, 
obcordate in 12). 

Stamens apparently many in closters, only 6 perfect 11 

Stamens 8-10: petals none: flowers minute, axillary, solitary 13 

Stamens 10 (rarely more or less in No, 1): flowers in terminal racemose or cymose clnsters. 

Petals broad, entire: ovary 2-celled or carpels distinct 1 

Petals pinnatifid, 3-7 lobed or entire: ovary 1 -celled: racemes simple 7 

Petals entire, very slender: styles slender; carpels unequaL 8 

Stamens 5: petioles expanded stipule-like, or bristly at base. 

Petals deciduous, entire, broad: radical leaves 3-parted No. 2 in 1 

leaves 3-9-lobed or cleft: ovary inferior. 9 

Petals decidnons, often crenate, white: seeds winged 6 

pinnatifld or 3-cleft; lobes filiform: ovary globular. 9 

entire or wanting, small : ovary 1-celled 10 

Petals persistent, entire or 3-lobed, spatulate, violet: ovary inferior. 8 

entire, slender, purple: ovary superior 4 

Stamens 3: petals entire, filiform, recurved persistent 6 

I 2. Shrubs tnth large white ftowen or woody-baaed herbs: leaves opposite. 

Shrubs: stamens 20 or more: petals 4 or 5: stigmas distinct 13 

petals 5 to 7: stigmas united 14 

Herbaceous: branches terminated by capitate clusters of small flowers 16 

I 3. Slender shrubs: leaves alternate: /lowers mostly in drooping clusters: ovary it^ferior, 
globoset calyx'lobes larger than the erect petals, usually petaloid 16 

1. SAXIPBAGA, Linnaeus. 

• Stemless, or rarely a leaf or two on the scape below. 

Leaves large, peltate, cupped in the center: flowers pink. 1 

Leaves an inch or less broad, short petioled : scape 2 to 4 inches high 2 

Leaves rounded-cordate, long petioled: filaments broadest above: calyx soon reflezed 8, 9 
Leaves not cordate, contracted at base into a margined petiole or nearly sessile. 

Calyx-lobes erect or spreading 8» * 

Calyx-lobes reflexed in fruit or sooner 4, 6, 7 

• • Stems leafy, tufted (except No. 12): petioles short. 

Leaves small, evergreen, entire, crowded. Alpine. • • 10 

Leaves like strawberry leaflets: flowers greenish 11 

Leaves few on the stem: stamens 5 ••• 10 

1. S. peltata, Torr. Scape stout, 1-3 ft. high: carpels distinct. Streams. 

f. S. Parryi, Torr. Calyx and white petals brown or purple- veined. 






















Virginiensis, Michz. Petals obovate, twice the length of the calyx, 
reflexa, Hook. Calyx reflexed: filaments often thick above. 
nivalis, L. Flowers fewer, more crowded; petals narrow, amalL 
mtegrifolia, Hook. Scape 1-3 ft. high, viscid: seeds large, 
bryophora, Gr. Leaves slender, entire: many pedicels bulb-bearing. 
Mertensiana, Bong. Leaves many-lobed: pedicels often bulbiferooa. 
ptinctata, L. Leaves coarsely toothed: panicle not bulbiferous. 

Tolmiei, T. & G. Peduncles 2 inches long: carpels often 3 or 4. 

fragarioides, Greene. Woody caudex branched: petals persistent. 

ranunculifolia, Hook. Slender, a foot high or less: flowers corymbose. 

2. BOYKINIA, NuttaU. 

1. B. occidentalis, T. &; 6. Leaves thin, 1-3 inches broad, incisely toothed. 

2. B. major, Gr. Stoater, larger: leaves 4-8 inches broad, 6-9-cleft. 

1. S. violacea, Gr. Weak, viscid: flower parts rarely in 7*8. Or. Wash. 

4. BOLANDBA, Gray. 

1. B. Califomica, Gr. Stems slender: petals dull purple. Yoaemite. 

2. B. Oregana, Watson, Stouter: petals deep purple: pedicels reflexed in fniit* 

6. SULIVANTIA, Torrey&Gray. 
1. S. Oregana, Watsom Scape nearly leafless: leaves an inch or less broad. 

6. TOLMIEA, Torrey & Gray. 
1. T. Menziesii, T. & G. Calyx gibbous, finally splitting down one side. 

7. TELLIMA, Robt. Brown. 

Petals laciniately pinuatifid, reflexed, rose-color or greenish 1 

Petals entire, spatulate-obovate, white or pinkish: calyx-base acute, adnate 3 

Petals entire or with small side-teeth, obovate or oval, white: calyx-base broad. 3 

Petals 3-lobed, nearly cuneate, white or pinkish: calyx-base broad: styles smooth 4 

calyx-base turbinate, styles rough. . . 5 

Petals deeply 3-cleft, pink or white: ovary half inferior: bulblet-bearing 6 

Petals palmately 3-7-parted, mostly pink: ovary nearly free: bulblet-bearing 7 

1. T. grandiflora, R, Br. Stout, 1-3 ft. high: calyx inflated. Monterey to , 

2. T. Cjanbalaria, Walp. Stem filiform, usually a pair of leaves. S. CaL 

3. T. Bolanderi, Bol. Stems often branching: styles smooth. Cent. CaL 


4. T. heterophylla, H. & A. Similar, very slender: petals acate. Cent. OaL 

6. T. aflRnis, Bolander. Stouter: calyx-tube rough, partly adnate. Cal. 

6. T. parviflora, Hook. Calyx obconical: ovary half inferior. Or. Wash. 

7. T. tenella, Walp. Slender, 2-9 in. high: ovary nearly free. N. K CaL 

8. TTARELTiA, Linnsus. 

1. T. onifoliata, Hook. Leaves 3-5-lobed, crenately toothed. S. F. Bay, N. 

2. T. tnfoliata, L. Most of the leaves 3-foliolate. Or. to Alaska. 

9. MITELIiA, Tournefort. 

1. M. Breweri, Gr. Leaves 2-3 in. broad: scape naked: petals i in. long. 8.N. Mte 

2. M. trifida. Grab. Petals smaller, 3-5-parted. In shade. Coast Ranges. 

8. M. caulescens, Nntt. Stouter: 1 or more leaves on scape. Klamath Bivert N. 

10. HEUCHERA, Linnffius. 

1. H. glabra, Willd. Leaves acutely lobed, incised: panicle loose. Dr., N. 

2. H. rubescens, Torr. Leaves crenately lobed i-1 in. broad. S. N. Mts., Ni ft & 
8. H. micrantha, Dongl. Leaves obtusely lobed, crenate, 2-4 in. broad. 

4. H. pilosissima, F. & M. Very villous, viscid: calyx- base rounded. Cal. Coast. 
6. H. cylindrica, Dougl. Flowers nearly spicate, i-i in. long: petals minute. 

11. PAHNASSLA, Tournefort. 

1. P. palustris, L. Leaves ovate to ovate-cordate ^.1 in. long: petals ^-^ in. long. 
Var. Califomica, Gr. Larger in every way. In wet plAce», mountains. 

2. P. fimbriata. Banks. Leaves reniform to cordate: appendages few or a scalOi 

12. CHBYSOSPIiENIUM, Linnseus. 
1. O. fi>leohom8Bfoliimi, Nntt. Decumbent in wet places: leaves ^-^ in. long. 

13. PHIIiADELPHTTS, Linnieus. 

1. P. liOWisii, Pursh. Spreading, 3-5 ft. liigh: stigmas narrow. S. N. Mti. 

2. P. GordonianOB, LindL Larger in every way: leaves mostly toothed. OoM*. 

14. CASPENTESIA, Torrey. 
L O. Califomica, Torr. Leaves narrowly lanceolate. King's River) CUU 

15. "WHIPPIiEA, Torrey. 
1. W. xnodesta, Torr. Stems slender, spreading: calyx and ooroUs white. 


16. BIBES, Linnasas. 
I I. More or less thorny and prickly: leaves 3-5-lobed, parted or divided: pednnolei 1*5< 
flowered (5-9-flowered in No. 10), (Oooseberriea.) 

Calyx bright red: fruit bristly or prickly 1, 2, 4 

Calyx yellow: leaves very small: fruit smooth 6, 7 

Calyx white or pinkish, lobes erect: ovary white-villous; fruit velvety 6 

Calyx greenbh, villous: stamens short: fruit spiny-prickly 3 

Calyx greenish or dull-purplish: ovary and fruit smooth 8, 

Calyx greenish white, limb saucer-shaped, 3 lines broad: stamens short 10 

§ 2. Thomless, no prickles: stamens short: berry not prickly. {Curranti.) 

Calyx greenish white, rotate above the ovary: berry J-1 in. long, black 11 

Caljrx waxy- white, greenish or pinkish; tube cylindrical, ^-^ in. long 13 

Calyx dull white, greenish or purplish; tube cylindrical-campanulate 13 

Calyx rose-red to nearly white; tube short, broad: racemes dense: fruit dry 14 

Calyx golden yellow, salverform; tube i-i in: long: spicy-fragrant IS 

1. B. speciosxun, Pnrsh. Tall: Flowers nearly an inch long, parts often in 4's. 

2. B. Menziesii, Pursh. Very thorny: anthers sharp-sagittate. 

3. B. ambiguum, Watson. Glandular, villous: white petals nearly as long as the 

Lobbii, Gr. Flowers 9 lines long: anthers oval: very obtuse, white, 
leptanthum, Gr. Rigid, much branched: style undivided, smooth, 
velutiniim, Greene. Rigid recurved branches: stout thorns solitary 
quercetorum, Greene. Calyx-lobes ciliate, reflexed, bright yellow, 
divaricatum, Dougl. Stems widely spreading: stamens exserted. 
ozycantlioides, L. Similar: flowers smaller; stamens little exserted. 

lacustre, Pciret. var. molle, Gr. Low: leaves downy: berry light red. 
bracteosum, Dougl. Leaves 5-7-cleft, lobes acute, 5-9 in. wide, 
cereum, Dougl. Leaves 3-lobed, an inch broad or less, crenate. 
viscosissimiim, Pursh. Viscid: leaves moderately lobed. 
sangtiineuin, Pursh. Leaves obtusely 3-5-lobed: petals often whitei Tariablt, 
aiireiun, Pursh. Glabrous or nearly so: racemes 5-10-flowered. 

CRASS dlacej:. 

Obsonre under herbs: minute greenish flowers in the axils of minute leaves. 1 

Very fleshy herbs: leaves entire (serrate in Ist sp. No. 2): petals distinct 9 

petals more or less united. . . 8 

1. THiliiEA, Linnaeus. 
1. T. minima, Miers. Flowers clustered in the axils: leaves ovate, a Une long. 


























2. T. ang^stifolia, Nutt. Stems rooting, 1 ia. long: leaves l-2.1ine8 long. 

Vax. Bolanderi, Watson. Stems 3-4 in. high: flower-pat ts in 3's or 4*8. 

8. T. peduncularis, Smith. Pedicels 4-6 lines long in fruit: carpels porplislu- 

2. SEDXJH, Linnsens. 

Flowers dioecions, deep purple, parts mostly in 4'b 1 

LesTes narrowed toward the base, obtuse 2, 8, 4 

Leaves broadest near the base, acute 6, 6, 7 

1. S. Bphodiola, DC. Stems simple: leaves acute, rarely entire. Alpine. 

2. S. spathxilifoliuxa, Hook. Glaucous: petals yellow, 3 lines long, acute. 

3. S. Oreganum, Nutt. Not glaucous: petals pale rose, much exceeding the stamens. 

4. S. obtusatum, Gr. Similar to 2 & 3: flowers pedicelled; petals pale yellow, broader. 
6. S. variegatuiu,Watson. Eadical leaves slender: petals yellow, often purple- veined. 

6. S. radiatum, Watson. Carpels broad, the beaks horizontal, star-like: petals yel. 

7. S. pumilum, Benth. Annual; 1-3 inches high: leaves 1-2 lines long: carpels 1- 

8. COTYLEDON, Linnsus. 

Leaves cylindrical and somewhat 3-sided , ,^....... 1, 2 

Leaves flattened: carpels nearly distinct, erect. 

Petals united to the middle, red 8 

Petals united J the length, pale yellow, 4 lines long 4 

Petals united only at the base, yellow or orange. 

Leaves glaucous, white dusty or mealy. . . 5, 6, 7, 8 
Leaves not glaucous or mealy, reddish 9, 10 

1. O. edulis, Brewer. Petals widely spreading, yellowish. San Diego. 

2. 0. viscida, Watson. Leaves numerous, very viscid: corolla reddish. S. Cal. 

3. C. pulvenilenta, B. & H. Densely white-dusty: leaves 2 or 3 inches broad. 

4. C. Oregonensis, Watson. Leaves spatulate, obtuse: racemes axillary. 

6. 0. lanceolata, B. & H. Petals orange, mid- vein glaucous: calyx-base broad. 

6. 0. farinosa, B. & H. Usually densely mealy: petals lemon yellow. 

7. C. csBspitosa, Haworth. Sepals ovate, 2 lines long or less: petals yellow. 

8. C. laza, B. & H. Petals orange-yellow, keeled, prominent mid-vein glaucona. 

9. 0. Palmeri, Watson. Flowering stem red: petals pale yellow. S. Cal. ooait^ 
lOl 0. Lingxila, Watson. Leaves an inch broad, 2 or 3 inches long, acute. 


1. DB.OSERA, Linnsaos. 
I. D. rotundifolia, L. Leaf-blade rounded, 2-6 lines broad: petals 2 lines lonf. 


t. D. Anglica, Hudson. Leaf-blade cnneate: petals mnch exoeedii ^ <he lepallb 


Calyi Blightly 4-angled, short: petals none: capsule globular ] 

Petals 4: capsule striate under microscope, splitting into 3 or 4 Tal/es. 9 

Calyx cylindrical, striate, 4 to 7 teeth with smaller ones between: petals 4 to 7 (usually 
6): stamens as many or twice as many: capsule 2-celled ^« 8 

1. AMMANIA, LinnauB. 
1 A. latifolia, L. Stems square: leaves opposite, eared at base, ale&der* 

2. BOTALA, KoBhne. 
1. B. ramosior, Eoeh. Capsule not bursting irregularly. 

8. liYTH.BJnil, Linnsua. 

1. Xb hyssopifolia, L. Petals very small: stamens usually 4 to 6^ inolnded. 

2. !«. album, HBK. Calyx 3 or 4 lines long. 

3. Ja. Calif omicum, Watson. Calyx 6 to 9 lines long: rose-purple petals longeK. 


Leaves linear or broader in whorls of 4 to 12: flowers sessile, axillary *»..,.«. 1 

Leaves in whorls of 3 or 4, mostly pinnate, segments filiform: flowers axillary. 8 

1. HIPPTJBIS, Linnseus. 
1. H. vulgaris, L. Style filiform, stamen 1: calyx globular, limb entire. In ponds. 

2. MYRIOPHYIiliUM, Linnieus. 

1. M. spicatum; L. Stamens 8: flowers spicate: petals ovate, greenish. 

2. M. hippurioides, Nutt. Stamens 4: petab white^ obovate: toothed bracts 3 to 6 
lines long. Both species aquatic 


^ Cedyx divided to the ovary, lobes ptrsiatent: aquatic or creeping manh her^i aoUtoury JUj*Mr$ 

in axils of entire leaves. 
Petals 4 to 6, yellow: stamens 8 to 12: leaves alternate 1 


Petals none or 4» reddish: stamens 4: leaves opposite 9 

• • CaXyx deciduous above the ovary: parts oflhejlowen in ft. 
t Anthers versatile (attached near the middle to theJUament^. 

a. Seeds with a tuft of silky hairs, stamens 8: lower leaves often opposite. 

Calyx-tube long-funnelform above the ovary, scarlet: petals 2-lobed 8 

Calyx-limb 4-parted: anthers elliptical or roundish. 4 

b. Seeds not tufted with hairs: leaves all alternate: calyx-lobes reflexed. 
Calyx divided nearly or quite to the ovary: anthers of two forms (or only 4). 

Leaves entire: small or minute flowers: capsules not an inch long 5 

Leaves pinnatifidly lobed: capsules 3 or 4 inches long 6 

Calyx forming a cup or tube (often long and slender) above the ovary 7 

+ 1 Anthers erect, attached at or near the base to the filaments; those opposite the petals 
shorter or sterile, rarely vxmting: calyx-lobes reflexed, except in No. 11: annuals. 

Calyx-tube oboonlcal above the ovary: petals not long-clawed 8 

petals long-clawed 9 

Calyx>tube filiform above the ovary: petals long-clawed, lobed 10 

Calyx-lobes erect: petals not clawed, 2-lobed: stigma lobes short 11 

Calyx-lobes spreading: petals clawed, entire: stigma discoid, entire 12 

* * * Minute white flowers in bractless racemes, the parts in 2's ••......13 

1. JTTSSLZBA, LinnsBus. 
1. J. repens, "L. Stems a foot or more long, rooting at base: style stout, hairy. 
Var. Califomica, Watson. Smaller flowers 6 to 8 lines broad: style slender, glabrous. 

2. LTJDWIQIA, Linnaeus. 
1. L. paltistris, Ellis. Smooth, creeping or floating: flowers sessile: capsule smalL 

3. ZAUSCHNEB.IA, Presl. 
1. Z. Oaliformca» FresL Villous or tomentose: calyx 10-16 lines long above ovary. 

4. EPILOBIUII, Linnaeus. 

* Fkfwen large: atamem and style declined: stigma kibes finally spreading or reemvedi 


Btem erect, simple: petals clawed, obovate, lilac-purple 1, ' 

Stem decumbent, 6 to 3 inches long: leaves opposite, glaucous 3 

Flowers yellow •••• 4 

• • FUnoers small, parts aU erect: stigma club-shaped or eylindrieal 

Perennial: petioles present but short: in wet places: not alpine 6, 6 

Perennial: stems with 2 pubescent lines: leaves mostly opposite: alpine 7, 8 

Perennial i leaves sessile: hoary or glaucous: leaves mostly opfrasite : not alpine . 9, 10, 11 




























Annual: stems round: leaves mostly alternate: petals obcordate 13, 18, 14 

spicatum, Lam. Simple stem often 5 or 6 ft. high: flowers spicate. 
latifolium, Linn. Shorter, less erect, often branching: style glabrous. ' 
obcordatom, Gr. Petals obcordate, spreading, rose-color. Alpine, 
lutemn, Pursh. Oregon to Alaska. 

Watsoni, Barbey. Hoary-pubescent, branching: petals narrow, obcordate. 
coloratum, Muhl. Erect, branched, puberulent: leaves mostly opposite, 
alpinum, L. Creeping, 2 to 6 inches high: flower-buds ovoid: anthers globose, 
origanifoliuin, Lane. Taller: large petals obcordate, purple to white. 
Franciscannm, Barb. Stems 2 to 4 ridged: petals purple, emarginate. 

brevistylmn, Barb. Similar: petals smaller, obcordate, pinkish. S. N. Mts. 

glaberimum, Barb. Glaucous: leaves connected at base: petals notched. 

panicxilatiun, Nutt. Often tall, very slender: leaves slender, often fascicled, 
jocimduin, Gr. Similar: panicles crowded: petals larger, 6 lines long, deep 
14. E. minutum, lindL Less than a ft. high: petals minute. 

5. GAYOPHYTUM, A. Jussieu. 

1. G. ramosissimtim, T. & G. Diffuse, 6 to 18 inches high: capsule 3-5-seeded. 

2. G. racemosum, T. k G. Less branched, more flowers, capsule 8 to 10 lines long, 

3. G. p\inuluxn, Watson. Smaller: capsule 6 lines long, the many seeds oblique. 

4. G. difilisum, T. k G. Flowers 1^ to 3 lines broad, usually pink: capsules on 

6. ET7LOBT7S, NnttalL 
1. E. Califomicus, Nutt Stout, I to 3 ft. high: petals 4 or 5 lines broad, yellow. 

7. (ENOTHERA, LinnsBus. 

§ Calyx-tube much prolonged beyond the ovary: gtigmO'lobe* slender. 

Tall: flowers yellow, erect in bud: seeds in 2 rows in each cell 1 

Stems white: flowers white or purplish, I^ or 2 inches broad: buds nodding ... .2, 3, 4 

Stemless: calyx-tube 2 to 4 inches long: capsule wing-angled 6 

§ 2. Calyx-tube filifoTTH, stem-like above the ovary: etigma capital: flotoera yellow, eetaile 
on the top of a rootatocle in the axils of radical leaves. 

Nearly glabrous: leaves lanceolate to ovate: perennial 6, 7 

Ganescently villous: leaves linear: capsule 4-winged: annual 8 

§ 3. Calyx-tube obeonie or short-/unnel/orm: stigma capitate: capsules narrow, sessile or 
nearly so, often contorted. 

Flowers axillary, yellow; capsule sharply 4-angled, usually contorted 9, 10, 11 

Flowers axillary, small, yellow: capsule obtusely angled, curved 12, 13 


iTlowers small, in a nodding spike, white or rose-color: capsule contorted 14, 15 

1. CB. biennis, L. Stout, 1 to 5 ft. high: calyx-tube 1 to 2^ inches long. 
Var. grandifiora, Lindl. Capsule hirsute: petals as long as calyx-tube- 
Var. hirsutissimus, Gr. Similar: ovary more hirsute. The common form. 

2. <E. albicaulis, Nutt. Erect, ^ to 4 ft. high: large leaves pinnatifid, 

3. <E. Calif omica, Watson. Hoary, decumbent: ovary and calyx villous. 

4. CE. trichocalyx, Nutt. Stouter, more erect: capsule thicker at base. 
6. (E. triloba, Nutt. Nearly glabrous: petals i to H inches long. 

6. CE heterantha, Nutt. Petals 3 to 6 lines long: capsules ovoid-oblong. 
Var. taraxacifolia, "Watson. Leaves lyrately pinnatifid: Sierra Nevada. 

7. CE. ovata, Nutt. Similar: capsule with obtuse angles. Coast Valleys. 

8. CB. graciliflora, K. & A. Petals obcordate, turning greenish, 3 to 5 lines long. 

9. CB. cheiranthifolia, Homem. Prostrate or ascending: leaves thick. 
Var. suffirutieosa, Watson. Woody at base, leafy. Both on sand near the sea. 

10. CE. bistorta, Nutt. Similar: petals 4 to 9 lines long, spot at base. 

11. (E. micrantha, Homem. Flowers smaller: leaves thin, crimped. 

12. CE3. dentata, Cav. Diffuse, very slender: leaves linear: capsule very slender. 

13. (E. strig^osa, T. & G. Similar: petals smaller, 1 or 2 lines long, reddening. 

14. (E. alyssoides, H. & A. Slender, canescent: calyx-lobes and petals 2 or 3 lines long. 

15. (E. g^urseflora, T. & G. Glabrous: bark loose, white: capsule tapering upward, 

8. GODETIA, Spach. 

• Flowers in strict mostly close spikes: stems leafy, capsule ovoid to oUong. 

t Capsule not W66cd: seeds in 2 rows in the cell: stems simple or few branched. 

Calyx-tube broadly obconical, 4 to 6 lines long: petals 1 or 2 inches long 1 

Calyx-labe 2 or 3 lines long, deep-purple 2 

+ + Capsule with at least alternate sides 2-rihhed : seeds in 1 row in each eeU: stems often much 
branched: canescently puberulent. 

Capsule 5 to 8 lines long tapering from the base 3 

Capsule 3 to 6 lines long, oblong, short-hairy 4 

• * Flowers mostly scattered in a simple spike or raceme and nodding in the hudx capsule 
linear', seeds in 1 row. stems slender: leaves few. ^ 

Capsules sessile, more or less distinctly ribbed 5 to 9 

Capsules on pedicels, not ribbed: stigmas mostly yellow 10 to 13 

1. G. grandiflora, Lindl. Stout: spike leafy: petals often with a spot. N. W. Cal. 

2. Q. purpurea, Watson. Ovary densely villous: style short: stigma-lobes purple. 

3. G. lepida, Lindl. Stem shining white: petals rose-color with a spot above. 
Var. parviflora, Watson. Petals smaller, ^-| in. long: leaves ^-1 in. long. 
Var. Amottii, Watson. Nearly glabrous: leaves longer, acute: capsule glabrous. 

4. Q. albescens, Lindl. Flowers small, in many spikelets: petals purple-blue. 

6. G. WiUiamsoni, Watson. Petals yellowish at base, purple spot in center. CaL 




























quadrivulnera, Spach. Petals purple, |-i in. long: Btigma-lobes pnrple. Coaat 
tenella, Watson. Petals similar: style short: capsnlo scarcely ribbed. Coast, 
viminea, Spach. Similar to 7: petals like 6 (or all purple) but larger. 
Romanzovii, Spach. Ovary silky: 4 of the anthers nearly Bessile: style short. 

amoena, Lilja. Petals (and purple anthers) often villous, rose-color to white. 

Bottae, Spach. Petals light purple: stigma yellow or purple. Monterey, S. 

epilobioides, Watson. Petals purple to white, J4 in. long: calyx-tube short, 

hispidula, Watson. Hispid; often 1 -flowered: 8-10 in. high. Cent. Cal. 

biloba, Watson. A span to 4 ft. high: petals 2-lobed: rose-purple. Cent. CaL 

9. CliARKIA, Pursh. 
pnlchella, Pursh. Petals 3-lobed; claw 2-toothed: only 4 perfect stamens. Or. 
Xantiana, Gr. Petals 2-lobed, with a tooth between; claw short. S. CaL 
elegans, Dougl, Petals entire; claw long, slender, naked: capsule hairy. CaL 
rhomboidea, Dougl. Petals entire; claw short, broad, often toothed. 

10. EUCHABIDITJM, Fischer & Meyer. 

1. E. conciiinum, F. & M. Petals 3 lobed: filaments slender: capsule 6 to 9 lines long. 

2. E. Breweri, Gr. Petals deeply 2-lobed, with a tooth between: calyx-tube longer. 

11. BOISDUVALIA, Spach. 

Canescently pubescent and more or less villous 1, 3 

Glabrous or slightly pubescent: loosely spicate 3, 4 

1. B. densiflora, Watson. Leafy spikes dense: petals 3-6 lines long. 

2. B. Torreyi, Watson. Floral leaves like the others: petals 1 or 2 lines long. Or. S. 

3. B. gflabella, Walp. Similar: petals smaller: seeds a line long. Or. & Wash. 

4. B. cleistogazna, Curran. Capsules curved outward: seeds numerous, minute. 

12. HETEROGAXJRA, Rothrock. 
1. H. Califomica, Rothr, Petals spatulate, 2 lines long: fruit obovoid, nnt-like. CaL 

14. CIB.CJS1A, Linnseus. 
1. O. PaciflcA, A. & M. Leaves ovate to cordate, opposite: ovary ovoid, hairy. Woods. 


1. HEXTZELIA, Linnaua. 

Leaves mostly sinuate- toothed: petals 1 to 3 lines long 1, 9 

Leaves mostly pimuttifid, lanceolate: petals 3 to 8 lines long. 8, 4 


Lmtos pectinately pinnatifid to sinuate-toothed: petals 1 to 2^ inches long 6, 

1. M. dispersa, Watson. Only upper leaves ovate: seeds ) line long. 

2. M. micrantha, T. & G. Leaves ovate, 1 inch long or less: seeds a line long. 

3. M. congesta, T. & G. Bracts membranons at base: petals 3 to 6 lines long. 

4. M. gracilenta, T. & G. Petals obovate to oblanceolate, 4 to 8 lines long. 
6. U. Lindleyi, T. & G. Leaves ovate or narrower: petals ovate. Cent CaL 

6. M. Issvicaulis, T. tt G. Stout: leaves 2 to 8 inches long: petals 2 to 2^ inoheaiong. 


Flowers all solitary, large, yellow: seeds flat ^ .,.. 1 

Flowers small, white; the sterile racemose: seeds turgid. 9 

1. CUCXJRBITA, Linnaeus. 

1. 0. perennis, Gr. Leaves 6-12 in. long: flowers 3 and 4 in. long, fragrant. 

2. C. palmata, Watson. Leaves 2-3 in. long, 5-cleft: calyx-tube an inch long. 

3. C. Califomica, Torr. Flowers an inch long or more; calyx 4 or 5 lines long. 

2. MEQARRHIZA, Torrey. 

1. M. Califomica, Torr. Fruit globose or ovoid: seeds 4, 8-12 lines long. 

2. M. macrocarpa. Fruit ovoid oblong, 14-seeded. Santa Barbara, south. 

3. Iff. Marah, Watson. Fruit 4 in. long: seeds suborbicnlar, flattened. 

4. M. Oregana, Torr. Fruit scarcely or not at all armed with spines. Or.-Waah. 

5. M. muricata, Watson. Fruit globose, an inch long, 2-8eeded, mostly naked. 

PerhAps this genus should he united with Echinoeystis, which has flat eeeds. 

The second ipeoies is deaeribed by E L. Greene under the name Eehinocystit maeroearpa. 


1. DATISCA, Linniens. 
D. elomerata, B. ft H. Dioecious or perfect flowers in leafy 8pikM» greeoiih. 


Oval or cylindrical plants, covered with spine-bearing tubercles 1 

Depressed-globose plants with tubercalate ribs and woolly at top: spines stout, ringed 9 

Cylindrical ribbed stems branching, 2 to 4 ft. high: spines numerous , 8 

Stems made up of flattened or cylindrical joints: spines barbed. 4 


1. TVTAlVrTT.T.ABTA, Haworth. 
L SL Goodridgii, Scbeer. Petals about 8, ovate, awned, dnll y«Uowiah. S. OkL 

2. ECHINOCACTUS, Link & Otto. 
1. X. vixidescena, Natt. Sepals and petals numerous, greenish: frniir Bcaly, & fSt 

3. CEBEX7S, Haworth. 
1. 0. Emoryl, Engehn. Flowers greenish yellow: fruit subglobose, «piny. S. CaL 

4. OPUNTIA, Tonmefort. 

Joints much flattened, obovate: fruit juicy ►..,..... 1, 8 

Joints cylindrical: fruit green, fleshy: flowers red 8 

1. 0. Engelmanni, Salm. Flowers yellow, 3 inches long. Santa Barbara, & 

2. O. Ficus-Indica, MilL Fruit delicious. The Prickly Pear. 

3. O. prolifera, Engelm. Tree-like with spiny tubercles. San Diego. 


Ova^ inferior: petals and stamens numerous: very fleshy.. ....»,,-.,•...,,,<,, ,...,, 1 

Ovary superior: petals none: leaves opposite or whorled- 

Calyx-lobes 5, petaloid: stamens many: succulent.... , .» 9 

Sepals 5, greenish: stamens 3 to 10: styles 3: not succulent. 8 


1. M. sequilaterale, Haworth. Leaves equally 3-Bided, very thick, oppodtOb 

2. M. coccineuxn. Haw. Leaves semi-cylindrical, a line broad. 

3. M. crystftlliTinm, L. Leavea flat, covered with glistening papillaa. 

2. SESUVIUM, Lmnaeus. 
I. S. Portulacastrum, L. Calyx 3 to 6 lines long, more or less parpUsh, 

1. IC. TOrticiUata, I* Slender; leaves spatulate: flowers fascicled, azillscy. 


Harbs with nmally hollow stems, aheathing petioles and small flowers in simpla «r 


compound Timbela; the inferior ovary Burmounted by a disk which bears 6 petal* and 6 
stamens: styles 2. The plants of this order are not here described. 


Flowers in cymes or heads: petals 4: style 1: ovary 2-celled 1 

Flowers dioecious, in drooping blue-gray catkins: petals none; styles 2. 2 

1. CORNTJS, Linnaeus. 

Flowers in a head with involucre of 4 to 6 large white petaloid bracts 1, 2 

Flowers yellowish in sessile umbels appearing before the leaves: bracts 4 3 

Flowers white or cream-color in many -flowered cymes 4 to 7 

1. C. Canadensis, L. Herbaceous, 3 to 8 inches high: leaves in a whorl at top. 

2. 0. Nuttallii, Audubon. A tree: involucre often tinged with red. (Dogwood.) 

3. 0. sessilis, Torr. Bark green: leaves pale and silky beneath: pedicels silky. 

4. 0. Californica, C. A. Meyer. Branches purplish: leaves ovate: cyme round-topp'd- 

5. C. pubescens, Nutt. Similar: leaves rarely ovate: cyme larger: fruit white. 

6. C. glabrata, Benth. Bark gray: leaves acute at each end: cymes small, flat. 

7. 0. Torrejri, Watson. Leaves ovate or narrower, acute: cyme loose: fruit white. 

2. pARRYA, Douglas. 

Leaves undulate, base obtuse, tomentose beneath 1 

Leaves not undulate, acute at each end 2, 3 

1. Q. elliptica, Dougl. Sterile aments 2 to 5 inches long, often clustered. 

2. Q. Fremonti, Torr. Petioles 4 to 6 lines long: aments solitary, 2 or 3 inches long. 

3. Q. bTUcifolia, Gr. Smaller, 2 to 5 ft. high: leaves 1 to 1^ inches long, silky beneath. 


I S 1. CoroUa regular, rotate: style short; stigmas S to Bi flowers in cymes, 

ghmb or tree: young stems thick, pith large: leaves pinnate « . . 1 

Slender shrub: leaves simple: fruit a drupe: seeds flat ., 2 

§ 2. CoroUa tubular and irregular or campanulate: stigma 1, capitate, ^ 
A creeping herb with pendulous flowers in pairs 8 


Slender shrubs with small pinkish regular flowers: berries white 4t 

Shrubby climbers or erect shrubs with irregular tubular floweTS 6 

1. SAMBUCUS, Toumefort. 

Cymes round-topped; pith of year-old shoots yellow-brown 1, 2 

Cymes flat-topped, 1-sided: pith white: berries black 8, 4 

1. S. racemosa, L. Cymes ovoid or oblong: flowers dull white: berries scarlet. 

2. S. melanocarpa, Gr. Cymes broader: flowers white: fruit black, no bloom. 

3. S. glauca, Nutt. Leaves smooth: fruit black with a white bloom. (Elder'berry. 

4. S. Mexicana, PresL Leaves and long shoots hairy: fruit black, no bloom. 

2. VIBTJRNTJM, Linnaeus. 

Drupes light red, globose, acid: leaves all or some of them lobed 1, 2 

Drupes bluish-black, flattened, elliptical : leaves not lobed 3 

1, V. opulus, L. Cymes on several-leaved branches. Or. & Wash., E. & N. 

2. V. pauciflorum, Pylaie. Cymes on short 2-leaved branches. Wash., N. & E. 

3 v. ellipticum, Hooker. Leaves 3-5-ribbed: corolla 4 or 5 lines broad. N. CaL,N. 

3. LINN.ajA, GronoviuB. 
1. li. borealis, Gronov. Corolla funnelform, 4 or 5 lines long: stamens 4. 


Corolla broadly campanulate, 2 or 3 lines long 1, 2 

Corolla narrowly campanulate, 3 to 6 lines long S, 4 

1. S. racemosus, Michx. Smooth: corolla hairy, narrow at base. 

2. S. mollis, Nutt. Mostly soft-hairy, diffuse: corolla broad at base. 

3. S. rotundifolius, Gr. Leaves orbicular to elliptical, 6 to 9 lines long. 

4. S. oreophylus, Gr. Corolla 4 to 6 lines long, scarcely hairy: nutlets sharp. 

5. liONICESA, Linnseus. 
Erect shrubs: flowers in axillary pairs on a single peduncle. 

Ovaries § or wholly united to form a single berry: bracts subulate 1,2 

Ovaries distinct or nearly so: corolla saccate at base, yellowish 3, 4 

Woody climbers: flowers sessile, clustered: upper leaves often united 5, 6 

3. Ij. caerulea, L. Only 1 or 2 ft. high: leaves pale: corolla yellowish or purplish. 

2. L. conjugialis, Kellogg. Corolla dull purple, bilabiate, 4 or 5 lines long. 

3. Jj. Utahensis, Watson, Bracts small: berries red: peduncles short. 

4. L. involucrata. Banks. Bracts large, becoming red: berries purple black. 

5. L. ciliosa, Poir. Corolla an inch long, yellow to crimson-scarlet. 

S. L. hlspidiila, DougL Cprolla 6 lines long, the lobes half as long: variable. 



A shrab with opposite or whorled leaves: flowers in globular heads. 1 

Herb with opposite leaves: flower parts in 4*3 (rarely 3's or 5's): fruit bristly 8 

Herbs with whorled leaves: stems square: flowers 3-4-merons: fmit biglobolar 8 

I 1. CEPHATiANTHUS, Linnaeus. 

II C. occidentalis, L. Corolla narrow funnelform, white, 4-lobed. iButtonJnuk.) 

2. EELLOGGIA, Torrey. 
I. X. galioides, Torr. Corolla funnelform, 3 or 4 lines long, pinkish or white. 

3. GAIilUM, Linnseus. 

Pruit dry: leaves all in 4'8, or the upper in pairs 2,3,4, 8, 

leaves mostly in 6'8 (some in 4's, 5*8 or 8's) 1, 5, 6, 7 

Fruit juicy: perennials with leaves in 4's 10 to 14 

1. G. Aparine, L. Retrorsely hispid: leaves in 6'b and 8's: fmit erect 

2. G. bifolium, Watson. Smooth: alternate leaves shorter: peduncles solitary. 

3. G. Kamtschaticxinx, Steller. Leaves orbicular to oblong-ovate, 3-nerved. 

4. G. boreale, L. Leaves narrow, 3-nerved: flowers white in terminal panicles. 

6. G. trifldTim, L. Leaves slender, obtuse, 4 to 7 lines long: flower parts often in 3*8. 

6. G. asperrimtiin., Gr. Leaves lanceolate, 6 to 12 lines long, cymes dichotomous. 

7. G. triflorum, Michx. Sweet scented: corolla greenish or yellowish: cymes 3-rayed. 

8. G. angustifolium, Nutt. Smooth, woody at base, rigid: fruit long-bristly. 

9. G. multiflorum, Kellogg. Tufted, a foot high or less: leaves ovate. 

10. G. pubens, 6r. Grayish, much branched: leaves broad, 6 lines long or less. 

11. G. Calif omicum, H. & A. Similar: Leaves hispid-ciliate. Coast Range. 

12. G. Nuttallii, Gr. Tall, mostly smooth: leaves small, oval or narrower. 

13. G. Bolanderi, Gr. Mostly smooth: corolla dull purple: berry white. 

14. G. Andrewsii, Gr. Matted tufts 2 to 4 inches high, leaves crowded, naxrow, 
shining, sharp. 


Caljrz-limb of plume-like lobes, inroUed until fruiting: leaves lobed or parted. 1 

Calyx-limb none: flowers in dense terminal clusters: leaves simple 8 

1. VAIiEBIANA, Toumefort. 

1. V. sylvatica. Banks. Stem leaves 3-11-foliolate: corolla 2 or 3 lines long. 

2. V. Sitchennis, Bong. Mor^ robust: stem leaves 3-5'^oliolate: corolla larger. 


2. VAIiERIANELLA, Tonmefort. 

1. V. macrocera, Gr. Corolla 1 or 2 lines long, nearly regular, white or pinkish. 

2. V. congesta, Lindl. Stouter: corolla mostly 3 or 4 lines long, bilabiate limb. 

3. v. anomala, Gr. Freely branching: corolla a line long, epurleas. 

4. v. aphanoptera, Gr. Slender: corolla a line long, bilabiate, spar short. 
6. V. samolifolia, Gr. Similar: fruit wingless, buckwheat-like. 


1. DIPSACUS, Toumefort, 
JX ftlTlnnmn, L. Stiffleavea united in pairs: fruit oval, loalM hooked. Nat 


SnnfloweTB, marigolds, thistles and dandelions are types of the conspicnons plants 
tn this order. It would be difficult for the beginner to determine th« species in this 
order; hence it is omitted. 


Ovary nearly superior: anthers distinct: branches zigzag: leaves minnte... «.«.., ...... 1 

Ovary inferior: anthers united: flowers blue or red. 

Corolla red, an inch long: adnate calyx- tube hemisphericaL „ 2 

Corolla blue, rarely purple, often with white or yellow on lower lip. 

Ovary top-shaped: corolla-tube 6 to 9 lines long, hairy inside 8 

Ovary obconical to club-shaped: peduncles long -....,.... 4 

Ovary slender, stalk- like, sessile often twisted 6 

L N. ramosiflHimnB, Nott Corolla a Une long: unequal calyz-lobes, exceeding 

S. If. loaig;ifiorus, Gr. Corolla 3 lines long: equal calyz-lobes shorter than capmle, 

2. LOBELIA, Linnseus. 
1. I^ eplendens, Willd. Simple stem 2 or 3 ft. high, ending in naked 


1. P. debilia, Or. Stems very leafy, 1 or 2 ft. high, ending ia leafy-bnoted nmema. 

4. LATJBENTIA, Micheli. 
L Xta camosnia, Benth. Rooting in mad, 1 to 5 inches high: leaves entinb 

6. DOWNINGIA, Torrey. 

1. D. elegans, Torr. Often 9 to 12 inches high: leaves slender: coroll* blae with 
white and yellow spot on lower lip like the following: 

2. D. pulchella, Torr. Lower corolla lip broader than long. 

3. D. bicomuta, Gr. Corolla lip with a pair of hollow appendages at baas. 

4. D. concolor, Greene. Slender, diffuse: corolla blue throughoot. 


Capsule cinb-shapedf crowned with the rigid calyx-lobes, opening on top ..• I 

Capsnle oblong, opening by 2 or 3 holes in the sides: seeds flattened 8 

Capsule short, opening as in No. 2: flowers all with corolla: calyx-lobes slender. ..♦.-. 8 
Capsule obpyramidal, bursting indefinitely: calyx-lobes ovate, toothed .^..» 4 

1. GITHOPSIS, NuttalL 
1. G. specularioides, Nutt. Leaves small, coarsely toothed: flowers all alike. 

2. SPECTJLAKLA., Heister. 
1. S. biflora, Gr. Leaves ovate to lanceolate: lower flowers apetalons, sepals 3 or 4 
t. 8. perfoliata, A DC. Stouter: leaves round, cordate-clasping: lower flowers-similazb 

3. CAMPANTTLA, Toumefort. 

Annual : flowers erect; calyx-lobes connivent about the style in fruit, 1 

Perennials: calyx-lobes not connivent in fruit: corolla deeply lobed. 

Style not longer than the corolla 2, 3, 4 

Style filiform, exceeding the corolla: leaves sharply serrate 4, 6, 6 

1. C. ezig^a, Rattan. Branching and flowering from base, 2 to 8 inches high. 

2. O. scabrella, Engelm, Whitened with short hairs, flowers erect, 5 6 lines long. 

3. C. rotvmdifolia, L. Stem leaves linear: corolla bright l?lue, 6 to 12 lines long. 

4. C. linnasifolia, Gr. Leaves broad, obtuse, crenately serrate: corolla light blue. 
6. O. Scoilleri, Hooker. Leaves ovate to lanceolate, short petioled: pedicels long. 
6. O. prenanthoides, Ihirand. Leaves mostly sessile: flowers often clustered: pedi* 

oels short 


4. HETEROCODON, Nuttall. 
rariflorum, Nott. Stems gUform: leaves orbicular, tooth«d, lauJL 


Saborder I. VACCINIE2. 
Shmba (some low and herbaceous): ovary inferior becoming an edible beny.... •.....-! 

Suborder II. EBICINE-ZB. 
Shmbs or trees: calyx free, usually small: coroUa gamopetaloua (except 11, 12). 
• Fruit berry -like or jUahy: flowera drooping: corolla ovoid to campanulate unth small lober. 
stamens 8 or 10 included: hark shedding from at least the branches', leaves evergreen, 

Tree: flowers in large panicles: orange-red berries many seeded 2 

Shrubs: flowers in small racemes: fleshy fruit, 1-10 seeded 8 

Shrubs, low or prostrate: flowers axillary: berries black or red 4 

*• Fruit, a dry, many-seeded capsule: fiowers nodding: anthers avm-tipped. 

Shrub, 3 or 4 ft. high: oblong leaves 1 to 3 inches long 6 

Shrub, a foot high or less: small scale-like leaves in 4 ranks 6 

• * • Fniit a dry capsule, splitting between the cells: anthers not aumed. 
+ Corolla gamopetalous. 
Low Alpine evergreen; leaves revolute: flowers umbellate or corymbose; 

Leaves linear, crowded corolla not pouched 7 

Leaves oblong, opposite; corolla 10-ribbed, from 10 depressed pouches. . .^ 8 

Not alpine: leaves crowded at the ends of branches, entire. 

Corolla usually 4-toothed. ovoid to cylindrical, dull purple.^ ...^. .-^.....-. . _^.^ 9 

Corolla usually 5-lobed, limb spreading, white to rose ► ^ .. ..^^.^ 10 

1 1 Corolla polypetalous or nearly so. 

Flowers in corymbs or umbels, erect, white, cherry -like ,. 11 

Flowers solitary, nodding, reddish ^ . ^ ^ .... . 12 

Suborder IIL PYBOIiEO!. 
Pereimlals, herbaceous or slightly woody with smooth evergreen leaves (except one species 
in No. 15): flowers nodding, poljrpetalous; petals broad: ovary superior: stamens 10: 
anthers in bud extrorse, at length by inversion introrse with 2-homed base above. 

Flowers umbellate or solitary on a leafy woody stem 13 

Flowers solitary on a short scape: petals spreading 14 

Flowers in a raceme on a scape; petals concave, incurved 15 


Suborder IV. M0N0TR0PE2B. 
Herb*, paraaitio upon roots: stems juicy, scaly- bracted, not green. 

Stem striped, red or purple and white: sepals and bracts white 16 

Stem brown-red or purplish-red, clammy, hairy 17 

Stem very thick; entire plant bright red 18 

Stem white, tawny or reddish, fleshy; 19 and 20 polypetalous. 

Sepals 2 to 5, bract-like: petals 3 to 6, concave at base: style tubular. ........ 19 

Sepals and petals 4 or 5 each, lacerate-fringed, flat ^ 20 

Sepals 2 or 4, petals united; filaments and style hairy 21 

1. VAOCINIUM, Llnnaus. 

• CoroUa ovoid or globose, 4'64ooihed: filaments smooth; arUhen S-avontd <m the back 

included: leaver deciduous. 

Flowers often 2 to 4 together; corolla usually 4-toothed, leaves entire 1, 2 

Flowers solitary, axillary: corolla usually 5- toothed: calyx not deeply lobed. 

Usually less than a foot high; leaves serrate 8, 4 

Usually several (1 to 12) ft. high; branches spreading 6, 6, 7 

• * CoroUa obovoid or campanulate, 6-toothed: leaves evergreen. 8 

• * " Corolla deeply 4-parted, lobes reflexed, pale rose-color: leaves evergreen 9 

1. V. uligrnosum, From a span to 3 or 4 ft. high: leaves thick and veiny. 

2. V. occidentals, Gr. Leaves thinner, less veiny: flowers mostly solitary. 

3. V. ceespitosum, Michz. Branches not angled: berries blue. Very variable. 

4. V. Myrtillus, L. var. microphyllum. Hooker. Branches sharply angled. 

5. V. ' myrtilloides, Hooker. Branchlets slightly angled: leaves serrulate, veiny. 

6. V. ovalifolium. Smith. Smooth, 4 to 12 ft high; branchlets angled. 

7. V. parvifolium, Smith. Smooth; branchlets green, jointed, sharply angled. 

8. V. ovatum, Pursh. Kigid; leaves ovate or narrower, serrate: flowers clustered. 

9. V. ozycoccus, L. var. intermedinm, Gr. Trailing, slender: flowers umbellate. 

2. ABBUTUS, Tournefort. 

1. A. Menziesii, Punh. Leaves 3 to 5 inches long; corolla white, broad-ovoid. 


«. Seeds not united or easily separable. 

Low or creeping, rising only a foot or two: flowers 1 or 2 lines long. 

Trailing or creeping, green, no bristly hairs, ovary and fruit glabrous. . 1, 2 

Erect: leaves mostly not an inch long: flowers more numerous 3, 4, 6 

Erect, 3-20 ft. high: flowers 3-4 lines long: fruit 4-5 lines thick 6, 7, 8 

i. Seeds united into a solid woody or bony stone 9tol2 

1. A. X7va-xirai, Spreng. Leaves oblong-spatulate, retuse, tapering to petiole. 












A. Xevadensis, Or. Leaves obovate or narrower, enspidate-macronate, obtoM »t 

poimila, Nntt. Tomentulose, pale leaves oblong-obovate obtuse or retuse. 

Hookeri, Don. Diffuse: leaves green, ovate or oval, cuspidate or acuminate. 

nummularia, Gr. Very leafy: leaves mostly broadly oval, ends rounded. 

Andersoni, Gr. Leaves thin, bright green, base sagittate or cordate. 

tomentosa, Dougl. Branchlets bristly: leaves pale, ovate or narrower. 

pungens, HBK. Leaves rigid, oblong- lanceolate to round-ovate, entire. 
Var. platyphylla, Gr. Leaves paler, broader, 1 or 2 inches long; not cuspidate. 

9. A glauca, Lindl. Larger (8 to 24 ft. high): fruit larger: glabrous branchlets. 

10. A bicolor, Gr. Leaves tomentose beneath: flowers rose-color 3 or 4 lines long. 

11. A. Glevelandii, Gr. More hairy; leaves narrower, sessile, acuminate. 

12. A. polifolia, HBK. Leaves linear-lanceolate: fruit rough, purple. 

4. QAT7LTHERLA., Linnaeus. 

Flowers in slender but stiff, often branching, bracteate, viscid racemes 1 

Flowers axillary, solitary; filaments glabrous; anthers not awned 2, 3 

1. G. Shallon, Pursh. Spreading, 1 to 4 ft. high; leaves 2 to 4 inches long; gerrulate. 

2. G. Myrsinites, Hooker. Spreading in tufts: leaves oval or orbicular i inch long. 

3. G. ovatifolia, Gr. Larger: leaves broadly ovate to subcordate. Or. N. 

6. LUCOTHOE, Don. 
1. Ik DavisSB. Torr. Flowers in terminal, often clustered raoemes, white, Q^N. Sit% 

6. CASSIOPE, Don. 

1. C. Mertensiana, Don. Leaves keeled, not furrowed on back, 1^-2 lines long. 

2. 0. tetrag^na, Don. Leaves thick, deeply furrowed on back, often pubescent. 

3. 0. lycopodioides, Don. Stems creeping filiform: leaves barely a line long. 

7. BRYANTHUS, SteUer. 

1. B. Breweri, Gr. Corolla rose-purple, 5-cleft to the middle, 4-5 Unes broad. 

2. B. empetriformis, Gr. Corolla smaller slightly lobed:titamens included. 

8. KALMIA, Linnaeus. 
1. S. glauca, Ait Leaves glaucous, white beneath: flowen sancer-shaped. Alpinaii 

9. MENZLESLA, Smith. 

1. M, glabella, Gr. Leaves obovate, usually obtuse: filaments ciliate below. 

2. M. ferruginea, Sm. Leaves oblong or broadly oblanceolate, acute, rusty-hairy. 


10. BHODODENDKON, Linnieas. 
Deciduoiu: flowers from lateral buds, nodding; corolla nearly rotate 1 

flowers from terminal buds; tube funnel-form ; limb spreading , 8 

Erergreen: many-flowered corymbs terminal: corolla campanulate, lobes broad 8 

1. S. albifiorum, Hooker. Low: corolla white, 5-cleft: stamens included. 

2. S. occidentale, Gr. Taller: corolla white, viscid; stamens exserted. 

3. S. Calif omicoxn, Hooker. Leaves 3 to 6 inches long: corolla rose*piuple. 

11. IiEDUH, Linn»u& 
1. L. latifolium, Ait. Leaves rusty-tomentose below, margins strongly revolate. 
2L la. glandTilosum, Nutt. Leaves whitish beneath, resinous, scarcely revolnte. 

12. CLADOTHAMNXJS, Bongard. 
1. 0. p3nrolS9fl.orus, Bong. Tall, slender, smooth: sepals equaling the petals. 

13. CHIMAPHTTiA, Pursh. 

1. O. Menziesii, Spreng. Leaves often mottled above: peduncle 1-3-flowered. 

2. 0. umbellata, Nutt. Taller (1 or 2 ft. high) leaves not spotted: flowers 4 to & 

14. UONESES, Salisbury. 

L K. uniflora, Gr. Corolla white or rose-tinged, ^-f in. broad. Cold bogs. 

15. PYROIiA, Toumefort. 
1 connivent about the straight style, not declined: stigma peltate 1, 9 

and style bending downward then upward: style exserted. 

Corolla greenish white: calyx-lobes short 3, 4, 6 

Corolla rose-purple or purplish: scaly bracts large 6 

Leaves sometimes veined or splotched with white 6, 6 

Leaves wanting: scapes reddish: petals obovate, white 7 

1. P. minor, L, Leaves orbicular, an inch long or less: style short. 

2. P. secunda, L. Leaves ovate, 1 to 2 inches long: petals oblong: style long. 
8. P. chlorantha, Swartz. Leaves orbicular, 5 to 8 lines long: sepals obtuse. 

4. P. elllptica, Nutt. Leaves 1^ to 2^ inches long, longer than the petioles. 

6. P. rotundifolia, L. Leaves orbicular or nearly so, shining above. Only the 
var. bracteata, Gr., found on this coast, which often has large white-banded leaves. 

C. P. picta, Smith. Leaves broadly ovate to narrow or spatulate, coriaceous. 

7. P. aphylla. Smith. Scapes a span to a foot high: bracts subulate. 

16. ALLOTBOPA, Torrey & Gray. 
t. A. virgata, T. 4 O. Thick and densely bracteate at base, ending in a long spik*. 


17. FTEBOSPORA, NattalL 
L P. aadromedea, Natt. Pedicels slender, soon reoanred: ooroUa globoM, white. 

18. SABpCODES, Torrey. 
L S. sangoinea, Torr. A span to a foot high: flowers erect on thick pedicels. 

19. MONOTBOPA, Linnsns. 

1. 2L tmiflora, L. Smooth: mostly white, rarely flesh-color: single flower noddinj^ 

2. M. Hypopitys, L. Tawny or flesh-color: petals 4, except in terminal flower. 
S. M. flmbriata, Gr. Bracts and spatulate sepals lacerate-fringed: petals mostly 3. 

L P. flxnbriolata, Or, Brownish, stout: anthers opening lengthwise: ovary l-oelled. 

21. XEWBEBBYA, Torrey. 

1. N. eongesta, Torr. Flowers capitate: corolla-tnhe longer than the lobea 

2. N. spicata, Gr. Flowers spicate: corolla^tnbe broader, as long as the lobes. 


1. PHOLISMA, NattalL 
L P. arenariiun, Nntt. Brownish or reddish stems in clomps; spike 1 or 2 inohes 
long: parpUsh: corolla exceeding the linear bracts and sepals. Monterey, S. 


Petaloid calyx scarioos, plicate: petals long clawed: styles filiform. 

Leaves oblong or spatnlate: scapes branching psniculately: spikes l-sided. ........... 1 

Leaves grass-like: simple scapes bearing a globose head of purplish flowers........... St 

2. STATICE, Toumefort. 
1. Sl liiraonimn. It. var. Califomica, Gr. liavender flowers in compoond sfdkaa 

3. ARMERIA, Willdenow. 
L A. valgaris, Willd. Short-pediceled flowers surrounded by scarions braota 



Leares all ndlealt nodding flowers on a naked scape in a braoteate nmbct ..•• 1 

Leaves radical or crowded on tufted stems, cuneate-spatulate, 5-7-toothed at apex.. .. 2 

Leaves in a whorl at top of stem, bracts below: corolla rotate, rose to white « 8 

Leaves all or mostly opposite: flowers axillary. x 

Flowers small, yellowish, in close clusters; corolla rotate 4 

apetalous, solitary, purplish or white 5 

solitary: corolla rotate on slender pedicel 6 

LeaVM all or mostly alternate: flowers solitary, minute 7 

flowers in paniculate racemes, very smalL 8 

1. DODECATHEON, Linnsua. 

• Short filamenU united to form vnth the closely connivent anth^a a dark colored beak tmr- 

mouniing the short corolla tube. 

Capsule obtuse, splitting at or from the apex into valves. 

Leaves from narrowly to broadly spatulate: capsule oblong or longer.. 1 

Leaves obovate or oval, short, base cuneate: capsule globular 3 

Oapsule oylindraoeous; apex not splitting, but coming off as a lid. 8 

• • Short dittinctJilaTnenta included in the corolla throat, only the anthert exaerted: leave* 

oval or ovate to oblong, not tapering at base 4 

1. D. Jeflfrejri, Moore. Often very large: capsule exceeding calyx. 

2. D. ellipticazti, Nutt. Leaves i to 2 inches long: calyx minutely glandular. 
8. D. Hendersoni, Gr. Like the last except the thin-walled exserted capsule. 
4. D. frig^duxn, C. & S. var. dentatum. Leaves commonly repand or dentate. 

2. PRIMULA, LinnsBUS. 
L P. BuflOrutescexis, Or. Scape 2 to 4 inches long: nmbel of several red-purple 

8. TRIENTAIilS, li vassm. 
1. T. Europeea, L. Flowers oh slender pedicels imong the leaves. Our 
Var. latifolia, Torr., with leaves mostly acute, i to 4 inches long, and 
Var. arctica, Ledeb., with obtuse or retuse leaves an inch long or lesa. 

4. liYSIMACHLA, ToumeforL 
1. Xi. thyTBiflora, L. Leaves lanceolate: small teeth between corolla lobHL 

6. GLATJX, Toumefort. 
1. O. maritiilia, L. Succulent, pale green, 3 or 4 inches high, leafy. 


6. ANAGAIililS, Toumefort, 
L A. arrensis, L. Square stems: leaves ovate: corolla often Balmon-pozpla. 

1, O. wi^TiiTntT^ L. Slender: corolla lobes acute, shorter than calyx. 

8. SAM0LX7S, Tournefort. 
L S. Valerandi, L^ var, Americantis, 6r. Corolla white, a line long or len. 


1. STYRAX, Toumefort. 
I. & Oalifomica, Torr. Shrub: spatulate corolL't lobes, 8 or 9 lines long, ^Hiite. 


1. FBAXTNTTS, Toumefort. 

1. F. dipetala^ H. ft A. Leaflets serrate: petals 2, white, 2 lines long. 

2. F. Oregana, Nutt. Leaflets mostly entire: flowers dioecious, apetalou& 


Flowers in terminal cymes: corolla campanulate, white or pinkish ,- ....,,^ 1 

Flowers on scape-Uke peduncles: corolla short: funnelform, rose-purple. ... ..... 3 

1. APOCYNTJM, Toumefort. 

1. A. androsasnufoliTim, L. Spreading: leaves ovate: corolla 3 or 4 lines long. 

2. A. cannabinum, L. More strict: leaves narrower, nearly sessile: corolla smaUec 

3. CYCLADENLA, Bentham. 
1, C. hoznilis, Benth. Smooth, low: corolla 9 lines long, throat hairy: style long. 
Var. tomentosa, Qr. Densely hairy: leaves 2 or 3 pairs, 1 to 3 inches long. 


Stem twining: anthers with scale-like appendages: corolla rotate <•.•.»....•,. 1 

Stem erect: anthers with hooded or cup-like appendages: petals reflexed. 


HoodB with horn-like process within ....•• ....••.. 8 

Hoods cleft at the back (outside), hornless 8 

Hoods cleft on the inside, hornless .....••• 4 


1. P. linearis, var. heterophylla, Gr. Corolla 6 linei broad, dnil-coloted. 8. CaL 

2. ASCLEPIAS, LuuuBos. 

Oorolla-lobes 4 or 6 lines long: hoods 5 or 6 lines long, back prolonged 1 

Corolla-lobes whitish, 3 lines long: hoods truncate; horns little exserted 2 

Corolla-lobes greenish, 3 or 4 lines long: hoods appendaged on sides 8 

Corolla-lobes whitish, ovate, 3 lines long 4 

Corolla-lobes greenish or purplish, 3 lines long: horns triangnlar, obtnse 6 

Corolla-lobes greenish or purpUsh, 2 lines long: horns slender, exserted 6 

1. A. speciosa, Torr. Stout, 2 to 5 ft. high: follicles with soft spines. 

2. A. Fremonti, Torr. A foot high or less: short- woolly: leaves obtnse. 

3. A. erosa, Torr. Leaves ovate or narrower, acuminate, margins scarious. 

4. A. eriocarpa, Bentb. Densely woolly: leaves often in 3's, 4 to 8 inches long. 

6. A. vestita, H. & A. Dense white wool deciduous in age: leaves Tery acut«, long. 

5. A. Mezicana, Cav. Smooth; slender leaves in whorls, 3 to 6 inches long. 

1. S. puxpuxascens, Gr. Decumbent or prostrate: leaves cordate: corolla reddish. 

4. G01SO*H0CA£PnS, Robt. Brown. 

1. O. cordifoliUB, Benth. Smooth: loosely flowered: corolla dark purple>red. 

2. G. toxuentosos, Or. Woolly: stem angled: corolla greenish or purpli^ 


OoroUa from fonnelform to salverform: leaves opposite. 

Corolla yellow, 4-lobed: anthers not twisted. • i 

Corolla red, 3-5-lobed: anthers spirally twisted in age , .* 9 

Corolla blue or white: stigma fiat, nearly sessile 8 

Omolla rotate, 4-parted with fringed glands: leaves opposite or whorled 4 

Corolla campanulate : leaves alternate or radical, 3-f oliolate or renif orm 6 

1. MICBOCALA, Link. 
L VL quadrangiUaris, Griaeb. Slender, 2 or 3 inches high: calyx 4-*ngl9d. 


2. EIIYTHILS:^. Renealm. 

Corolla-lobes 1^ to 2^ lines long; tube mucb longer: anthers oblong 1, 2, 8 

Corolla-lobes SJ to 6 lines long: tube a little longer; anthers linear 4, 6 

1. E. floribunda, Benth. Pedicels short or none: corolla-lobes 2 lines long or less. 

2. E. MuMenbergii, Griseb. Pedicels short or 2-bracted; corolla-lobes obtuse. 
8. E. Douglasii, Gr. Pedicels slender: corolla-lobes obtuse: seeds globular. 

4. E. trichantha, Griseb. Flowers often corymbose, some sessile, lobes acute. 
6. E. venusta, Gr. Flowers pediceled: corolla-lobes obtuse, tube yellowish. 

3. GENTIANA, Toumefort 

a. Corolla without plaited folds or appendages between the lobes. 

Flowers solitary on terminal peduncle, 12 to 18 lines long , .« 1, 2 

Flowers several, smaller, 6 to 7 lines long: calyx 5-cleft 3 

b. Corolla with folds between the (usually 5) lobes which are prolonged into thin teeth or 
accessory lobes; stigmas distinct: pod on a stipe. 

Annual: anthers introrse: stem leaves ovate-cordate 2 to 4 lines long 4 

Perennial: anthers more or less ertrorse: usually a pair of bracts or leaves under the short- 
peduncled or sessile flower. 
Stems several from one caudex, 1-2- flowered: stem-leaves connate-sheathing. 

Stems I -flowered. 2 to 4 inches high: radical leaves rosulate 6 

Stems longer: upper pair of leaves enclosing the flower 6, 7 

Stems many-leaved: style manifest, corolla blue or bluish. 

Corolla-lobes broad, narrowed at base; accessory lobes entire 8, 9 

Corolla-lobes not narrowed at base: accessory lobes laciniate 10, 11 

1. G. serrata, Guimer, var. holopetala, Gr. Calyx angular, lobes keeled. 

2. G. simplex, Gr. Leaves linear-oblong, 3 to 9 liues long: calyx hardly angular. 

3. G. Amarella, Xi. var. acuta, Eugelm. Stem acute-angled: capsule sessile. 

4. Q. Douglasiana, Bong. Cymosely branched: radical leaves rosulate. 

6. G. Newberryi, Gr. Radical leaves obovate to spatulate: corrolla 18 lines long. 

6. G. setigera, Gr. Stems decumbent: 1 or 3 bristles between corolla-lobes. 

7. G. calycosa, Griseb. Stems erect: accessory corolla-tubes laciniate or 2-cleft. 

8. G. Menziesii, Griseb. Stems slender, a ft. long or less: leaves 1^ in. long or lea« 

9. G. sceptnun, Griseb. Stem 2 to 4 ft. high: leaves broader, li to 3 in. long. 

10. G. Oregana, Eugelm. Corolla over an inch long, lobes roundish. 

1 1. G. affinis, Griseb, Corolla an inch long or less, lobes ovate, acute. 

4. F&ASERA. Walter. 

Stoat, 2 to 5 ft. high: leaves not white margined 1, 9 

Gray •green, 1 to 3 ft. high: leaves with cartilaginous white margins. 3, 4, 

1. F. thyrsiflora, Hook. Leaves in 2's or 3's: a gland on each oorolla-lobe. 


2. F, Bpeciosa, Doagl. Leaves in 4's and 6's: 2 glands on each corolla-lobe, 

3. F. Parryi, Torr. Leaves in 2*8 or 3's: corolla white, glands Innate-obcordata. 

4. F. nitida, Benth. Slender: light blue corolla often greenish spotted. 

5. F. albicaulis, Doagl. Similar but minutely puberulent: glands linearK>blon^ 

6. MENYANTHES, Toumefort. 

1. U. trifoliata, L. Leaves 3-foliolate: flowers racemose: corolla bearded. 

2. M. GThrista-galli, Menz. Leaves reniform: flowers cyraoae, crested. 


Leaves entire, opposite: corolla salverform, rose-purple ta white: stamens inserted at 
unequal heights: perennials 1 

Leaves various; rarely all opposite and entire, then the stamens are inserted at equal 
heights: corolla from salverform and funnelform to almost rotate 3 

Leaves simply pinnate, alternate; leaflets entire, apex sharp: corolla rotate to funnelform: 
stamens declined, hairy at base S 

1. PHLOX, Linnseus. 

Matted cushion-like, evergreen: leaves narrow, crowded, 3 to 6 lines long. 

Woolly, in mats 2 to 4 inches high: leaves imbricated, recurved ►. . 1 

Not woolly: leaves rigid, hispid-ciliate, sometimes recurved 2 

Not woolly, less densely tufted: leaves narrower, less rigid 8 

Loosely tufted: leaves linear to ovate, mostly exceeding an inch long. 

Leaves very narrowly linear, style long, slender 4, 6 

Leaves linear to ovate: corolla usually 6 to 10 lines broad 6, 7 

1. P. canescens, T. <fe G. Corolla white, 6 to 9 lines long, tube eiserted- 

2. P. caespitosa, Nutt. Corolla tube a little exceeding the calyx lobes. 

3. P. Douglasii, Hook. Leaves with margins naked or ciliate at base. 

i. P. linearifolia, Gr. Much branched: leaves 1 or 2 inches long a line wide. 

5. P. longifolia, Nutt. Similar but lower and cells mostly 1-ovuled. 

6. P. adsurgens, Torr. Smooth leaves ovate or narrower: corolla-tube long. 

7. P. speciona, Pursh. Leaves lanceolate to linear: corolla tube and style ahorV 

2. GILLA., Ruiz & Pavon. 
* Leaves opposite, at least below, palmately parted into linear or filiform divisions {erUirt in 

8 and rarely in 10). 
Diffusely branching to nearly simple stems: corolla nearly rotate to salverform. 

Flowers scattered on filiform pedicels 1 to 8 

Flowers sessile, a few together or solitary 0, 10 


Simple or sparingly branched: flowers sessile in dense leafy-bracted heads; corolla salver- 

CoroUa-tnbe little or not at all exserted beyond the leafy bracts. 11,15,16 

Corolla tube much exserted 12, 13, 14 

* • Lfaves alternate, lobed or parted; rarely a few entire or opposite. 

♦ Leavea palmately parted into rigid pungent divisional stems woody, fiovoers large, sessile: 

corolla salver/orm: stamens included 17, 18 

t+ Leaves pedateh/ 6 -7 -parted: soft-hairy perennials. 

Flowers white in dense heads: some leaves 3-parted or entire 84 

Flowers violet or purplish, solitary, subsessile in forks or axils 35 

t + t Leaves pinrwUely incised cleft or divided, rarely a few entire or oppoaite: bracts some- 
times nearly palmately cleft. 
a. Flowers in dense leafy-bracted clusters or heads: lobes of the eaiyx, bract* and upper 

leaves mostly rigid and pungent. 
Much branched annuals: sometimes viscid: never woolly except in thelieads^stigmasoften 
only 2. 
At least some of the leaves bipinnatifid. 

More or less viscid; odor disagreeable 19, 20 

Not viscid: leaf-segments filiform 21 to 24 

Leaves simply pinnatifid or many entire. 

Not viscid; bracts and calyx fine-woolly 25 

Viscid 26 to 28 

Densely woolly, at least when young: corolla salverform: stamens exserted. 

Leaves rigid, not viscid: filaments exserted; anthers sagittate 29 to 83 

Leaves not rigid: petioles broad: flowers small, white, numerous. ... ^ 84 

6. Inflorescence bractkss or nearly so: leaves not rigid or pungent. 

Stems from creeping rootstocks, 1 or 2 incher high 35 

Flowers in long-pedunculate ovoid heads: leaf -lobes filiform 36, 37 

Flowers clustered or solitary: leaf -lobes slender (except 41) 88 to 44 

Corolla pinkish, slender, twice as long as calyx 45, 46 

* * * Leaves entire (rarely 2 or 3 small lobes), aUemate, or the lower opposite, sessile: corolla 

salverjorm to funnelform: stamen unequally inserted: more or less viscid ttnnuals. 

Flowers on filiform peduncles: corolla pink, 5 to 10 lines long 47 

Flowers in loose cluster or scattered : calyx -lobes slender 48 

Flowers in the forks and upper axils: calyx-lobes awn-like 49 

Flowers in leafy-bracted capitate clusters or a few scattered. 

Calyx-lobes acute: corolla 5 lines long ., 50 

Calyx-lobes obtuse: corolla 10 to ISlines long ^^^ ^ 61 

§ I. Dactylophyllxun, Gray. 

1. O. liniflora* Benth. Corolla white or pinkish, nearly rotate. W. CaL 



Var. phamaceoideSf Gr. Smaller: the flowers half as large, 3 to 5 lines broad. 

2. G. pusilla, Benth. Corolla short funnelform, 2 or 3 lines long, throat yellowiilt, 
Var. Califomica, Gr. Corolla larger, twice as long as calyx. Common form. 

3. G. Harknessii, Curran. Corolla white, 1 or 2 lines long, tube equaling lobes. 

4. G. Bolanderi, Gr. Corolla purplish, lobes exceeding the narrow tube. 

5. G. ambigrua. Tube, dark throat and lilac-purple limb, each 2 lines long. 

6. G. Rattani, Gr. Less branched: corolla tube long exserted, slender. Cent^ CaL 

7. G. aurea, Nutt. Diffuse: leaves hispidulous: very small: corolla yellow. 
Var. decora, Gr. Corolla white or purplish, throat often dark. Cent. CaL S. 

8. G. dianthoides, Endl. Corolla lilac or purple, large, lobes fringed. S. CaL 

9. G. liemmoni, Gr. Leaves minute: calyx lobes rigid: corolla yellow. S. CkL 

§ 2. liinantlius, Endl., Benth. 

10. G. dicliotoma, Benth. Smooth: corolla salverform, satiny-white, large. 

§ 3. Leptosiphon, Endl., Benth. 

n. G. densiflora, Benth. Stout: leaf -lobes stiff: corolla 8 to 10 lines broad. 

12. G. androsacea, SteudeL Very variable: corolla throat yellow or dark. 

13. G. micrantha, Steud. Corolla very slender, usually yellow. 

14. G- tenella, Benth. Leaves hispidulous-ciliate: corolla pink, throat yellow, 

15. G. ciliata, Benth. Rigid, grayiah-hispid : corolla rose color. 

§ 4. Siphonella, Gray. 

16. G. Nuttallii, Gr. Perennial: corolla white; throat broad, yellow. 

§ 6. X.eptodactylon, Bentham. 

17. G. Califonuca, Benth. Corolla often 18 lines broad. Coast. 

18. G. pungens, Benth. Viscid: corolla smaller. Sierra Nevada^ 

§ 6. Navarretia, Gray, 

19. G. squarrosa, H. & A. Corolla blue to white: stamens included. 

20. G. cotulsefolia, Steud. Less viscid: stamens exserted. 

' 21. G. intertexta, Steud. Calyx and spiny bracts white and woolly at baMb 

22. G. Breweri, Gr, Less pungent: corolla yellow, 3 or 4 lines long. 

1 13. G. leucocephala, Gr. Erect or branches procumbent, pale green. 

24. G. prostrata, Gr. Similar; prostrate branches from a central head. 

25. G. divaricata, Torr. Heads small; bracts nearly palmately cleft. 

26. G. filicaiilis, Torr. Small corolla similar, but stamens exserted. 

27. G. viscidula, Gr. Stout, DiflEuse: corolla violet to purple. 


Var. !lLetero(loz&, Gr. Slender bracts broad, less rigid: corolla tnbo 

28. G. atractyloides, Stend. More rigid and viscid: mint scented. 

§ 7. Hugelia, Gray. 

29. Q. densifolia, Benth. Corolla violet-blue, tube much exserted. 

30. O. virgata, Steud. More slender: flowers fewer, blue or lavender. 
Var. floribiinda, Gr. Corymbose branches ending in dense heads. 

31. G. floccosa, Gr. Corolla tube 3 or 4 lines long: anthers shorter. 

32. G. filifolia, Nutt. Corolla lobes a line long: anthers cordate-ovaL 

33. G. lutescens, Stead, Corolla yellow, 3 lines long: pod 3-8eeded. 

§ 8. Elaphocera, Nuttall. 
14. O. congesta, Hook. Leaves pedately 5-7-partedy lobes 2 lines long. 

§ 0. Eugilia, Bentham, Gray, 
debilis, Watson. Soft hairy: Flowers sessile among crowded leaves, 
capitata, Dougl. Flowers light blue: calyx scarcely hairy, 
achilleaefolia, Benth. Flowers violet to lavender: calyx-tips recorrad. 
multicatilis, Benth. Corolla violet, 4 lines long: capsule ovoid, 
tricolor, Benth. Corolla-lobes violet or lilac, throat dark purple, 
latifolia, Gr. Corolla 9 or 10 lines long, purple with dark throat, 
tenuiflora, Benth. Corolla narrow, 7 to 9 lines long, rose and violet, 
inconspicua, Dougl. Corolla narrow, 3 to 5 lines long, variable. 

§ 10, Ipomopsis, Bentham. 

44. G. aggregata, Spreng. Large corolla, scarlet to white, dotted; lobes aontCb 
Var. Bridgesii, Gr. Lower, 6 to 18 inches high: corolla bright red. S. N. Mta. 

§11. CouTtoisia, Gray. 

46. G. glutinosa, Gr. Calyx rounded at base, deeply cleft: capsule globular. 

46. G. heterophylla, Dougl. Diffuse: calyx-base acute: clusters close. 

47. Q. capillaris, Kellogg. Calyx small: corolla-lobes equaling throat. 

§ 12. Colloinia, Gray. 

48. G. gracilis, Hook. Leaves narrow; lowest opposite, broader. i 

49. G. aristella, Gr. Corolla purplish 4 to 6 lines long: capsule 3-lobed. N. OaL N. 

50. G. linearis, Nutt. Corolla lilac-purple to white, slender. 

Var. Bubulata, Gr. Low, much branched, flowers few in lower forks. 
61. G. grandifiora, DougL Corolla salmon color, 12 lines long. 



















Tafted, more or less Tucid: corolla funnelform: alpine 1, 8 

Stems 1 to 3 ft. high: leaflets mostly an inch or more long 8, 4 

Slender, much branched: leaflets 2 to 4 lines long: annuaL 6 

1. P. confertum, Gr. Small leaflets 2-3-divided: flowers in heads, 6 to 12 lines long. 

2. P. htunile, Willi, var. pulchellum, Gr. Leaflets entire: flowers fewer. 

3. P. coeruleum, L. Flowers bine, numerous, in a narrow naked panicle. 

4. P. cametini, Gr. Corolla salmon or flesh color, often over an inch long. 
Var. luteum, Gr. Corolla yellow, lobes (as in the species) broadly obovat«. Oe. 

5. P. micranthum, Benth. Corolla whitish, nearly rotate, small 


I I. Ovary and pod globose, 1 -celled, lined with a pair of expanded plaoentst eoroUa 
nsnally convolute in the bud. Herbs. 

* Stamens and style mtu:h exsertedi calyx not enlarged in fruit: JUnoera in dense elutters or 

heads: leaves alternate', perennial 1 

* * Stamens shorter than the corolla: calyx enlarging in fruit: flowers scattered 07 in loo»f 

clusters: lower and sometimes allthe leaves opposite: annvalx 

Calyx with reflexed appendages between the lobes fl 

Calyx not appendaged: the lobes broad and obtuse: corolla white 3 

§ 2. Ovary 1-2-celled: calyx deeply parted: corolla imbricated in the bud. 

Leaves all entire and opposite ^ . . 4 

Leaves all or all but the lowest alternate simple or compoond: style 2-oleft. 

Corolla deciduous, not yellow 6 

Corolla persistant, yellow 6 

Leaves mostly radical, long petioled, round-cordate, orenately 7-8-Iobed. 

Style and stigma entire: cymes braotless, racemose 7 

Leaves and 1-flowered peduncles all radical: corolla lobes 5 to 7 8 

% 3. Ovary completely or nearly 2-celled: styles distinot, the tips thickened: corolla 
imbricated not appendaged: leaves simple. 

Woody at base or tufted: corolla narrow funnelform. ^. G 

Shrubs; leaves thick, toothed: cymes terminal ,...•••.•».•..».•...••....... 10 

1. HTDBOPHYIiLiXrM, Tonmefort 

1. H. capitatiun, Dougl. Leaves 5-7-parted, lobes 2-3-clefi. 

2. H. occidentale, Gr. Leaves 7-15-parted, lobes cleft, obtuse. 
Var. Watsoni, Gr. Almost stemless, softer hairy. 

3. H. Virginicam, L. Leaves bright green, nearly smooth, 3-6-parted. 


2. NEMOPHILA, NuttalL 

Leaves all or nearly all opposite, seeds 5 or more 1, 2, 8 

Leaves all or many alternate: stems weak: seeds 4 or less 4, 6 

1. N. maCTllata, Benth. Corolla white with 5 violet spots. 

2. N. insignis, Dougl. Leaves 7-13-lobed: corolla bright blue. 

3. N. Menziesii, H. & A, Corolla blue to white, dark dotted in center. 

4. N. aurita, Lindl. Leaves 2 to 4 in. long, lobes and prickles retrorse: limlrviolet. 
6. N. parviflora, Dongl. Leaves variable: white, dotted corolla 2 to 6 lines long. 

8. ELLiISL^ Linnseus. 

1. E. membranacea, Benth. Leaves 3-9-divided: lobes mostly entira. 

2. E. chrysanthemifolia, Benth. Leaves twice or thrice pinnatifid. % 

4. DBAPERTA, Torrey. 
1. D. systyla, Torr. Silky viscid: leaves opposite, entire: itamexw oneqiiaL 

6. PHAOELLA., Jnssieu. 

* Leaxe* sim'pU and entire or $ome of the lower (mes with tmail entire lobes at the bate. 

All simple and entire, narrow, the lower (and the branches) opposite 1, 2 

Mostly simple and entire, ovate or oblong: spikes long 20 

Simple and entire or with 2 or 3 slender basal lobes, narrow 25 

Often simple and entire but lower ones nsually with 1 to 3 pairs of basal lobes, all lanceo- 
late or ovate: veins simple, distinct. Ovules 4 3, 4, 5 

Ovules 8 or more 28, 29, 30 

* * Leave* simple and more or iesa notched or lobed, or lower ones with small batal lobes, 
ovate or cordate. 

Hispid with spreading stinging hairs, annual 6, 7 

Hispid, viscid: leaves often pinnatifidly lobed 21 

Viscid: flowers large in loose racemes, blue, violet or white. 

Very viscid: style 2-parted , 14, 15 

Less viscid: style 2-cleft; corolla blue or violet 16, 17 

Leaves doubly toothed or some piunately parted. 18 

Leaves small, shorter than the petioles , 19 

Lower leaves with small basal divisions. 

Leaves and flowers large, viscid 22 

Leaves silky: somewhat hispid and glandular.. 23 

* * " Leaves l-S-pinnately divided and indsed. 

Calyi not hispid, 2 lines long in fruit: seed mostly solitary 8 

Caljrx hispid or ciliate: style 2-parted 9, 10, 11, 18, 18 


Style eleft to near the middle, leaves simply pinnate. 

Tall perennial, soft pubescent; leaves large SI4 

Leaves with 7 to 15 entire or few-toothed obtnse lobes SO 

Leaves mostly at base: flowers on pedicels 6 to 12 lines long 27 

Style cleft at apex: corolla nearly tabular, 5 to 7 lines long 31 

§ 1. Euphacelia, Or. Omiks 4- 

1. P. namatoides, Gr. A span high : corolla blue, 1 or 2 lines long. 

2. P. Pringlei, Gr. Taller: corolla more broadly campanulate. N. Cal. 

3. P. circinata, Jacq. f. Hispid: grayish leaves strigose: spikes dense. 
Var. calycosa, Gr. Calyx-lobes broader, veiny: stamens as much exserted. 

4. P. Breweri, Gr. Similar but annual, smaller: hairless tilaments not exserted. 

5. P. * huxnilis, T. & G. Diffuse: a span high: corolla deep blue, 2 or 3 lines long. 

6. P. malvsefolia, Cham. Corolla white, 3 or 4 lines broad: stamens exserted. 

7. P. Rattani, Gr. More slender: corolla 2 lines long: stamens included. 

8. P. platyloba, Gr. Corolla nearly rotate, bluish, little exceeding calyx. 

9. P. distans, Benth. Corolla dull-white to violet: stamens scarcely exserted. 

10. P. tanacetifolia, Benth. Similar but stamens much exserted: capsale ovaL 

11. P. hispida, Gr. White-hispid: sepals very slender, much exceeding globoM 

12. P. ramosissima, Dougl. Perennial: stems weak: leaves rather coarsely lobed. 

13. P. ciliata, Benth. Calyx much enlarged in fruit, lobes ovate, ciliate, veiny. 

§ 2. Gynmobathus, Or, Ovules and seeds numerous: no appendages to rotate catnpcm* 
ulate corolla. 

14. P. viscida. Torr. Corolla deep blue with lighter center, 6 to 12 lines broad. 
Var. albiflora, Gr. Flowers white. With next species. Santa Barbara, S. 

15. P. grandiflora, Gr. Similar: light blue to white corolla much Urger. 

§ 3. Whitlavia ,Chr. Ovules 8 to many: flowers shoviy. 

16. P. WMtlavia, Gr. Corolla- tube cylindrical, spreading lobes much shorter. 

17. P. campanularia, Gr. Corolla campanulate, 8 to 10 lines long. San Diego. 

18. P. Parryi, Torr. Corolla cleft below the middle, violet, often 5 spots in throat. 

19. P. longipes, Torr. Slender: corolla 5 or 6 lines long, white. Los Angeles, S. 

§ 4. Hutoca, Or. Ovules 10 to many: capsule ovoid or oblong. 

20. P. grisea, Gr. Corolla whitish: filaments retrorsely hairy, exserted, 

21. P. loasaefolia, Torr. Corolla 3 lines long: naked filaments much exserted. 

22. P. Bolanderi, Gr. Corolla nearly rotate, 10 or 12 lines broad, violet to white. 

23. P. hydrophylloides, Torr. Corolla 3 or 4 lines broad: naked filaments 



















E. ] 


K. ] 


B. 1 


B. 1 


procera, Gr. Leaf-IoDes acute: filaments much exserted. 
Menziesii, Torr. Corolla violet or white, 6 to 10 lines broad, 
brachyloba, Gr. Corolla small, whitish: stamens not exserted. 
Douglasii, Torr. DifiFuse: corolla campanulate, 5 to 10 lines broad. 
Savidsoni, Gr. Hoary: leaves strigose: pedicels equaling calyx, 
circinatiformis, Gr. Spikes dense: stamens included: seeds 6 or more. 
divaricata, Gr. Corolla broadly campanulate, blue, 7 to 10 lines broad. 
Microgrenetes, Or. Style cleft only at apex: stamens unequal, included, 
bicolor, Torr. Diffuse: racemes loose: corolla-tube yellowish. 

6. EHMENANTHE, Bentham. 
parviflora, Gr. Very viscid: corolla not exceeding calyx, 
penduliflora, Benth. Less viscid: corolla exceeding calyx. 

7. BOMANZOFFIA, Chamisso. 
Unalaskensis, Cham. Calyx-lobes little shorter than the corolla, 
Sitchensis, Bong. Pedicels, funnelform corolla and style longer. 


1. H. Califomicas, Wat. Corolla-lobes shorter than the tube. 

2. H. pumiliis, Porter. Corolla nearly rotate, tube bearded within. 

9. XAMA, Linnsus. 

1. N. Lobbi, Gr. Silky- woolly: leaves entire: flowers nearly sessile. 

2. N. Bothrockii, Gr. Leaves almost pinnatifid: flowers in terminal head*. 

3. M". Parryi, Gr. Cymes scorpioid: leaves Unear, undulate, villooa. 

10. EBIODIOTYON, Bentham. 

1. S. tomentosum, Benth. Whitened or rusty with dense pubescence. 8. GiL 

2. E. glutinostun, Benth. Sticky, resinous coated: corolla 6 lines long. CaL 


I 1. Ovary merely 4-lobed: stigma broad, sessile: glabrous: succulent ^....- 1 

I 2. Orary 4-parted into seed-like nutlets; style conspicuous; stigma small. 
* Nvilets freed by the baae to a fiat receptacle, smooth and $hining. 

Flowers leafy-bracted: corolla imbricated, yellow: soft-hairy 9 

Flowers bractless: corolla convolute, blue or white 9 


• • NtUleU fixed to a prominent hose (gynobase) by some part of the inner angla or /aee: 

corolla imbricated. 
Natleta not armed with prickles, not appendaged. 

Corolla blue or Tchitish: smooth glaucous perennials. 4 

Corolla yellow: l^spid annuals 6 

Corolla white, mostly yellow-crested in the throat: hirsute or hispid. 

Nutlets erect and straight: calyx in fruit not rotate 6 

Nutlets obliqne or incurved on a rounded base 7 

Corolla blue, rotate: a dwarf alpine tufted perennial ....8 

Nutlets armed with hooked or barbed prickles, or fiat and wing-margined. 
Corolla blue, purple or white; throat with a ring of 2-lobed crests. 

Racemes bracteate at base: nutlets erect, prickles barbed 9 

Bacemes on naked peduncles: nutlets globose 10 

Corolla minute, white: flowers scattered along leafy branches. 

Nutlets flattened, fonning an x-shaped or star-like bur. ^,. 11 

1. HELIOTB.OPIUM, Toumefort. 
1. H. Curassavictun, L. Nearly or quite prostrate: corolla bluish or white. 

3. LITHOSPERMTJM, Toumefort. 

1. L. Califomicum, Gr. Corolla 9 or 10 lines long: throat exceeding lobes. 

2. It. pilosom, Natt. Corolla greenish yellow, silky, 5 or 6 lines long. 

3. MYOSOTIS, Linnaeus. 

1. HL. vema, Nntt. Hispid calyx unequal: corolla white, small. Oregon. 

2. IE. sylvatica, Hoffm. var. alpestris, Koch. Corolla blue, 5 or 4 lines broad. 

4. MEBTENSIA, Roth. 

1. U. maritima, Don. Corolla 3 or 4 lines long, tube shorter than calyx. 

2. IC Siberica, Don. Corolla-tube much exserted: calyx lobes obtuse. 

5. AMSINCBXa., Lehmann. 

Nutlets sharply 3-angled, straight, smooth, shining 1 

Nutlets broad; the back nearly flat, wavy -wrinkled cross- wise. ^ 2 

Nutlets incurved, convex and ridged on the back, rough 3, 4, 6 

1. A. vemicosa, H. & A. Sparingly hispid: coroUa-tube a little exserted, 
Var. grandiflorm, Gr. Very bristly-hispid: corolla-tube longer, limb broader. 

2. A. tessellata, Gr. Coarsely hispid: leaves mostly obtuse: calyx rusty. 

3. A. intermedia, P. & M. Calyx whitish or tawny hispid: corolla 2 or 3 lines. 

4. A. spectabilis. F. & M. Corolla bright orange much exserted. 


ft. A. lycopsoides, Lehm. Stiff bristles with pimple-like base: leaf margina often 

undulate: often branching: very variable. 

6. KRYNITZKIA, Fischer & Meyer. 
I 1. Nutlets ovoid, smooth, shining, a ridge down the back, a groove down the inner 

side, attached to the gynobaae one quarter the length 1 

I 2. Nutlets ovoid, somewhat rugose, a ridge down the inner side, fixed by the base of 

the inner angle. Entire plant light green. 

• Mostly diffuse: lower leaves often opposite: corolla 1 or 2 lines broad 2, 3 

• • Flowers numerous: limb of corolla nearly rotate, 3 to 6 lines broad: yellow crests in the 

throat conspicuous: lower leaves mostly opposite (except in No. 6) 4, 5, 6 

I 3. Nutlets never rugose; inner angle furrowed from less than half to all the way; back 
convex; side angles mostly obtuse, never margined: calyx in fruit erect or closed: 
corolla small, throat naked or the crests not exserted: numerous flowers sessile in 
scorpioid spikes. 

• Fruiting calyx often /ailing with the enclosed nutlets, these smooth, shining, acute: sepals 

narrow, hispid, slender. 

Nutlets solitary, rarely 2, acuminate, fixed below the middle 7, 8, 9 

Nutlets usually all maturing scarcely a line long 10, 1 1 

Nutlets unequal, one much larger than the others 12 

Nutlets 3-angled-ovoid, papillose, sharply muricate or scabrous, attached nearly or quite 

up to the apex: usually erect and hispid; spikes bractless: calyx pungent-bristly. 

Calyx very villous-hispid, In fruit 3-5 lines long, mid-rib strong 13 

Calyx 3 lines long or less; bristles pungent, whitish or yellowish. 

In fruit double the length of the nutlets not connivent 14, 16 

In fruit 1 or 2 lines long, more or less connivent over the angular nutlets., 16, 17, 18 

• • Fruiting calyx deciduous above a persistent basal cup: nutlets ovate-deltoid, S-angled, 

usually very smooth, groove forked. 
Much branched, with flowers almost from base, hispid 19 

1. K. lithocarya, Greene. Corolla not surpassing the rusty calyx: spike simple. 

2. K. Calif omica, Gr. Leaves small, narrow: flowering from near the base. 
Var. Bubglochidiata, Gr. Succulent: nutlets minute-bristly with barbed hairs. 

3. K. tracbycarpa, Gr. More lower leaves opposite: nutlets broader, granulate. 

4. K. Chorisiana, Gr. Some pedicels 2 to 12 lines long: leaves large. 

5. K. Scouleri, Gr. Slender: spikes often branching mostly bractless. 

5. K. mollis, Gr. Perennial stems creeping, soft-hairy. Wet borders of ponds. 

7. BL sparsiflora, Greene. Sepals with stiff hooked bristles: nutlet flattened- 

8. K. oxycarya, Gr. Strigulose: leaves linear: calyx in fruit deflexed-bristly at ba»e 

9. K. microstachys, Greene. Smaller, hispidulous: calyx bristles not deflexed, 

10. K. leiocarpa, F. & M. Nutlets attached for nearly the whole length. 

11. K. Torreyana, Gr. Nutlets attached half way up, groove forked. 


Var. oalycosa, Gr. Flovrers crowded, somewhat capitate: calyx longer. 

12. E. duzaetonun, Greene. Almost climbing: papillose-hispid: 2 sepals rndted. 

13. E. barbigera, Gr. Nutlets gray, very rough, rarely all fertile. 

14. E. intermedia, Gr. Nutlets thickly muricate, groove with open basal soar. 
16. K> ambigua, Gr. Nutlets minutely muricate, groove widely forked. 

16. K. muriculata, Gr. Stout: spikes 2-3-radiate: nutlets triangular-ovate. 

17. K. Jonesii, Gr. Slender: spikes more numerous, paniculate: calyx smaller. 

18. E. micromeres, Gr. Hispid, diffuse: spikes filiform: flowers minute. 

19. E. micrantha, Gr. var. lepida, Gr. Roots red: hispid: corolla 2i lines long. 

7. PLAGIOBOTHRYS, Fischer & Meyer. 

• Nutlets not on stipe-like attachments: calyx more or less villous toith yellowish or rusty 

hairs, sometimes deciduous above the base (circumsdssile). 

Sepals nearly distinct; in fruit 3 lines long, lax: nutlets broadly ovate 1 

Calyx deeply 5-clef t: giving a violet stain to paper 2, 3, 4 

Calyx cleft nearly to the base, 2-3 lines long in fruit not connivent 5 

Calyx cleft half way, silky, in fruit connivent, soon circumscissile 6 

* • Nutieta on stipe-like attachments: hispiduUnts 7 

1. P. rufescens, F. & M. Stems slender from rosulate tuft of radical leaves. 

2. P. tenellus, Gr. Radical leaves rosulate: nutlets 4-lobed or cross-like, shining. 

3. P. Shastensis, Greene. Similar, with larger flowers and nutlets. Mt. Shasta. 

4. P. Torreyi, Gr. Diffusely procumbent, hispidulous: leaves oblong. 

6. P. canescens, Benth. Villous: spikes, as in the last, often leafy below. 

6. P. nothofulvTis, Gr. Rosulate leaves thin: corolla 2 or 3 lines broad. 

7, P. Cooperi, Gr. Diffuse: corolla 2 or 3 lines broad, throat closed. 

8. OMPHAIiODES, Toumefort. 
1. O. Howard!, Gr. Silky, silvery: flowers few: corolla 4-5 lines broad. Or. 


Prickles of the fruit barbed at apex ouly : calyx in fruit reflexed 1, 31, 8 

Prickles barbed to the base: crests of small white corolla small 4 

1. E. CaUfomicum, Gr. Corolla short-f unnelform, blue, 2-6 lines broad. 

2. E. floribundum, Lehm. Corolla rotate, blue or often white, 2-3 lines broad. 

3. S. difTusum., Lehm. Similar corolla 4-9 lines broad: back of nutlet naked. 
4 B. Qreeaei) Gr. Diffuse: nutlets triangular-ovoid: prickles terete. N. CaL 

10. CYNOGIiOSSUM, Lehmanu. 

1. O. occidentale, Gr. Hispidulous: upper leaves sessUe; lower, spatalate. 

2. 0. g^ande, Dougl. Soft-villous becoming glabrate: leaves all petioled. 
Var. ISBVe, Gr. Smooth: corolla smaller, lobes shorter than tube. 

comroLvuLACs^ 91 

11. PECTOCAB.YA, DeCandoUe. 

Nutlets forming an x-shaped bar, the wings undulate or laciniate •.... 1, 9 

Nutlets forming a flat + • shaped bur, the thin margins entire 8, 4 

1. P. linearis, DC. Wings of nutlets toothed, the teeth bristle-tipped. 

2. P. penicillata, A. DC. More diffuse: nutlets fiddle-shaped; apex bristly. 

3. P. Betosa, Gr. Hispid, stouter: calyx-lobes with 3 or 4 yery large bristles. 
L P. pusUla, Or. Strigulose: nutlets angular, flat, wingless, with a midnerve. 


Twining or trailing: corolla funnelform, large, limb entire: stigmas fL, 1 

Not twining: corolla 2-3 lines long, 5-cleft, white: styles 2 2 

Corolla J in. long, 5-cleft, purplish: stigmas 2 Sp. 7 in No. 1 

Twining leafless thread-like orange or yellowish stems: parasitic. 8 


Solitary flower with a pair of broad bracts enclosing the calyx. 

Stems very short and erect or prostrate, trailing (See var. No, 5) 1, 8, 4 

Stems twining freely: bracts cordate-ovate or sagittate (See 5) 3 

Flowers often 2-3 together with small bracts; stems often woody 6 

Flowers with a pair of subulate bracts at base of pedicel: stamens slender ,. 

Flowers 3 lines long, deeply 5-cleft: not twining 7 

1. C. Soldanella, L. Glabrous, fleshy: leaves reniform: flowers pinkish. 

2. C. sepium, L., var. Americanus, Gr. Leaves acute: corolla rose, 

3. C. Califomicus, Choisy. Short, erect, or at length prostrate; xjubescent 

4. C. villosus, Gr. Densely white- velvety: leaves an inch long or less. 
Var. fulcratus, Gr. Bracts similar to the leaves (hastate): corolla yellowish. 

5. C. occidentalis, Gr. Bracts variable: stems often very long: corolla white. 
Var. tenuissimus, Gr. Only a ft. or a yd. high: leaves slender-hastate. 

6. C. arvensis, L. Creeping in moist places: corolla an inch long or less. 

7. C. pentapetaloides, L. A diffusely branched slender annual with spatnlats or 
lanceolate mostly entire leaves. This with No. 6 naturalized from Eo. 

2. CRESSA, Linnaeus. 
1. O. Cretiea, L. Gray silky leaves numerous, small, entire: flowers axillaiy. 

3. CUSCTJTA, Toumefort. 

Ovary and capsule depressed glaboae: stamens low, very slender .*««.. ., 1» 9 

Ovary and capsule pointed; corolla withering-persistent; scales fringed. 


Stems slender, low, growing on salt-marsh plants ...^..». 8 

Stems ooaiser: corolla mnch exceeding the calyx, 2) to 4 lines long 4 

Sterna coarse: corolla lobes acnte, usually inflexed ...*•• S* 6 

1. C. arvensis, Beyrich. Flowers scarcely a line long iu dense clnsten. 

2. C. Calif omica, Choisy. Calyx lobes acute: corolla lobes slender. 

3. 0. salizia, Engelm. Delicate white flowers 1^-2^ lines long. 

4. O. subinclasa, D. & H. Flower clusters globose, 6 to 12 lines thick. 

5. O. decora, Choisy. Flowers fleshy and papillose: clusters close. 

6. 0. racemosa, Martins, var. Chiliana, Engelm. Corolla thin. From CbOi, 


Corolla rotate: anthers eonnivent around the style: fruit a berry 1 

Corolla rotate-campanulate: anthers not eonnivent: berry enclosed in the looae inflated 
calyx. May appear in cultivated ground. Phyaalia. 

Corolla tubular-fnnnelform, i in. long or less: spiny shrubs 3 

Corolla funnelform, large: fruit large, covered with spines 3 

Corolla fimnelform or tubular: capsule small, smooth 4 

Corolla funnelform, 3-5-lines long: limb purple: stamens unequal 6 

1. SOLANUM, Toumefort. 

Corolla deeply 5-clef t, white or bluish : berries black or red 1, 3 

Corolla only 5-angled or slightly lobed, violet or blue 8, 4 

1. 8. nig^rum, L. Herbaceous: leaves mostly ovate, sinuate-toothed, acute. 

2. S. Douglasii, Dunal. Woody -stemmed: flowers 5-8 lines broad, often bluish. 

3. S. Xanti, Gr. Woody at base: hairs jointed: leaves mostly obtuse at base. 

4. S. umbelliferam, Esch. More woody: hairs branched: leaf -base mostly narrow. 

3. liYCITJM, LinnsBUs. 

1, Iu Califomicum, Nutt. Leaves fleshy, 1-3 lines long; flower parts in 4'a. 

2. Iu Andersoni, Gr. Leaves larger: flowers largei ^ 6-6 lines long. San Diego. 

3. DATUBA. Linnteus. 

Calyx aoutely 6-angled: fruit erect, ovoid 1, 3, 8 

Fruit nodding, globose 4 

Oolyz scarcely angled: corolla 6 or 6 in. long: fruit nodding globose 6 

1. D. Stramonium, L. Smooth: corolla white: lower prickles of capsule shorter. 

2, D. Tattila, L. Simitar: Stems usually purple: corolla pale violet. 

5. D. quercifolia, HBK. Leaves sinuate pinnatifid: prickles unequal, flat. 



4. D. discolor, Bemh. Corolla purplish: capsule and stoat prickles pabesocnt 
6. D. meteloides, DC. Leaves entire or repand, one-sided: capsnle large. S. CaL 

4. NICOTIAN A, Toumefort. 

Teary viscid, ill-scented herbs: flowers soon closing in sonshiue. 

Corolla salverform, the limb 4 or 6 lines broad 1, S 

Corolla tubular-funnelform, white; stamens unequally inserted 8, 4 

f'ery auiooth glaucous shrub: corolla tubular, greenish yellow 6 

1. N. Clevelandi, Gr. Corolla greenish white, violet tinged, an inch long. S. CaL 

2. N. attenuata, Torr. Calyx shorter: corolla longer, limb white. _ 

3. N. Bigelovii, Watson. Corolla 1-2 inches long, nearly as broad. 
Var. Wallacei, Gr. Corolla smaller: leaves often nearly clasping. S. Cal. 

4. N. quadrivalis, Porsh. Corolla broader than long: capsule globular. Or. E. 
Var. multivalis, Gr. Corolla often 2 in. broad, 5-8-lobed: capsnle large. Or. 

6. N. glauca, Graham. Leaves long-petioled, subcordate. Naturalized. 3. CaL 

6. PETUNIA, Juss. 
1. P. parviflora, Juss. Spreading or prostrate on the sea shore. 


A. Leaves aU or all but the lower ones alternate, rarely all radical. 

• Ltave» nmple and entirejiexcept in 2^0. 1 and 16): coroUa sometimes nearly regular, upper 

lip not beak-like. 

Corolla 6-lobed, rotate: stamens 5; filaments woolly 1 

Corolla bilabiate, throat nearly closed: stamens 4. 

Base of corolla prolonged into a slender spur on lower side 2 

Base of corolla swollen or saccate on lower side 3 

CoroUa large, open bilabiate with dentate lobes: stamens 2 4 

Corolla nearly regular: stamens 4: leaves narrow, mostly radical 14 

Corolla large, campanulate-bilabiate, 4-lobed: stamens 4 15 

Corolla and calyx 4-lobed: flowers small: stamens 2. 

Leaves cordate-orbicular, all radical, scapes slender. 16 

Leaves on the stem: corolla rotate, 4-lobed 17 

* * Leaves or ai least the bracts incisely lobed or pinnate: coroUa tvbular-bilabiate, closed i 

upper lip beak-like or compressed on the sides. 
Leaves or lobes not serrate: anther cells uneqiial or only one. 

Upper corolla-lip much surpassing the 3-toothed obscure lower lip 18 

Upper lip erect, much smaller than the 3-saccate, 3-toothed lower lip 19 

Lips of club-shaped corolla nearly equal: calyx 1-3-leaved 20 



Leaves or lobes serrate: anthers equally 2-celled. 

Upper lip or its beak exceeding the 3-toothed lower lip (except sp. 7). 81 

B. LsATBS all opposite or whorled (rarely alternate above in No. 9). 

• Stamens 4 w^A anthers; sterile filament often rudimentary or none. 

Corolla declined: stamena and style infolded b> lower lip 5 

Corolla small, lobes spreading: upper leaves 3-lobed or parted 6 

Corolla erect, front lobe reflexed: scale in throat on upper side 7 

Corolla etc. as in No. 9, but the seeds winged: odor rank 8 

Corolla open: sterile filament conspicuous: stigma entire 9 

Corolla-throat open or closed: no eter'ie filament: calyx 6-angled (except 1 sp.)^ 10 

Corolla blue or white, tube short, \\y^ spreading, the upper emarginate 11 

• • Stamens 2 with anthers: fiowers small: grovnng in wet ground. 
Calyx 6-parted into narrow, nearly equal divisions: corolla bilabiate. 

Sterile filaments simple or none : corolla small, whitish 12 

Sterile filaments forked: corolla violet or bluish 13 

Calyx 4-parted: corolla rotate, 4-lobed 17 

1. VERBASCUH, Linnsens. 

1. V. Thapsus, L. Densely velvety-woolly, leaves decurrent: corolla yellow. 

2. v. vir^ttun, With. Slender, green: filaments violet bearded or woolly. 

3. V. ' Blattaria, L. Similar but pedicels solitary and longer than calyx. 

2. lilNARIA, Toumefort. 
1. Xfc Oaxuulenaia, Dumont. Straight, smooth: leaves naifow: flowers blue. 

3, ANTIRRHINX7M, Toumefort. 

• Ereetf i to 7/1. high, ka/y: fiowers in a dense spike, light rose colon filaments broadejit at 

the top. 

Stems many from a perennial base, simple, glabrous, light green 1 

Stem stout, branching, very viscid-pubescent, 3-5 ft. high 2 

• • Branching with filiform axillary branchlets which coil around objects: sepals unequcd. 

Flowers in a more or less villous-viscid spike: bracts minute 5, 6, 7 

Flowers scattered along the stem and slender branches. 

Leaves on the main stem, ovate or aubcordate 8, 9 

Leaves on mam stem mostly narrow: corolla purple 10, 11 

• • • • Erect, nearly dmple stems: peduncles slender, twisting around objects 12 

1. A. virga, Gr. Deflexed lower lip of corolla upward inflexed from middle. 

2. A, glandulosiim, Lindley. Corolla with yellowish palate. Monterey S. 

3. A comutxim, Benth. Filaments all broadest at top. Sac. Val., rare. 

4. A leptaleutn, Gr. Leaves rarely linear: style shorter than pod. Sac. Valley S. 


5. A. Coulterianum, Benth. Leavea linear to oval, distinct; spike < 

6. A. Orcuttianmn, Gr. More slender: spike loose: corolla smaller, 4 lines long. 

7. A. Nevinianuin, Gr. Similar, but seeds ribbed not honeycomb-pitted. 

8. A. subcordatuin, Gr. Leaves sessile, each subtending a flower and branchlet. 

9. A. Xuttaliantun, Benth. Leaves petioled: pedicels often long as violet corolla. 

10. A. vagans, Gr. Very diflEuse: broad upper sepal equaling corolla- tube. 
Var. Bolanderi, Gr. Leaves orbicular on branchlets: upper sepal broader. 

11. A, Breweri, Gr. Similar: slender corolla-tube exceeding upper sepaL N. CaL 

12. A. strictum, Gr. Corolla violet-purple, palate hairy. Santa Barbara. 

4. MOHAVEA, Gray. 
U IL viscida, Gr. Very viscid: lower leaves opposite: corolla yellow, ptuple dotted. 

6. COLI.INSLA, Nuttall. 

• Ftowera on $hort pedicels or sessile in axillary whorls, 6-8 lines long. 

Corolla strongly declined, the throat as broad as long, nearly or quite at right angles with 

the short tube: gland sessile 1, 2 

Corolla less declined, throat narrower, leaves obtuse 3, 4, 6 

" * Flowers but little longer or not as long as the pedicels. 

Corolla usually more than 5 lines long, strongly declined sepals acute 6, 7, 8 

Corolla mostly less than 4 lines long: lips nearly equal: stems slender 9 to 12 

1. 0. bicolor, Benth. Upper corolla lip recurved, paler than the violet lower lip. 

2. C. tinctoria, Hartweg. Stains brown: corolla purple-striped, upper lip very short. 

3. C. bartsiaefolia, Benth. Leaves crenate, obtuse: calyr often white-hairy. 

4. O. corymbosa, Herder. Branching: flower clusters nearly capitate. N. Cal C'st. 

5. C. Greenei, Gr. Corolla rich violet or lavender; upper lip short; side lobes smalL 

6. C. grandiflora, Dougl. Flowers in whorls of 3 to 9: lower lip deep blue or violet. 
Var. pusilla, Gr. Small form: corolla only 4 or 5 lines long, deeply colored. 

7. C. sparsiflora, F. & M. Slender: only upper flowers in 3's, J-§ in. long. 
Var. divaricata. Only 2 or 3 in. high: flowers smaller, solitary. S. F. Bay. 

8. C. linearis, Gr. Paniculately branched: leaves very slender: pale corolla dark- 
dotted. N. Cal. 

9. C. parviflora, Dougl. Often diffuse: corolla little exserted, 2 or 3 lines long. 

10. C. B>attani, Gr. Stem strict, mostly simple: corolla lips violet, 1-2 lines long. 

11. O. Childii, Parry. Stem similar: corolla light blue. In forests S. CaL 

12. 0. Torreyi, Gr. Moch branched: flowers in 3's and 6's, blue or violet. 

6. TONELUi^ NuttaU. 
1. T. COIlinsioideB, Nntt. Di£fuse: flowers on slender pedicels, a line lonf(. 


7. SCROPHXJI.AIIIA, Tournefort. 
1. S. Calif oxnica, Cham. Stems square: flowers dull pnrple, 3-4 lines long. 

8. CHEIiONE, Linnsas. 
L O. nemoTosa, DongL Corolla violet-pnrple. In woods, Or., nortliward. 

9. PENTSTEMON, MitchelL 
i I. Anther-cells soon widely separating at base, united more or less completely at top, 
splitting open nearly or quite the whole length. 

• Anthers densely woolly, becoming shield-shaped after shedding poUen 1 

• " Anthers glabrous, splitting through the apex and spreading outx sterna branching and 

shrubby, at least below, leaves leathery or parchment-Wee^ mostly small, and short- 

petioled-.Jilaments all hairy at base. 
Corolla scarlet, narrow-tubular, its upper lip erect and the lower more or less spreading: 

sterile filament bearded down one side. 

Leaves subcordate or ovate acutely toothed, 1 in. long or less, 3 

Leaves oblong or oval ^ to 2 in. long, often canesoent 3 

Leaves slender, rigid, acutely toothed, glaucous 4 

Corolla yellow or yellowish, purple-tinged, not an inch long, the gaping limb longer than 

the tube (except No. 7): upper lip concave, lower recurved. 

Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, denticulate , 5 

Leaves similar, yellowish green, remotely serrate 6 

Leaves spatulate or oval, entire, 6 lines long or less 7 

• • • Anthers with spreading distinct cells splitting from base nearly to the top: corolla 

scarcely bilabiate, blue or purple. 

Leaves mostly oblong-lanceolate, glaucous 8 

* * * * Anthers splitting open Jrom base through the united apex. 
Glaucous or pale and glabrous: leaves leathery or thick: corolla 9-12 lines long. 

Stems thick, 1 to 3 ft. high: leaves mostly ovate-lanceolate, entire , 9 

Taller: leaves thinner; upper pairs acuminate, united, acutely dentate 10 

Similar but leaves thickier: corolla crimson, 9 lines long, throat narrow 11 

Leaves 1^ to 4 in. long, the upper often united : corolla cream- white, pinkish . . 13 
Corolla 8 lines long or less (more in 13): thyrsus viscid in 13, 14, 16, 18. 

Corolla somewhat bilabiate lower lip and sterile filament hairy. , . 13, 14, 15, 16 

Corolla funnelform or tubular: sterile filament nearly or quite naked 17, 18 

I 2. Anthers sagittate or horse-shoe shaped, the cells opening by a continuous cleft 
around the apex which reaches about half way to the bases of the cells, these remain- 
ing closed and saccate, sometimes hairy but never woolly: corolla some shade of 
purple and blue, from rose purple to lavender (scarlet red in the last). 

• 8oJi-pubeseent, viscid, stout: radical leaves 6-8 inches long 10 


• * Olabrom, orinfhrescense puberuknt or rfiscid: leaves toothed or pinnatijid: stertttJUament 
hairy, corolla funnelform, moderately bilibiaie. 

Corolla over an inch long, lobes and all the stamens sparsely hairy 20 

Corolla an inch long or usually less 21« 22, 23 

• ' * Olabrovs orpuberlent: leaves all entire. 

Corolla 6 lines long, slender: sterile filaments bearded 24 

Corolla short bilabiate, 8 to 18 lines long: sterile filament naked. 

Calyx glandular or viscid: leaves lanceolate to spatulate 25, 26 

Calyx not glandular or viscid: thyrsus usually narrow 27, 28, 29 

1. P. Menziesii, Hooker. Leaves 3-12 lines long: corolla violet to pink. Cal. N. 
Var. Newberryi, Gr. Corolla rose-purple or pink. Southern Sierras. 

2. P. cordifolius, Benth. Climbing over bushes, very leafy. San Luis Obispo. S. 

3. P. corymbosus, Benth. Erect, 1 or 2 ft. high, leafy: cyme corymbose. 

4. P. tematus, Torr. Branches slender: upper leaves in S's. Kern Co. S. 

5. P. breviflorus, Lindl. Sterile filament naked. Sierra Nevada. 

6. P. liemmoni, Gr. Paniculate: sterile filament yellow bearded. N. Cent. C»L 

7. P. antirrhinoides, Benth. Branched, leafy, paniculate: corolla pale yellow. 

8. P. glaber, Pursh. Wide corolla 1 to 1^ in. long. Sierras eastward. 

9. P. centranthifolius, Benth. Very glaucous: corolla tubular, bright scarlet. 

10. P. spectabilis, Thurber. Corolla roae-purple or lilac, the limb violet. 

11. P. Clevelandi, Gr. Corolla crimson, 9 lines long: sterile filaments bearded. 

12. P. Palmeri, Gr. Corolla 8-9 lines broad: sterile fil. densely yellow-bearded. 

13. P. Hattani, Gr. Leaves 3-8 in. long, denticulate: corolla pale purple. N. W.-Ca. 
Var. minor, Gr. Smaller: corolla 6-7 lines long. Klamath and Trinity R. 

Var. Kleei, Gr. Between the foregoing in size. High peak near Santa Cruz, 

14. P. pruinosus, Dougl. Pubescent: corolla deep blue, hairy. Or. "Wash. 

15. P. ovatus, Dougl. Pubescent: leaves ovate, serrate, green: corolla purple blne^ 

16. P. confertus, Dougl. Thyrsus in 2-5 dense whorls: corolla yellowish, small. 

17. P. deustus, Dougl. Tufted, woody at base: corolla yellow to dull white. 

18. P. heterodoxus, Gr. Leaves obtuse, entire. Near Donner Pass, Cal. 

19. P. glandulosus, Lindl. Corolla lilac: sterile filaments naked. Or. Wash. 

20. P. venustus, DoagL Leaves closely serrate: sepals small. Or. 

21. P. difEtisus, Dougl. Often diffuse: leaves unequally serrate. Or. Wash. 

22. P. Bichaxdsoni, Dougl. Leaves incised or laciniate-pinnatifid. Or. 

23. P. triphyllos, Dougl. Leaves lonceolate or linear, rigid, often laciniate. 

24. P. gracilentus, Gr. Peduncles and calyx \iscid. Mts. N. Cal., Or. 

25. P. l89tU8, Gr. Ashy-pubescent: corolla an inch long blue. Mts. CaL 

26. P. Hoezli, Kegel. Smaller: corolla smaller, paler. Sierra Nev. to Or. 

27. P. azureus, Benth. Glaucous; leaves ovate or narrower: corolla broad. 
Var. Jaf&ayanus, Gr. Low broad-leaved form in the Sierras. 

Yar. parvxilus, Gr. Broad leaves an inch or less long: corolla 9 lines long. Alpina. 


Var. angiistissimus, Gr. Leaves very slender. Yotemite Valley, etc. 

28. P. heterophyllus, Lindl. Similar: buda often yellowish. W. CaL 

29. P. Bridgesii, Gr. Thyrsus one-sided: corolla lips long. S. Sierra*. 

10. MIMULTJS, LinnaBUB. 

• CoroUa buff, BcUmon-color or orange, largei a viscid shriib 1 

• • Corolla-limb rose or crimson-purple {scarlet in No, 17): Micky viscid or tlimy (fc« #0 in 

8, 10, 17, 18, 88); often ill scented. 
a. Style pubescent above; stigma unequally lobed or entire, usually peltate-fniinelform: 

flowers sessile or nearly so. 

Corolla-tube long, slender; lower lip very short; upper lip erect 6 

Corolla scarcely exserted, 3-4 lines long: capsule much exserted 6 

Corolla exceeding ^ inch; lower lip shorter; throat dark or yellow 8 

Corolla trumpet shape, 6-9 lines broad, crimson: calyx hardly oblique 10 

Corolla similar, 6 lines long, 4-5 lines broad, deep red: calyx oblique 11 

Corolla nearly funnelform, 2-6 lines long, crimson: calyx-teeth spreading 13 

Corolla 6-9 lines long: calyx-teeth obtuse, nearly equal 13 

Corolla often an inch long: calyx-teeth very unequal, acute: very viscid 14 

Corolla oblique-sal verform, white, crimson- veined 16 

h. Style smooth; stigma of 2 equal flat lobes which upon irritation close: flowers on long 

or short peduncles. 

Corolla oblique-bilabiate, exceeding 1 inch, lobes reflexed, scarlet 17 

Corolla open-bilabiate, 1^-2 inches long, lobes spreading, rose-color 18 

Corolla little surpassing calyx; very slimy-villous 34 

Corolla 2-3 lines long; lower lip entire, upper 2 lobed 88 

• • * Corolla-limb rose or crimson-purple: not viscid, or very sligTUly ao. 

a. Almost stemless: corolla-tube long and slender: style pubescent. 

Flowers erect, sessile, surpassing the leaves, 1-2 inches long 2, 8, 4 

b. Stems much longer than the flowers: style smooth; stigma equally 2-lobed, lobes flat 
and often closed 18, 30, 38, 89 

***** Corolla yeUow, often spotted: viscid or slimy. 

Corolla-throat often purple-tinged or dotted: odor strong, fetid. 7 

Corolla 1 inch long or longer, nearly as broad, lobes subequal 16 

Corolla 3-9 lines long: peduncles scape-like: leaves rosulate-crowded 19 

j Corolla 1-1 inch long: slimy, musky, spreading and creeping 20 

Corolla i-i inch long: fruiting calyx i inch long, mouth closed 27 

Corolla J-i inch long: fruiting calyx on long peduncle, lower teeth shortest 29 

Corolla light yellow, limb often pinkish: petioles margined 81 

Corolla as broad as long (^ inch): peduncles much exceeding oval leaves. 8S 

Corolla narrower, ^-^ inch long: peduncles little exceeding the leaves , 83 


CoroUa-tnbe narrow, exserted; throat and bearded lip apottea 36 

Corolla 3-4 lines long, lobea nearly equal, often a pair of spots 40 

• " • • • Corolla yellow, often spotted, not viscid. 

Leaves ovate to oblong: rootstocks tuber bearing: corolla ^ inch broad 21 

Leaves similar, coarsely serrate, acute: corolla orange-yellow, 1 inch broad 22 

Lower leaves broad, acutely and irregularly dentate or laciniate 23 

Lower leaves narrow, petioled, thick, shining, denticulate, small 24 

liower leaves clasping, the others orbicular-perfoliate, glaucous 25 

Leaves mostly basal: stem wing-angled: upper calyx-tooth prominent 26 

Leaves very small, often purplish : diffuse : peduncles spreading 27 

Leaves narrow, laciniately lobed: corolla pale, 2-4 lines long: diffuse 28 

Leaves narrow, entire: corolla ij in. broad, purple dotted; lip bearded 36 

Leaves narrow, entire: coroUa 2-3 lines long: lobes all notched 37 

Leaves entire, soft-hairy: dififuse: corolla with 2 brownish spots. 40 

«•••** Qqj.qII(j^ white or white and yellow, often purple-marked. 

White or yellowish, throat with 8 or 10 purple stripes 9 

White purple or yellowish, 3-6 lines long: calyx-teeth very short 30 

White, veined with crimson, oblique salverform 16 

Yellow with white or pinkish border, ^ in. long: visciduloua 31 

Upper lip white, lower yellow, purple dotted: viscid. 86 

§ 1. DIPLACUS, Gr. Shrubs 3-5 ft. high: glutinous-viscid. 

1. M. glutinosus, Wendl. Variable. Common in Central and W. Cal. 

§ 2. GESNOE. Gr. Corolla 1-2 in. long; tube long exserted, slender: capsule l-sided. 

2. U. tricolor, Lindl. Corolla limb with 5 crimson spots, palate yellow. 

3. H. angustatus, Gr. Similar: corolla tube 3-8 times as long as the short throat. 

4. M. Douglasii, Gr. Upper corolla lip erect, lower almost none: stemless. 

5. M. Kelloggii, Curran. Becoming a span or a ft. high: lower lip larger. CaL 

§ 3. EUNANT7S, Gr. Style glandular: capsule not l-sided. 

6. M. BAttani, Gr. A span high: calyx yery viscid. Mt. Tamalpais and lAk* 
Co., Cal. 

7. M. mephiticus, Greene. Corolla 6-8 lines long. Sierra Nevada. 
nanus, H. & A. A span high or less, blossoming from near base. Cal., N. 
Whitneyi, Gr. Dwarf, 1 or 2 in. high: corolla J in. long. Alpine, CaL 

Fremont!, Gr. Leaves narrow: corolla rarely white. Common in S. CaL 
subsecondus, Gr. Oififase: flowers spicate, turned to one side. Cal. 
leptaleus, Gr. A span or less high, often depauperate. Mts., CaL 
Torreyi, Gr. A span or more high, simple or branching. S. N. Mts. 
Bolanderi, Gr. Very viscid, strong scented, 1-3 ft high, simple. Cent. CaL 
















1& M. brevipes, Benth. Very viscid, 1-2 ft. high: leaves slender. Monterey, S. 

§ 4. UIMniiASTBniSI, 6r. Corolla throat contracted at month: limb rotate. 
16. M. pictus, Gr. Simple stems or basal branches erect Tehachapi, Cal. 

j §6. EUMIMULUS, Gr. Calyx plicately angled: style smooth; stigma-lobes flat 

)l7. M. cardinalis, Dougl. Viscid- villous, 2-4 ft. high: leaves ovate, erose. 

18. M. Lewisii, Pursh. More slender, greener. Subalpine. Cal.-Or. 

19. M. primuloides, Benth. Scapes 1-4 in. long: light green. S. N. Mts. 

20. M. moschatus, Dougl. Stems 1-3 ft. long: leaves oblong-ovate, 1-2 in. long. 
Var. longiflorus, Gr. Less viscid, corolla longer. 

Var. sessilifolius, Gr. Leaves sessile: corolla 1 in. long. M. inodorom, Greene. 

21. M. momlifonnis, Greene. Leaves sparingly denticulate. S. N. Mts. 

22. M. dentatus, Nutt, Simple stems a foot high or less. Humboldt Bay, N. 

23. M. luteus, L. Elrect, i to 4 ft. high: corolla large; palate prominent. 

24. M. Scouleri, Hook. Erect, 1-2 ft. high: flowers smaller. Columbia R. 

25. M. glaiicescens, Greene. Corolla 1 in. long and broad, not dotted. S. N. Mta 

26. Iff. nasutus, Greene. CoroUa short, often with a spot. Common. 

27. M. nudatus, Curran. Corolla ^-f in. long, deep yellow. CaL 

28. M. laciniatus, Gr. Slender: i-1 ft. high. Merced R., CaL 

29. M. alsinoides, DongL Slender, branching, 3-12 in. high. Moist rocka. 

30. M. inconspicuus, Gr. Leaves ovate or narrower, entire, i in. long or leas. 
Var. acutidens, Gr. Calyx-teeth subulate: leaves denticulate. King's R. 
Var. latidens, Gr. Calyx-teeth triangular ovate. Monte Diablo, S. 

31. M. PulsiferSB, Gr. Branching, 6-8 in. high: leaves 3-nerved. N. Cal. to W. 

32. M. peduncTilaris, Doagl. Erect, slender: leaves J-J in. long. Columbia B. 

33. M. floribundus, Dougl. Similar, slimy, musky. Common. 

34. M. Parishii, Greene. Stout, erect, 1-2 ft. high, leafy. Los Angeles, S. 

35. M. bicolor, Hartweg. Leaves small: calyx ribbed. Foot-hills, S. N. Mts. 

36. M. montioides, Gr. Branching from base or simple: leaves slender. S. N. Mts. 

37. M. Suksdorfii, Gr. Leaves often reddish, ^-^ in. long. Cascade and S. N. Nta. 

38. M. rubellus, Gr. Leaves lanceolate, i-lj in. long. Cascade and S, N. Mts. 

39. M. Falmeri, Gr. Leaves narrow: coroUa-limb nearly rotate. S. E. CaL 

Var. androsaceus, Gr. M. androaaceus, Curran. Mooh branched: leaves broaden 
corolla smaller, 3-6 lines long. S. K Cal. 

§ 6. MIMTTIiOIDES, Or. Calyx deeply deft, almost nerveless. 

40. K. ezilis, Dnrand. M. pUontM, Watson. Mnch branched, leafy, very ftoriferoaai 
Common in Cal. 


11. HEB.PESTIS, C. T. Gseertner. 
1. K. rotundifolia, Pnrsh. Creeping in wet places: leaves oborate. Fresno, CUL 

12. GBATIOTiA, linnseos. 
1. G. .ebracteata, Benth. Leaves lanceolate: sepals eqnaling corolla. 
S. O. Virginiana, L. More viscid: leaves broader: calyx mneh shorter. 

13. ILYSANTHES, Bafinesqne. 
L I. gfratioloides, Benth. Diffuse: leaves ovate or oblong: corolla i in. long. 

14. lilMOSEIiLA, LinnsQS. 
L I*, aquatica, L. Tofts 1-2 in. high: leaves fleshy, slender: semi-aqnatio, 

15. DIGITALIS, linnans. 
L D. pturpnrea, L. Tall sterna with terminal spike of rose or white flowers mostly 
■potted. The common Foxglove now naturalized. Hnmboldt Bay to Or. 

• 16. STNTHYRIS, Bentham. 

1. S. rotundifolia; Gr. Scapes naked 3-4 in. high, not exceeding leaves. Or. 
Var. cordata, Gr. Leaves smaller, cordate, simply crenate. N. W. Cal. 

2. S. reniformis, Benth. Scapes bracteate, surpassing leaves, pedicels shorter. Or. 

17. VEBONTCA, Linnseus. 
" Perennials »ub<iguatic: raceme* in the axiU of opposite leaves: corolla Hue. 

Anagallis, L. Leaves sessile oblong-lanceolate, snbclasping. 
Americana, Schweinitz. Leaves often petioled, broader. Common. 
SCUtellata, L. Slender: leaves sessile, lineaj or lanceolate, acute. 

* * Perennials: racemes terminal: leaves broad, an inch long or less. 
Cusickii, Gr. Stems erect 3-4 in. high, leafy: naked peduncle 3-9-flowered. 
alpina, L. Not so leafy: racemes dense: corolla smaller, 2-3 lines broad. 
serpyllifolia, L Stems creeping and branching: spike-like racenja leafy. 

* • * Lower annuals: flowers in the axils of mostly altemcUe leaves. 
peregrina, L. Nearly glabrous, erect, branching: flowers small, 
arvensis, L. Pubescent, soon spreading: lower leaves crenata 
Buzbauzoii. Tenore. Very pubescent decambent; pedicels long. SL W, Baj. 

18. CASTTT.T.ETA, Mntia. 

Leaves and bracts allllnear-lanceolate and entire: calyx all green. 1 

Leaves mostly entire, narrow: calyx deeper cleft before than behind, mostly red: oorolla 
T J-2 in. long; upper lip (galea) |-1 in. long 9, 8 




















CSalyz about equally cleft; before and behind: floral bracts more or leas dilated, red rary- 
Ing to yellow or whitish. 

Galea (upper lip) as long or longer than the tube, lip very short 4, 6, 6 

Galea hardly as long as tnbe: leaves linear, entire, white- woolly 7 

Galea much shorter than tube, about twice as long as the lip 8, 

1. O. stenantha, Gr, Slender: corolla 1-1^ in. long. Cent, to S. Cal. 

2. C. afflnis, H. & A. Calyx cleft twice as deep before as behind. CaL Coast. 

3. 0. linearifolia, Gr. Caljrx cleft much deeper before. S. N. Mta. 

4. C. latifolia, fl. & A. Diffuse, viscid-villous: leaves broad, obtuse. Cal. 

5. 0. parviflora, Bong. Leaves laciniate-cleft or entire: galea partly exserted. 

6. 0. miniata, Dougl. Leaves and bracts mostly entire; galea more exserted. 

7. 0. foliolosa, H. & A. Many stems from woody base leaves crowded. CaL Coast 

8. C. pallida, Benth, var. occidentalis, Gr. Flowers whitish: low: alpine. 
B. 0. Lemmoni, Gr. Taller: spike dense, reddish. Sierra Co., CaL 


I 1. Castilleoides, Gr. Lip of the corolla simply or somewhat triply saccate tbe lobes 
(teeth) erect: anthers all 2-celled: bracts with colored tips. 9 

Perennial: very leafy: leaves mostly 3-5-parted: galea obtuse 1 

Annual (as are all the remaining species): galea nearly straight 2, 3, 4 

Galea densely bearded, incurved at apex: filaments hairy. 6 

8 2. Corolla-lip simply saccate; teeth inconspicuous or wanting: galea ovate-triangular: 
anthers 2-celled. . 

Bracts colored, dilated: corolla rose-purple 6, 7 

Bracts not colored, leaf-like, 3-5-cleft, lobes acute 8, 9 

f 3. Triphysaria, Benth. Corolla-lip conspicuously S-saccate, teeth minute or small; 
tube slender: bracts all similar to the leaves. 

Slender, diffusely spreading: minute flowers in nearly all the axils 10 

S<Mims erect, often corymbosely or fastigiately branched. 

Stamens soon exserted: spikes of yellowish or white flowers dense 11 

Stamens included; anthers 1-celled: leaf divisions filiform 13, 18 

Stamens included; anthers 2-celled but lower cell often imperfect 14, 15 

Stamens included; anthers 2-celled: stems strict, often simple. 

Very leafy and hirsute above: spike very dense; bracts broad. 16 

Spikes leafy: corolla yellow; sacs 2 lines long: viscid 17 

corolla white sacs 1-2 lines deep 18» 19 

1. O. pilOBUS, Watson. Sierra Nevada above 5000 ft, to Mts. of Oregon. 

2. O. attenuatus, Gr. Slender: spike of pale flowers very slender. Coast. 

3. O. densiflorus, Benth. Spikes dense: leaves entire or few-lobed. Cal. 

4 O. castilleioides, Benth. Spikes shortert leaves mostly laciniate. Coast. 


B. O. purpurascens, Beuth. Crimson or rose-color spikes showy. Cal. 

6. O. imbricatus, Torr. Slender: cor. hardly i inch long, S. N. and Cascade Mta. 

7. O. pachystachyus, Gr. Low, stout: cor. over 1 inch long, galea hooked. N. CaL 

8. O. bracteosus, Benth. Hirsute, strict: corolla rose-purple. Br. Col. to CaL 

9. O. luteus, Nutt. Corolla golden yellow: galea obtuse straight. S. N. Mta. 

10. O. pusillus, Benth. Leaves 3-5-parted into filiform lobes, of ten brownish. 

11. 0. floribundus, Benth. Erect 3-8 in. high: corolla ^ in. long. S. F. Bay. 

12. O. erianthus, Benth. Corolla sulphur-yellow; galea dark. Cal. Coast. 
Var. IsBvis, Or. Often a foot high: corolla yellow to white: galea pale. 
Var. roseus, Gr. Corolla larger, white or rose-color. San Francisco. 

13. O. BidwelliaB, Gr. Similar: smaller in every way. Sacramento Valley, 
Var. micranthus, Gr. Still smaller: lip a line broad. Fresno Co., Cal. 

14. O. gracilis, Benth, Bracts with purplish tips: corolla purplish. Rare. 

15. O. campestris, Benth. 2-4 in. high: leaves mostly entire: corolla white. 

16. O, lithospermoides, Benth. Corolla yellow or rose-tinged, large. 

17. O. lacerus, Benth, Hairy leaves and bracts 3-7-cleft, S. N, Mts. and Sac V»L 

18. O. hispidua, Benth. Soft-hairy: spike slender. Or. and CaL 

19. O. lineeirilobus, Benth. Hirsute, stouter, more branched. Cent. CaL 

20. CORDYLANTHUS, Nuttall. 

• Cafyz t-Uaved: fitywera short-pedunded or sessile subtended by 2-4 bracUets: statnena 4t 

filaments hairy: corolla nearly included. 

Leaves mostly 3.5-parted, the upper and bracts hispid-ciliate 1 

Leaves entire except the 3-parted bracts: soft villous 3 

Leaves entire very slender; bracts obtusely 3-5-lobed, fan-shaped 3 

Leaves entire very slender: flowers scattered on slender branches 4 

* * Calyx of one posterior leaf: ffowers in short spikes, sessile in the axils of clasping bractt: 

no bractlets: low salt-marsh plants 6, 6 

1. C. fllifolius. Nutt. Corolla over i in. long, purplish. CaL 

2. 0. pilosus, Gr. Tall: visciJulous flowers few in clusters or solitary. 
Var. Bolanderi, Gr. Lower, more viscid: flowers all scattered. 

3. C. Pringlei, Gr. Corolla 4-5 lines long, pale yellow. Clear Lake, CaL 

4. 0. tenuis, Gr. Paniculate, 1-2 ft. high. Central Cal. 
6. O. mollis, Gr. Stamens 2: anthers 2-celled. S. F. Bay. 

6. O. maritimixs, Nutt. Stamens 4. San Diego to Humboldt Bay. 

21. PEDICULARIS, Toumefort. 

Galea with a Blender projecting or upturned beak: corolla doll rose or crinuon: cpike 

naked. Alpine in S. N. Mts 1, 3 

Galea with incurved beak: corolla white or whitish.... 8, 4, 

Galea falcate with subulate beak: a pair of stem leaves fl 


Qalea not beaked; leaves plnnately -parted, lobes pinnatifid 7, 8, 

1. P. Grcenlandica, Eetz. Spike glabrons: corolla ^ in. and beak | in. long. 

Z P. attollens, Gr. Spike woolly; beak of galea 2-S lines long. 

5. P. contorta, Benth. Leaves pinnate, linear lobes incised. Or. 

4 P. racemosa, Dongl. Leaves undivided, crenate: raceme leafy. SabalpiiMk 

fi. P. Howellii, Gr. Leaves entire, serrate or pinnate. Siskiyou Mts. 

6. P. omithorhyncha, Benth. Spike interrupted: calyx inflated. Mt 

7. P. palustris, L. (Var.) Calyx 2-cleft: corolla i in. long, purplish. 

8. P. Semibarbata, Gr. Nearly stemlesa: spikes sessile. Mts. CaL 
8. P. densiflora, Benth. Corolla scarlet or crimson; galea } in long. 


1. APHYLLON, Mitchell 

Soapei or long pedunoles from a scaly, fleshy rootstock or short stem* 9, 1 

Steals rising above ground: pedicels shorter than the flower or none. 

Flowers an inch or more long on distinct pedicels 8, 4 

Flowers nearly sessile, about ^ in. long: anthers glabrons 4, 

1. A. luiiflomni, Gr. Scapes few: corolla often violet tinged: calyx lobes slender. 

2. A. fasciciolatum, Gr. Peduncles often many: corolla yellow: calyx lobes ahork 

3. A. coznosuizi, Gr. Calyx-lobes half as long as pink or purple corolla. 

4. A. CalifomicTun, Gr. Calyx-lobes and bractlets nearly equaling corolla. 
0. A. tuberosum, Gr. Stems thick, 1-3 in. high: flowers densely crowded. 
ft. A. pinetorum, Gr. More slender, |>1 ft. high: flowers looser. Oregon. 

a. BOSCHNIAXIA. 0. A. Meyer. 
L IL stxobtHemea, Gr. A thiok, brownish red spike of itriped flowoft 



Stems itofot, densely leafy: leaves 2-3-pinnate, very bladdery. . . i . . . ,-. , 1 

Stems filiform: leaves scattered, repeatedly forked, bnstly 9 

Stems slender: leaves 2-ranked, not bladdery, forking 9 

1. XT. vxilgaris, L. Scapes 5-16-flowered: corolla i in, broad or more. 

2. TJ. minor, L. Scapes 3-7 in. high: corolla 2-3 lines broad: spur short 

3. T7. intormedia, Hayne. Scape l-4«flowered: corolla i in. broad. 



CorotU nearly equally 6-lobed: calyx 5-toothed: small flowers in 

Corolla bilabiate, 4<lobed: calyx 2-cleft: small heads on slender peduncles • ,^„ 

1. VERBENA, Toamefort. 

1. V. ofBcinaliw, L. Spikes filiform, bracts minute: leaves pinnatifid. 

2. V. polystaehjra, HBE. Leaves serrate: corolla a line broad. Rare. 

3. V. hastata, L. Erect, 3-6 ft high: leaves coarsely serrate, petioled. 

4. V. prostata, R. Br. Diffuse, spreading, hairy: corolla 2 lines broad. 

t. V. bnM3te08a» Michx. Similar, but rigid bracts exceeding smaller flowen. 

8. UPPIA, Linnaeus. 
L Ik aodifloxa, Miohx. Creeping: peduncles 1-4 in. long: flowers rose to white. 


I L Stamens 4, coiled in the bud, much exserted through a cleft in the upper lip: leaves 

entire: corolla and curved filaments blue or purple 1 

I 2. Stamens erect or ascending, the posterior pair shorter or wanting: anther-cells 
short, close together or united: upper lip of corolla not concaTe or hooded (except 
in No. 9). 
* C<y'*)lla ttnail, cdmost equally 4-lobed: axiUary Jlovoer» in dense tohorl4iheeltuUrt, thtuppta 
axila JUnoerleaa. 

Stamens 4, nearly equal, all perfect: calyx 6 toothed 9 

Stamens 2, with anthers, posterior pair sterile or wanting 8 

• • CoroUa bilabiate: stamena 4> 
Flowers capitate: calyx equally 6-toothed: stamens distinct, str^ht. 

Upper lip of corolla entire or merely notched 4 

Upper lip 2-cleft: stamens exserted 5 

Flowers solitary or in clusters, axillary: curved stamens all perfect. 

Flowers small, white or purx^le: not ^ in. long 6 

Flowers over an inch long, orange; peduncles bracteate 7 

Flowers in oblong heads or interrupted spikes, blue or purple 8 

Flowers in axillary clusters, rose and white: upper anthers imperfect 9 

Flowers with white or purplish corolla an inch long: stamens perfect 10 

I 3. Stamens 2, the upper pair rudimentary or wanting: anthers 1 -celled or with 2 cells 
"ridely separated on the ends of a filament-like connective: flowers in dense terminal 
heads or globose whorls (except sp. » of iNo. ty^'t. 
Oocnoctive versatile upon the short filament. Leaviss pmnatifid 11 


Connective joined to the filament by one end; only one anther cell 13 

§ 4. Stamens 4, perfect: corolla bilabiate: calyx 15 nerved. 

Flowers in oblong peduncled heads, pale violet: stamens exserted 13 

§ 5. Stamens 4, perfect, ascending under the concave or hooded upper lip. 

Calyx with a projection on upper side: flowers solitary axillary 14 

Calyx purple-tinged, upper teeth broad, obtuse, lower two lanceolate 16 

Calyx 10-toothed, the shorter 5 teeth spiny, recurved: corolla small, white 16 

Calyx nearly equally 5-toothed: flowers in whorls or interrupted spikes......,..,,... 17 

1. TBICHOSTEMA, Gronovius. 

1. T. oblongxun, Benth. Corolla-tube shorter than the calyx. Or.-CaL 

2. T. lazuxa, Gr. Diffuse: leaves petioled: cymes peduncled, often forked. 

3. T. lanceolatuin, Benth. Gray-green: leaves crowded, sessile. Or.-CaL 

4. T. ovatum, Curran. Leaves round-ovate: calyx densely villous. S. CaL 

6. T. lanatuxn, Benth. Shrubby: leaves narrow: corolla woolly. Santa Barbara, S. 

2. MENTELA^ Linnsus. 
1. M. Canadensis, L. Villous: leaves oblong-ovate or narrower. 
Var. glabrata, Benth. The similar serrate acute leaves nearly glabrous. 

3. LYCOPUS, Toumefort. 

1. Ii. Virginicus, L. Stem obtuse-angled: sterile filament minute. Or. 

2. Ii. lucidus, Turcz, var. Americanus, Gr. Stem acute-angled, stoat: nnnun 
tuberiferous: calyx-teeth ^lender, equaling corolla. 

3. Ii. sinuatus, Ell. Leaves mostly incised or pinnatifid. N. CaL, Or. 

4. PYCNANTHEMUM, Michaux. 
1. P. Califomicum, Torr. Leaves ovate or narrower, sessile, 1-3 in. long. 

6. MONABDELLA, Bentham. 

I 1. Calyx over ^ in. long: corolla- tube much longer than the lobes 1, S 

f 2. Calyx J.J in. long: corolla-tube but little longer than the linear or oblong flat lobeat 

flowers in dense involucrate heads. 

• Tufted: corolla flesh-color to rose, lobes linear: calyx-teeth tojl. 

Leaves ovate to lanceolate, petioled, pinnately veined: bracts obtuse. 8, 4, 6 

Leaves linear to oblong, entire, J-| in. long, upper subsessile 6, 7 

• • Annucds loosely branching: leaves entire or undulate, rather distinct, narrowed into a 

petiole: calyx-teeth with margined nerve. 
Bracts ngidly cuspidate white and transparent except tne venu. 8, • 

Z.ABIATiB. 107 

Bracts aoate or obtuse ner rose, less transparent or the outer green. 10, 11 

Bracts broadly ovate, white-scarions, nervosa with cross veins: corolla white op nearly so, 

only 3 or 4 lines long: calyx-teeth with scarious tips 13, 13 

macrantha, Gr. Orange red or scarlet corolla 1-lJ in. long. San Diego, 
nana, Gr. Similar, more hairy: corolla white, rose-tinged, smaller. S. Cal. 
hypoleuca, Gr. Densely white-tomentose: bracts nervose. S. E. Cal. 
villosa, Benth. Soft-hairy or glabrate: bracts pinnately veined. Western C«L 
odoratissima, Benth. Nearly glabrous: bracts thin, whitish or purplish, 
linoides, Gr. Ashy-pubescent: bracts scarious^ white, pinkish. S. CaL 
Palmeri, Gr. Green: bracts very obtuse: otherwise like the last. S. CaL 
Douglasii, Benth. Bracts silvery between pinnate nerves and margin. 
Breweri, Gr. Bracts broader, less translucent, wanting marginal nerve. 

lanceolata, Gr. Bracts acute, cross veinlets between the nerves. 

undulata, Benth. Bracts broadly ovate, not cross-veined. Coast. 

candicans, Benth. Bracts with greenish nerves. Cent. CaL 

leucocephala, Gr. Bracts whiter, lightly nerved calyx-teeth 































6. MICROMERIA, Bentham. 
Douglasii, Benth. Creeping: leaves round-ovate: pedicels slender. Coast 
purpurea, Gr. Erect: leaves lanceolate: flowers in dense dostera. 

7. CAXAMINTHA, Toumefort. 
L C. mimuloides, Benth. Hirsute, viscidulous. Monterey Bay. 

8. POGOGYNE, Bentham. 

Stamens all perfect: stigmas nearly equal: corolla ^-f in. long 1, 3, 8 

Stamens 2 perfect: stigmas very unequal: corolla J in. long 4, 6 

1. P. Douglasii, Benth. Spikes oblong, white-hispid, bracts acute. 

2. P. parviflora, Benth. Smaller; bracts mostly obtuse. S. P. Bay, N. 

3. P. nudiuscula, Gr. Flowers in whorl-like clusters: bracts less hispid. S. CaL 

4. P. ziziphoroides, Benth. Flowers mostly in heads or short spikes. 
6. P. serpylloides, Gr. Flowers in whorls or long interrupted spikes. 


1. A. ilicifolia, Gr. Rigid, 3-6 in. high: leaves broad, often cuspidate-toothed. 

2. A. ianceolata, Curran. Taller: leaves lanceolate: flowers larger, an inch long. 

10. SPHACELE, Bentham. 
1. S. calycina, Benth. Shrubby: leaves rugose: hairy ring in corolla-base. 


11. SALVIA, Luin»a& 

1. 0. earduaoea, Benth. White-woolly, thistle-like: lavender eorolla 1 1n. toog. 

2. 0. OolujnbaTiSd, Beoth. Branching: leaves pinnatifid: blue ooroUa 2*i ^ long. 

12. AXJDIBEB.TIA, Bentham. 

Corolla li in. long, crimson-porple : large leaves very ragose 1 

CorollA i in. long or less, violet or bluish 2, 8, 4, 7 

Corolla S-J in. long: stems woody below, 3-10 ft. high 6, 6, 8 

1. A. grandiflora, Benth. Stont, slightly woody. S. F. Bay, sonth. 

2. A. incana, Benth. Leaves not rugose, 1 in. long or less. San Diego. 

3. A. huTTiilis, Benth. A span high, simple, stems nearly naked, base leafy. 

4. A. stachyoides, Benth. Several ft. high: forming dense thickets. Cal. Coast. 
6. A. Palmeri, Gr. Leaves oblanceolate, acute: whorls 4-8, distant. San Diego. 

6. A. Clevelandi, Gr. Similar: leaves obtuse: whorls fewer: viscid. San Diego. 

7. A. nivia, Benth. White-hoary, 3-4 ft. high: stamens exserted. Santa Barbara, S. 

8. A. polystachya, Benth. Mostly very white: flowers in a thyrans. S. Coast. 

13. LOPHANTHTJS, Benth. 
1. Ii. nrticifoliaa, Benth. Green, 4 to 6 ft. high: leaves ovate or cordate, large. 

14. SCUTELLARTA, Linntens. 

Corolla slender, i-} in. long, deep blue or violet: leaves ovate. ..., 1 

Corolla larger, ^-1 in. long, violet-blue: leaves oblong or narrow 2, 3 

Corolla white or dull yellow: upper leaves entire, obtuse 4, 6 

1. S. tuberosa, Benth. Soft-hairy, mostly .3 or 4 in high: many tubers. Cent. CaL 

2. S. angiistifolia, Pursh. Stems slender: corolla hairy inside, f-I in. long. 

3. S. antirrhinoides, Benth. Similar: leaves and corolla broader and shorter. 

4. S. Califomica, Gr. Slender: leaves short-petioled; upper short. 

fi. S. Bolanderi, Gr. More pubescent, very leafy: leaves sessile, broad, veiny. 

16. BBUNELLA, Toumefort. 
1. B. vnlgariSt L. Simple stems ending in a dense spike of violet flowerB. 

16. HCABBTTBinM, Toumefort. 
I. M. Tnlgare, L. Hoary, bitter. Common Horehonnd natoraliaed. 

17. STACHYS. Toumefort. 

Corolla white or whitish: leaves soft-hairy or white tomentose 1, 8, 8 

CooroUa porple or rose, J in. long or less; tube not exceeding calyx « 4 

Corolla porple or roee; tube exceeding the calyx 5, 6; 7 
















ajugoides, Benth. Softly white-hairy: leaves oblong obtuse: ill-soeuted. 
albens, Gr. White-woolly, leafy, often tall: leaves rather acute, 
pycnantha, Benth. Tawny -hairy, leafy: leaves obtuse, spike short, denM. 
palustris, L. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute, mostly sessile. Or. 
bullata, Benth. Mostly hispid, light rose flowers in interrupted spikes. 
Chamissonis, Benth. Much larger: leaves 2-5 in. long. Wet ground, 
ciliata, DongL Similar; leaves thinner, less hairy. Or. Coast. 


1. PIiANTAGO, Toomefort 

Stamens 4. Leaves not fleshy, 1-8-ribbed or nerved X, 6, 6 

Leaves somewhat fleshy, oblanceolate to lanceolate or broader.... 2, 3, 7 
Leaves fleshy, linear to filiform; spike dense, cylindrical 4 

Stamens 2: leaves linear to filiform, 1-4 in. long: annuals 8, 

1. P. major, L. var. Asiatica, Decne. Leaves ovate or oval: scape i-2 high. 

2. P. eriopoda, Torr. Yellowish wool at base: scape ^-1 ft. high. N. Cal. to A1jv»1rft. 

3. P. macrocarpa, C. & S. Petioles long: capsule J-J in. long. Coast, Wash. 

4. P. maritima, L. Corolla-tube pubescent: seeds 2 to 4. Common on the Coast. 
6. P. lanceolata, L. Petioles slender: scape deeply furrowed; spike short. Nat. 

6. P. Patagonica, Jacq. Usually silky-woolly: slender leaves acute: spikes short. 

7. P. hirtella, HBK. Scape vrith long dense spike, 1-2 ft. high. Cal. Coast. 

8. P. Bigelovii, Gr. Spike dense, ^-1 in. long: capsule 4-seeded. Saline marshes. 

9. P. heterophylla, Natt. Spike 2-6 in. long, very slender: seeds 10-28. CaL 



Flowen perfect: stamens nsnally 6: carpels in a whorl. 

Carpels numerous, distinct, obovate-oblong, flattened: scape paniculate 1 

Carpels 6-12, united at base, tapering to a beak: scape simple fl 

flowers moncBcious or dieBcions: carpels many, capitate, winged, short-beaked 8 


1. AliISMA, Linnseas. 
. A. Plantagro, L. Scape with branches in whorls: leaves OTate to lanceolate or 
narrower: petals small, white or pinkish. In water or mud. 

2. DAMASONIUM, Jussieu. 
. D. Califomicum, Torr. Scapes 6-18 in. high: leaves ovate to narrowly lanceolate, 
long-petioled: flowers in 3 or 4 whorls; pedicels 1-2 in. long: petals 3-4 lines long, 
. above, white. In water or mud. S. N. Mts. 

3. SAGITTARIA, Linnaans. 
L S. variabilis, Engelm. Leaves ovate-sagittate or some linear: flowen moitly in 
3'b: petals white, rounded i-2 in. long: tubers edible. 


Herbs with a more or less irregular perianth of 3 sepals and 3 petals; the lower petal 
(made so by a twist in the inferior ovary), called the lip, usually unlike the other two 
which generally resemble the sepals. Stamens and style united to form the column which 
is capped by a single perfect 2-oelled anther, or (in Cypripedium) with a perfect anther 
on each side of the stigma over which curves a triangular sterile stamen. Our genera are 
usually grouped in four tribes here briefly defined. 

I. Anther resting lid-like upon the column, deciduous: pollen-maases 4 1, 2, 3 

II. Anther united with column, persistent on its face above stigma: pollen-masses 2. . 4 

IIL Anther erect on top of column, persistent: pollen-masses 2-4 5 to 9 

IV. Anthers 2, latei-al; the sterile stamen petaloid, incurved 10 

• Herha toUh one to many green leaves', not parasitic. 

Leaf solitary from a globose conn. Scape 1-flowered 1 

Scape 6-20-flowered 3 

Leaves several to many from a creeping rootstock 6 

Leaves a pair below the raceme of small flowers, ovate or cordate 7 

Leaves 2 or 3 to many clasping slender or stoutish stems, at least at base. 
Flowers not leafy-bracted, white or greenish, in spikes or racemes. 

Lip of perianth spurred at base .... . .... ^»* «-.^ .... 4 

Lip not spurred : spike twisted: flowers 3-ranked ,^,,,,,.. 6 

Flowers leafy-bracted, pedicellate, 1-20. 

Lip concave at base, constricted in middle 8 

Lip an inflated sac, the mouth with incurved margin 10 

* * Plants with no green leaves: stems simple, scape-like. 


Flowers and stems brownish, purplish or yellowish, often mottled or striped . ^ 3 

Flowers and stems nearly or quite white 9 

Flowers and stems greenish: bracts membranaceoas, acute. Sp. Sin 4 

1. CAIiYPSO, Salisbury. 
L C. borealis, Salisb. Stem 3-6 in. high: slender bract at top, subtending a drooping 
■howy flower: sepals and petals lanceolate, rose-tinged ^-f in. long; lip saccate, 2- 
spurred, mottled. Springy places or bogs, from Russian Biver {Miaa Wood) to Br. 
Am. and E. to the Atlantic, Also in N. Eu. and Asia. 

Sepals and petals similar; lip dilated, recurved, flat or concave, 2-ridged at base. Column 
incurred. Rootstocks coral-like, hence the name Coral-root. 

1. O. multiflora, Nutt. Sepals and petals 3-4 lines long, yellowish or whitish, purple 
tinged: spur formed by decurrent side-sepals wholly adnate to the ovary; lip broadly 
ovate, 3-lobed, the middle lobe with undulate or denticulate margin, often purple- 
mottled. Mts., San Diego to Br. Col., E. to the Atlantic. 

2. C. Mertensiana, Bong. Similar: flowers red: lower half of the spur free: lip nar- 
rower, entire or with small teeth at base. Humboldt Bay to Alaska. 

3. C. innata, R. Br. Smaller: sepals 1^-2 lines long: spur very short. Wash. 

4. C. Bigelovii, Watson. Stout: sepals and petals oblong, obtuse, 4 lines long, 
purple- veined; spur none. S. N. & Coast Mts., Cal. 

6. C. striata, Lindh Similar: perianth 6-7 lines long. S. N. Mts., N. & K 

3. APIiZCTRXTM, Torrey. 

1. A, hiemale, Ton. Scape a foot high or more: leaf plaited, 4-8 in. long: perianth i 
in. long, greenish brown; lip whitish, somewhat spotted, deeply 3-lobed, 3-ridged. 
The glutinous bulbs give the name Putty-root. Or. E. to the Atlantic. 

4. HABENABIA, Willd. 

Btems slender: leaves few and at base: perianth 2 lines long or less 1, 2 

Stems leafy. Spur 4-6 lines long, slender: lip narrow 3, 4, 6 

Spur short and thick 6, 7 

1. H. eleg^ans, Bolander. Spike dense: sepals and petals equal. Coast, Monterey, N. 

2. H. TJnalaschensis, Watson. Spike less dense: flowers smaller: bracts ovate. 

3. H. leucostachys, Watson. Stout: flowers many, white: capsule sessile. Swamps. 

4. H. sparsiflora, Watson. Lower, more slender: leaves narrower: greenish flowers 
10-20, distant, exceeded by the slender bracts: capsule sessile. S. N. Mts. & N. CaL 

5. H. pedicellata, Watson. Raceme loose: capsule tapering into a pedicel. 


6. H. Cooperi, Watson. Stout: lip ovate: upper sepal ovate. San Diego. 

7. H. gracilis, Watson. Like No. 4: lip linear: spur saccate. Or., Wash. 

8. H. Michflsli, Greene. Stout stem, leafless: spike dense: sepals i in. long. S, CaL 

6. SFIRANTHES, Richard. 

1. 8. Romanzofflana, Chamisso. Spike dense, conspicuously bracteate, 1-4 in. longi 
perianth greenish-white, h in- long, curved (Called Ladies' Tresses). Wet places. 

2. S. porrifolia, landL Similar: flowers smaller: 2 callosities at base of lip. 

6. GOODYEASA, Kobt. Brown. 
1. O. Menziesii, LindL Scape pubescent, 6-15 in. high: leaves smooth, 2-3 in. long^ 
in a rosulate tuft: spike of pnberulent white flowers 1-sided. (Rattlesnake Plantain.) 

7. LISTERA, Robt. Brown. 

1. L. Gonvalarioides, Nutt. Slender, 3-12 in. high: flowers purplish in a pubescent 
raceme: lip 2-lobed or emarginate, toothed at base, 2-5 lines long. Damp woods, 

2. I*, cordata, R. Br. Smaller: flowers minute, smooth. {Tvoayhlade.) N. Cal., N. 

L E. gigantea, DougL Leafy, 1-4 ft. high: leaves ovate to lanceolate: flowers 3-10, 
greenish, purple-veined: sepals ovate-lanceolate, ^-3 in. long; lip as long. Along 

9. CEPHAIiANTHERA, Richard. 
I, o. Oregana, Reich, f. Parasite: perianth \ in. long; sepals and petals lanceolate; 
lip as in Epipactis with wavy-crested nerves. Forests, N. Cal to Or. 

10. CYPBIPEDIUM, LinnssuB. 

1. C. fascicxilatum, Kellogg. Villous, 2-6 in. high: leaves ovate, a pair: peduncle 
viscid: flowers several in a cluster or 1, greenish. (Bradley's Cypripedium). Rare. 

2. C. montanum, Dougl. Leafy, 1-2 ft. high: flowers 1-3; sepals and wavy-twisted 
petals brownish, narrow, 1^-2^ in. long: lip oblong, white, purple- veined. Cent. 
Cal. to Or. 

J. C. Califomicuia, Gr. Often taller: flowers 3-12: sepals ^ in. long: lip oboToid- 
globose. In swamps or wet places. N. CaL 


Perennial herbs with sword-shaped or grass-like leaves, the divisions of the miperiar 
perianth all petaloid and convulute in the bud, withering-persistent. 


Outer segments of perianth larger, recurved or spreading; the inner eract or incurved: 

style-branches petaloid, curving over the linear anthers. 1 

Segments nearly alike: stigmas filiform: filaments often united. ^ 2 

1. IBIS, Toumefort. 

" Perianth-tube 8lem-lihe above the ovary, ^-S in. long: stems leafy 1, 2 

' • Perianth-tuhe short and /unndform above the ovary. 

Stems leafy: bracts (enclosing peduncles and buds) green, often distant 3, 4 

Stems naked or with 1 or 2 leaves, terete: floral bracts not distant 5, 6 

Stems Avith many bracts and rigid radical leaves 7 

Stems with 2-3 short bract-like leaves, 2-flowered 8 

1. I. macrosiphon, Torr. Stems very slender, flattened, surpassed by the dark 
green grass-like leaves: flowers rich purple-blue, on short pedicels; tube 1-3 in. long; 
sepals li-2 in. long. S. F. Bay to Humboldt Bay. Placer Co. 

2. I. Douglasiana, Herbert. Stouter and taller stems: leaves and bracts broader, 
pedicels longer; tube shorter; sepals usually with a white center, blue-purple or lilac: 
often yellow or buff. S. F. Bay to Siskiyou Mts. 

3. L Hartwegi, Baker. Stems slender, flattened, 2-9 in. high: leaves 2-3 lines wide: 
flowers light colored. S. N. Mts. June. 

4. I. tenaz, Dougl. Similar, taller, 1 -flowered: flowers larger, bright lilac-purple, 
segments 2-2^ in. long. Or. to Br. Col. 

6. L longipetala, Herbert. Stems stout, equaling the leaves, 3-5-flowered: sepals 
lilac or whitish, purple and yellow veined, 2^-3 in. long. Monterey to Or. 

6. L Miasouriensis, Nutt. More slender: leaves narrower: bracts dilated, scarious, 
1-li in. long: flowers pale blue. N. Cal. to Or. 

7. L bracteata, Watson. Leaves striate, sides unlike: perianth yellow, 2-3 in. lon^ 
(EoweU's Iris.) Discovered by Thos. Howell in S. W. Or., 1884. 

8. L tenuis, Wats. Perianth white, veined with yellow and purple, 1^ in. long. 
[Henderson's Iris.) Discovered by L. F. Henderson in Or., 1881. 

2. SISYBINCHinM, Ldnniens. 

1. S. belltun, Wats. Flowers blue, purple-striped, ^-1 in. broad. Cal., Or. 

2. S. Califomicum, Ait. f. Scape winged: flowers yellow. Coast. Wet places, 

3. S. grandiflorum, DougL Flowers red-purple, 1-1^ in. broad. N. CaL to Br. CoL 


I 1. Floral bracts not leaf-like: perianth persistent: anthers introrse: style entire. 

• Flovaers in umbels or heads upon naked scapes: root a buB> or corm, 
m. Perianth parted to the base or nearly so: stamens at base; anthers versatile. 


1 1 4 LILIACE^. 

Flowers rose-purple to white: bracts broad: odor of onions 1 

Flowers greenish white: bracts narrow: slender leaves several 2 

Flowers yellow: pedicels jointed at top: leaves one or several 8 

b. Perianth not parted to the base: stamens on the throat. 

Perianth-tube thin, somewhat inflated and angular or saccate: stamens on the throat in 

one row; anthers basifixed, 3 alternating with petaloid staminodia or smaller anthers* 

ovary nearly or quite sessile 4 

Perianth-tube thicker, opaque, not inflated or saccate: anthers basifixed, 3 alternating 

with petaloid staminodia: filaments decurrent to base: ovary sessile 5 

Perianth-tube not inflated or saccate: filaments in two rows (except sp. 11); anthers 

versatile 6 

Perianth-tube subcylindrical, 6-saccate at base, scarlet or crimson, the short segments 

yellowish: stamens 3 alternating with broad staminodia 7 

• * FUywera on short scape-like pedicels, umbellate on an underground peduncle. 

Perianth salver-form; tube slender, 1-2 in. long; lobes half as long 8 

• * • Flowers in racemes or panicles; perianth segments distinct and anthers veraatife 
(except No. 12.) 

a. Stems scape-like or sparingly leafy, arising with many leaves from a bulb. 

Flowers bine or white, ^ - 1 ^ in. long, slightly one-sided, in a simple raceme d 

Flowers white or whitish, 2-5 lines long in a dense nearly simple raceme 10 

Flowers white or pinkish, scattered on branches: withering perianth twisted 11 

Flowers white or yellowish, paniculate: perianth -tube Equaling reflexed lobes 13 

b. Stems not scape-like, simple: rootstock slender: white flowers small. 

Leaves 2-ranked, sessile, often clasping, lanceolate to ovate 13 

Leaves 2, rarely 3, petioled, cordate: perianth-segments 4: stamens 4 14 

c. Stems rigid: lower bracts and rigid leaves spine-tipped: flowers 1-3 in. long 16 

§ 2. Floral bracts none or leaf -like: perianth segments distinct, deciduous: anthers 

extrorse or opening on the sides. In No. 24 the perianth is persistent: anthers 

a. Stem simple, from a scaly bulb: leaves often whorled: perianth segments similar: 
anthers versatile: style long: fruit a capsule: seeds flat, horizontal. 

Segments oblanceolate, with a groove: style entire: stigma large, 3-lobed 16 

Segments broader, not groved: style entire or 3-cleft; stigmas small 17 

b. Stem from a coated corm: anthers basifixed. 

Leaves a pair at the base, broad: perianth-segments similar, lanceolate, recurved. ... 18 
I Leaves few, linear-lanceolate: perianth-segments unlike, the inner (petals) broad.... 19 
\c. Stem branching, leafy above: rootstock slender: flowers nodding or hanging. ' 

Flowers apparently axillary : anthers 1-2-awned or pointed above, sagittate 20 

Flowers white or greenish, terminal, in clusters or solitary, beneath the leaves 21 

d. Stem a scap« or scape-like from a rootstock: large leaves basal: flowers umbellate or 
solitary, red or white: filaments hairy: ovary 2-celled: fruit a many -seeded berry. 22 

LlhlKCZM. lid 

«. StemlesB: leaves a pair, broad; flowers umbellate on an nndergronnd peduncle: ped- 
icels 3-comered prostrate and curved in fruit: stamens 3: styles 3, divergent. . . . 23 

/. Stem with 3 broad leaves at top and a single flower: outer segments green 24 

I 3. Bracts greenish or scarious: flowers in a simple raceme or panicle: segments dis- 
tinct, persifltent: anthers small: styles or sessile stigmas persistent; capsule deeply 
a. Stem tall, leafy: leaves large ovate to lanceolate, nerved, plicate: panicles large. 25 
6. Stem from a coated bulb, leafy at base: leaves linear or grass-like, smooth. 

Flowers white, erect: yellow glands at base of segments 26 

Flowers yellowish or purplish, nodding glandless 27 

e. Stem equitant-leafy, from a rootstock: leaves slender;, anthers 2-celled, introrse. 

Flowers small, greenish, each with a cup-like or 3-lobed involucre 28 

Flowers yellowish-green: filaments woolly; style none 29 

d. Stem with a large tuft of grass-like stiff leaves from a rootstock: raceme of white 
flowers very dense, long: anthers extrorse: styles reflexed or coiled 30 

1. ALLIUM, Linnaeus. 
I 1. Bulbs connected with rootstocks: leaves 2 or mora: capsale not conspicuously 

Scape round, 1-2 ft. ^igh, exceeding the leaves: bracts 2, large, acuminate: bulb white . . 1 
Scape flattened above: umbels often nodding: stamens and style slender; bracts united » 

base 2, 3 

§ 2. Bulbs without rootstocks: scape not flattened, slender: leaves very slender. 

a. Leaves 2 or more, shorter than, or scarcely exceeding the scape. 

Ovary obscurely crested: perianth rose: stamens included: scape 3-10 in. high... 4, 5, 6 

Ovary distinctly 6-crested. 

Perianth-segments white or light pink becoming thin and lax. 

Bracts 2, short, acute; stamens iucluded 89 

Perianth rose-color: filaments deltoid-widened at base 10, 11 

Filaments flliform crests conspicuous 12, 13 

h. Leaves 2 or more, much exceeding the very short scape 14, 15 

$ 3. Scape much flattened, 2-edged, short: leaves 2, linear, flat, falcate: flowers rose- 

Bracts 2; stamens included 16, 17, 18 

Bracts 3-5: stamens not included: leaves i-1 in. broad 19 

1. A. tmifolium, Kell. Leaves 2-4: segments 5-7 lines long exceeding stamens. 

2. A. validxun, Wats. Scape 1-3 ft. high: bracts 2-4, broad: pedicels i-J in. long; 
segments slender 3-4 lines long: bulb-coats white. Alpine, July to Sept. 

8. A hsematochiton, Wats. Scape slender, 4-12 in. high: bracts 2, short: flower* 
deep purple or rose-color: bulb-coats deep reddish purple, shining, S. CaL Coast. 


4. A. icuxninatain. Hook. Periantb-segments Berrokte, 4-7 lines long, tipe aoa 
min«»ie, recurved, rigid in frnit. Washington to Cent. Cal. Rare. 

5. A. Bolanderi, Wats. Similar: flowers rarely white: stamens adnata to the middle, 
half aa long as the segments which are nearly straight. N. W. CaL 

6. A. lacunosum, Wats. Scape 3-6 in. high: pedicels J-J in. long: stamena nearly 
equaling perianth; filaments a little expanded at base. Cent. CaL 

Sanbomii, Wood. Slender, 1-2 ft. high: perianth 2-3 lines long. S. N. Mts. 
attenuifolium, KelL Leaves filiform, sheathing the scape near base, 
hyalinum, Curran. Perianth thin, transparent in fruit: capsule 1 -seeded. 

serratum, Wats. Outer bulb-coats with distinct zigzag lines along which 
they tear horizontally into serrate strips: inner perianth segments shorter, narrower. 

bisceptrum, Wats. Scapes often in 2's, rarely angular. S. N. Mts. 

campaniilatiun, Wats. Flowers many: perianth light rose-color. S. N. Mts. 

Bidwellisa, Wats. Smaller: flowers fewer, smaller, bright rose. S. N. Mts. 

tribracteatum, Torr. Scarcely 2 in. high; bracts 3. Mostly alpine. 

parvum, Kell. Similar: bracts 2, shorter. Sierra Valley. 

falcifoliiun, H. & A. Scape 2-5 in. high: capsule S-crested. Coast Mta, 

Breweri, Wats. Scape 1-3 in. high: crests 3, slightly lobed. Coast Mt>. 

Lemxnoni, Wats. Taller leaves nearly straight. Sierra Valley. 

platycaule, Wats. Scape and leaves broader. Montane. 8. N. Mta, 

2. MUTLIiA, Watson. 
1. TK. znaritima, Wati, Perianth-segments 2-3 lines loos^ sabrotate. Coast 

8. BLOOUEBIA, EeUogg. 

1. B. anrea) Kell. Soape 6-18 in. high: leaf solitary: each filament sorroonded at 
base by a 2-cuspidate appendage: Coast Ranges, Monterey to San Diego. 

2. B. montana, Greene. Larger: flowers an inch broad: cusps of the filament- 
appendage half as long as the filament: anthers 1^ lines long. S. CaL 

3. B. Clevelandi, Watson. Leaves several, very slender: style short. San Diego. 

4. BB0DL2EA, Smith. 

[The next two genera are united with this in the Botany of California and the Cal. 
Flora. E. L. Greene of the University of California has recently elaborated the species 
under the generic names here given.] 

Stamens 3, alternating with bifid or entire staminodia 1, 2, 3 

Stamens 6, 3 with petaloid appendages back of the anther 4, 5 

1. B. volubis, Baker. Twining scape 4-10 ft. high: perianth rose-eolor to white: 

sagittate anthers 2-appeadaged on the baok. StrophoUrion Oaiifortueum Torr. Cent. 




























UlIACEJS. 117 

2. B. mulciflora, Benth. Scape 2-4 ft. high: perianth Tiolet-purple 8-10 lines long: 
staminodia obtuse, entire. Or. to Cent. Cal., June, July. 

5. B. congesta, Smith. Scape 2-5 ft. high: purple staminodia bifid. B. C. to C. CaL 
4. B. pulchella, Greene. Perianth-tube, like the last, constricted above: distin- 
guished by the stamens and strictly umbellate inflorescence. Cal., May, June. 

6. B. capitata, Benth. Scape 6-18 in. high: bracts often dark purple: perianth^ 
tube not constricted above. Very abundant in Cent. Cal., S. & E., Jan. to Apr. 

6. HOOKEKA, Salisbury. 

1. H. Califomica, Greene. Scape 2 ft. high: pedicels 2-3 in. long: perianth 1^-2 in. 
long, deep purple to rose-color: anthers i in. long, a little exceeded by the retnse 
staminodia. This and next under Brodiaa grandiflora in CaL Bot. Sacramento 
VaL Much less common than the next species. 

2. H. coronaria, Salisb. Smaller: anthers exceeding the acute staminodia. 

3. H. minor, Britten. Scape 3-6 in. high: perianth-segments rotate: anthers 2 lines 
long exceeded by the emarginate or retuse staminodia. Sao. VaL, S. 

4. H. terrestris, Britten. Scape usually not rising above ground: pedicels 3-4 in. 
long: staminodia yellowish, margins involute. S. F. Bay, N. 

6. H. stellaris, Greene. Scape 2-6 in. high: perianth red-purple: anthers 2-append- 
aged; staminodia longer, white. {Purdy'a Hookera.) Near Ukiah. 

6. H. rosea, Greene. Similar: perianth rose-red: stamens not appendaged; filaments 
triangular. Lake Co., Cal. Discovered by Mrs. Curran, May, 1884. 

7. H. Orcuttii, Greene. Scape a foot or more high: staminodia wanting or obeonre. 
San Diego. Discovered by C. R. Orcutt in 1884. 

6. TKITELEIA, Douglas. 

Perianth-tube broad at base: upper and inner stamens with winged filaments 1, 2 

Perianth-tube tapering to a narrow base: filaments not winged or appendaged. 

Stamens in 2 rows: flowers not yellow 8, 4, 6 

Stamens in 1 row; filaments broadening downward 6 

Stamens in 2 rows or nearly equal: flowers yellow 7, 8 

Perianth-tube short; segments rotate, yellow: filaments with appendages 9, 10 

Perianth open-campanulate, cleft below the middle: stamens in 1 row 11, 12 

1. T. ^andiflora, Lindl. Pedicels ^-1 in. long, numerous: perianth light blue, 1 in. 
long: lower anthers sessile, upper on filaments which are winged below. Or. and 
Wash. E. 
I. T. Howellii, Greene. Similar: npper filaments winged above. Or. k Wash. 

8. T. Candida, Greene. Scape 2-4 ft. high: perianth 1^ in. long, white: filaments 
coiled. Discovered by J. R. Scupham. Fresno Co., Cal., June 1886. 

4. T. laxa, Benth. Umbel of usually 15-30 purple-blue flowers: anthers acute. CaL 


6. T. pedoncularis, Lindl. Pedicels often 6-10 in. long: perianth rose-purple to 
nearly white, cleft below the middle, 1 in. long: anthers retuse. Wet pLoce^ 
Cent. Cal. 

ft. T. Bridgresii, Greene. About a toot high: umbel rather few-flowered: perianth 
light blue. Very common in open forests about Humboldt Bay. Cbico. 

7. T. crocea, Greene. Perianth 7-9 lines long: lower filaments very short. N. Cal. 

8. T. g^racHis, Greene. Smaller: filaments subequal : anthers acute. S. N. Mts. 

9. T. izioides, Greene. Scape ^-2 ft. high: filaments unequal, wing-dilated, 2-append- 
aged above. S. Cal. to Or. 

10. T. lugens, Greene. Similar: perianth dark brown outside: winged filaments not 
forked above. Collected by K L. Greene near Vacaville, Cal., May 4, 1886. 

11. T. hyacinthina, Greene. Perianth white with green veins, rarely purple- tinged: 
filaments broad at base, united into a ring. Moist ground. Cent. Cal. N. 

12. T. lilacina, Greene. Smaller: perianth lilac-purple: filaments not so broad at 
base, distinct. Col, in Amador Co. by Mrs. Curran. May, 25, 1886. 

N.B —No. 1 is Brodiaa Douglani, Wats.; No. H, S. lactea, Wats.; No. 3, i, 6, 6, 7, 8, 9, h»ye the 
same specific names under Brodioea in the Cal. Bot. No. 8, 10, 12 are new. Behria temtt/Iom, Oi«en«, of 
the California Peninsula, la the type of a new grenos belonging between tbli and tba next, tt ta spprop- 
ruktely dedicated to Dr. H. H. Behr, of the University of California. 

1. B. coccinea, Wats. Flowers pendulous, 1-1^ in. long. N. CaL {Firecraclcern.) 

1. L. montanum, Nutt. White flowers surpassed by the leaves. Cal. E. 

9. CAMASSIA, Lindley. 

1. C. esculenta, Lindl. Flowers irregular, lower segment deflexed: segments not 

cocnivent in age, persistent: seeds shining. N. Cal., N & E to Montana. 

2. CLeichtlinii, Watson. Nearly regular flowers larger; segments broader, con- 
nivent and twisted, at length deciduous: seeds obovoid, dull. S. F. Bay, N. to Wash. 

10. HASTINGSIA, Watson. 

1. H. alba, Wats. Flowers in dense close raceme, 2-3 lines long. N. Cal., Or. 

2. H. bracteosa, Wats. Flowers 3-6 lines long, nearly equaled by bracts: stamens 
short. Coll. by Thos. Howell in Curry Co., Or., May, 1884. 

11. CHLOROGAXUM, Kunth. 

Perianth-segments very slender, §-f in. long: pedicels longer than the bracts 1 

Perianth-segments oblong-oblanceolate, J-^ in. long: bulb-coats not fibrous 2, 3 

LILIACKfi. 119 

1. C. pomeridianum, Kuntb. Bulbs densely fibroas: leaves crispate-andolate, 
mostly radical: flowers white, purplish-veined. Cal. (Soap-root.) 

2. C. parviflonim, Watson. Leaves grass-like: flowera pinkish. San Diego. 

3. C. angustifolium, Kellogg. Leaves not undulate: white flowers. N. Cal. 

12. 0D0NT0ST0MT7M, Torrey. 

1. O. Hartwegi, Torr. Numerous flowers 4-6 lines long. S. N. Foot-hills, Rare. 

13. SMIIiACINA, Desfontaines. 

1. S. amplezicaulis, Nutt. Panicle close: segments and filaments similar: fragrant. 

2. S. aessilifolia, Nutt. Simple zigzag raceme few-flowered: berries blue-black. 


1. M. bifolimn, DC. Var. (?) Zigzag stem 3-12 in. high. S. F. Bay to Alaska. 

15. YUCCA, Linnaeus. 

1. 7. baccata, Torr. Leaf -margins thread-bearing: perianth campanulate. S. CaL 

2. Y. Whipple!, Torr. Leaf-margins serrulate: perianth rotate spreading. S. CaL 

16. LILIUM, Linnseus. 
Flowers horizontal to erect, spotless or finely dotted, white, purplish or pale yellow; 
segments tapering into long narrow claws, spreading. 

Flowers becoming purple or purplish: bulb-scales not jointed 1, 2 

Flowers pale yellow, 3 in. long or more: bulb-scales jointed 3 

Flowers orange-yellow to red, spotted; segments oblanceolate to lanceolate. 

Flowers erect or horizontal, less than 2 in. long 4, 5, 6 

Flowers nodding, segments revolute ( Tiger Lilies) 7, 8, 9 

1. li. ■Washingtonianum, Kellogg. Bulbs becoming 6-8 in. long, the scales thin, 
lanceolate, 2-3 in. long; stems 2-5 ft. high: leaves in several whorls (some scattered), 
§-1 in. broad, undulate: flowers white becoming purplish, often dotted, horizontal on 
erect pedicels; segments 3-4 in. long, J-§ in. wide: yellow anthers 5-6 lines long. 

2. Ij. rubescens, Watson. Similar: bulb smaller, thicker, broader scales an inch 
long: stems 1-7 ft. high: flowers nearly white to lilac, becoming rose-purple, 1§.2 in. 
long: anthers 2-3 lines long. Coast Mts., S. F. Bay to Klamath R. 

3. L. Parryi, Wats. Stem 2-5 ft, high: leaves mostly scattered, slender. S. CaL 

4. Ij. parvusa, Kell. Flowers few to many, erect or nearly so: anthers 1-2 lines long: 
capsule sub-spherical, i-f in. long. S. N. Mts. 4-8,000 ft. alt., N. to Or. 

6. L. maritimvun, Kell. Flowers horizontal, deep reddish orange. S. F. to Hum'dt 
(L L. Bolanderi, Wats. Stems 1-2-flowered: leaves mostly in whorls, 1-2 in. long; 
flowers nearly horizontal, brownish or dull purple. Hum'dt to S. W. Or. 


7. Lk pardalinum, KelL Rootstocks thick and braaching, forming mat-like masjiea 
of bulbs: stems 3-7 ft. high: perianth segments 2-3 in. long, bright orange red with 
large purple spots below: anthers red, 4-5 lines long. Cent. Cal. to Or. 

Var. an^stifolium, Eell. Slender, small: leaves 3-4 lines broad, scattered. 

8. L. Humboldtii, Roezl & Leichtlin. Bulbs 2-6 in. thick, often purplish, the fleshy 
ovate-lanceolate acute scales 2-3 in. long: stems purplish, 4-8 ft. high: leaves un- 
dulate in 4-6 whorls of 10-20 each: pedicels mostly 3-6 in. long: perianth-segments 
3-4 in. long, ^-1 wide, papillose-ridged near base: anthers red, ^-§ in. long. Cal, 

9. li. Columbianum, Hanson. Perianth-segments 1^-2 in. Icag: yellow anthers 2-3 
lines long*. Wash, to Cent. Cal. 

17. FBrrTT.T.ATlTA, Linniens. 

Styles distinct above; stigmas linear: c.«ip8ule obtusely angled. 1, 2, 8 

capsule acutely angled or winged. 4, 6, 6 

Styles united: stigma 3-lobed: flowers not spotted: stamens unequal , 7 

1. F. recurva, Benth. Segments narrow, scarlet and yellow, spotted. Cal., Or. 

2. F. liliacea, lindl. Leaves near base: flowers greenish white. San Francisco Bay. 

3. F. biflora, LindL Leaves near bwe: flowers dark brown, purple, green-tinged; 
segments widely spreading: mnoronate anthers 2 lines long. Coast, San Diego to 

4. F. lanceolata, Pnrah. Bolbn with a few large acales and many like rice grains: 
leaves in 1-3 whorls: flower* dark purple mottled with greenish yellow; segmenta 
not spreading. 

Var. floribunda, Benth. Flowers 1-8, lighter colored, blotched with brownish pnrple; 

segments acute, ^-^ in. broad, finely crennlate. 
Var. gracilis, Wats. Flowers smaller with narrower acuminate segments. 

5. F. parviflora, Torr. Flowers 3-20, with spreading segments ^-J in. long, lighter 
colored than the last. Cent. S. N. Mts. 

6. F. atropurpurea, Nutt. Capsule not winged, acutely 6-angled. S. N. Mts. 

7' F. pliuiflora, Torr. Stems leafy: flowers reddish pnrple, 2-1 in* long. Cent. CaL 

18. ERYTHBOXnUU, Linnsus. 

1. E. g^ndifloruzxx, Pursh. Leaves not mottled: flowers 1-6 or more, yellow, or 
cream color with darker center; segments recurved 1-2 in. long. Wash, to N. Cal. 

Var. Smithii, Hook. Large flowers purple-tinged. Cent. Cal. Coast. 

2. E. Hartwegi, Watson. Bulb ^-§ in. long: leaves mottled: flowers 1-3 on scape- 
like pedicels, light yellow and orange; segments scarcely recurved. S. N. Mts. 

8. E. purpurascens, Watson. Leaves undulate: peduncle racemosely or subumbel- 
lately 4-8-flowered or more; pedicels very unequal: flowers light yellow, purple-tinged, 
orange center. S. N. Mts. 

LILIACEi*". 121 

19. CALOCHORTUS, Pursh. 

I 1. Pedicels recurred in frait: capsnle broadly 3-winged. 

Flowers on branching stems, nodding: concave petals closely conniyent, hairy within, 

ciliate 1, 3 

Flowers on rather weak stems, erect or nearly so: fruit nodding or not stiflBy erect. 

Flowers yellow, 6-8 lines long, densely hairy within 8 

Flowers white to lilac or blue. Petals covered with hairs 4 to 7 

Petals hairy below only, or naked 8, 9, 10 

i 2. Flowers and fruit erect on stout pedicels: capsules not winged (except in 11 & 12): 

petals and sepals often with spots. {Maripoaaa or ButUrfiy Tulip*.) 

Flowers lilao or purplish, 1-lJ in. long: capsules 3-winged 11, 12 

Flowers yellow, more or less marked with brown or purple 13 to 16 

Flowers white or lilao 17 to 20 

1. C. alboa, DougL Petals white: sepals green, not spreading. Cal. 

2. O. pulchellus, Dougl. Petals yellow or orange: sepals yellow or greenish, spread- 
ing. Coast Mts., Monterey to Mendocino. 

3. O. Benthami, Baker. Slender, 3-6 in. high: leaves longer: anthers acnte. 
S. N. Mts. 

4. C. Maweanus, Leichtlin. Stem flezuose: petals covered above with white or 
blue-purple hairs, acute: anthers acuminate. N. Cent. Cal. 

6. C. cesroleus, Wats. Very slender, 3-6 in. high: flowers 2-5 in an umbel: petal* 
lilao dotted or lined with darker blue: anthers oblong, obtuse: capsule nearly 
orbicular. S. N. Mts. 

6. C. elegans, Pursh. Similar: petals greenish white, scarcely ciliate; anthers long 
acuminate. Var. nanus, Wood, has acute more hairy petals, smaller. N. Cal. N, 

7. C. Tolmiei, H. & A. Stouter, about a foot high: petals 2-li in. long, lilac-tinged: 
anthers lanceolate, acuminate. Mt. Shasta to Or. 

8. C. nudus, Wats. Flowers 1-6, usually in an umbel, white or lilac: sepals about 
equaling the broadly fan-shaped hairless petals: anthers obtuse. Cent. S. N. Mts. 

B. 0. lilacinus, Kellogg. Leaves rather broad: flowers 3-10, on long zigzag pedicels: 
petals ^-1 in. long, pale lilac, slightly hairy below: anthers much shorter than the 
filaments, obtuse. S. F. Bay, Geysers. 

10. 0. uniflorus, H. & A. Similar: flowers 1 or 2: gland densely hairy. W. C»L 

11. 0. Greenei, Wats. Stout, 1-2 ft. high: sepals with yellowish hairy spot: petals 
densely yellow-hairy below: anthers ^ in. long. N. Cal. to Or. 

12. C. Lyoni, Wats. Sepala naked: anthers 1^-2 lines long. Los Angeles. 

13. 0. clavatus, Wats. Petals covered with club. shaped hairs at base: gUnd orbio* 
alar, deep: anthers purple, 4-5 lines long, obtuse. S. Cal. Coast. 

14. C. Weedii, Wood. Stem zigzag: petals deep yellow, dotted, covered with 
hairs: gland small, densely hairy: anthers mostly acute. Cal. Coast. 

\22 LILIACE^. 

Var. purptirascens, Wats. Petals purple or purple-blotched. St. Barliani. 
16. 0. Obispoensis, Lemmon. Sepals longer than the rotate or recurved, long-nauy, 
often bifid petals. San Luis Obispo. 

16. 0. Inteus, DougL Petals 1-2 in. long, from yellow to deep orange, with more or 
less brownish purple inside: gland broad, rounded or Bomewhst crescent-shaped, 
densely hairy: anthers yellow, obtose. Very variable. San Diego to Mendocino 
and S. N. Mts. 

Tar. oculatus, Wats. Petals white lilac or yellowish with a dark central spot: gland 

usually a narrow crescent. 
Var. citrinus, Wats. Petals deep or lemon yellow with central spot. 

17. 0. venustus, Benth. Like the last: petals white or pale lilac above, with a red« 
dish spot near the top, a brownish spot in the center bordered with yellow and a 
brownish base: gland large, oblong, hairy. Monte Diablo, S. 

Var. purpurascens, Wats. Deep lilac or purple form. Kern Co. 

18. 0. splendens, Dongl. Like the preceding: petals clear Ulao, paler in center, claw 
darker: anthers purple, ^-^ in. long. Monterey, S. 

19. O. macrocarpas, Dongl. Sepals about equaling the obovate acute or acuminate 
purple-lilac petals, 1^-2 in. long: anthers |-^ in. long. N. Cal. N. 

20. O. Nuttallii, T. & G. Slender: a single stem-leaf, or rarely 2 or 3: petals ouneate- 
obovate, usually white above, with a purplish band above the yellow base, sometimee 
deep lilac. S. N. Mta. 

20. STBEPT0FX7S, Michanx. 

1. S. amplezifolitiB, DC. Stem 2-3 ft. high: peduncles twisted beneath the deeply 
cordate clasping leaves, usually forked or kneed: perianth greenish white, ^^ in. 
long, recurved above: anthers tapering into a single awn. N. Cal. N. 

2. S. rosexia, Michx. Smaller: flowers rose-purple: anthers 2-pointed. Or., N. 

21. PBOSABTES. D. Don. 

Style slightly 3-clef t: fruit triangular, ^ in. long, bright salmon-color. 1 

Style entire: fruit ovoid or obovold: leaves mostly cordate and clasping. 

Filaments longer than the anthers 8, 8, 4 

Filaments much shorter than the nearly sessile anthers 5 

1. P. Menziesii, Don. Perianth-segments i-1 in. long, acute. 8. F. Bay, N. 

2. P. Hookeri, Torr. Stamens nearly equaling or a little exceeding the perianth, 
i"^ in. long: ovary hairy: style exserted. Russian Riv. to Monterey. 

Si. P. trachyandra, Torr. Similar: stamens shorter: ovary smooth. 8. N. Mti. 
t. P. Oregana, Wats. Flowers often purplish- veined: stamens exserted. Or. 
Ml p. parvifolia, Wats. Woolly: leaves 1-1^ in. long. Siskiyou Mta. 


23. CLINTONIA, Eafinesquo 
1. O. unifiora, Knoth. Nearly stemleas: peduncle shorter than the leaves, l-2-flow« 

ered: perianth white, £-1 in. long, pubescent. S. N. Mts. and Hamboldt Bay, N. 
1. O. Andrewsiana, Toir. Flowers rose-red in a globose ambel on a stoat pedunola^ 

often one or more smaller clusters below: fruit rich blue. In the redwoods. 

23. SCOLIOPUS, Torrey. 

1. S. Big«lovii, Torr. Perianth ^-| in. long: sepals lanceolate, spreading, stripedi 
petals erect, very slender, dark: style branches 2-3 lines long. Redwoods. 

2. 8. Halli, Wats. Smaller: style-branches a line long. Cascade Mta. 

24. TR TT.T.TT TTW, Limiaxis, 

Flower sessile. Leaves sessile or nearly so, large 1 

Leaves long-petioled: stem 3-4 in. high 2 

Flower pedonoled. Leaves sessile or nearly so, rhombic-ovate S 

Leaves on petioles 1-15 lines long, lanceolate 4 

1. T. sessile, L., var. Califomicum, Wats. Very variable: petals lnrid-piirpl« or 
rose-red to white, 1-4 in. long. San Diego to Or. 

2. T. petiolatum, Pursh. Petioles exceeding or equaling the blade. Or. & Wash. 

3. T. ovatum, Pursh. Flowers white becoming rose, fragrant. Santa Cruz, N. 

4. T. rivale, Wats. Slender: leaves 1-2 in. long. N. W. Cal. & S. VV. Or. 

26. VEBATRUM, Toumefort. 
Perianth-segments entire or serrulate, oblanceolate, thickened on the sides at base. . 1, 2 
Perianth-segments fringed rhombic-ovate, the riged base divided by a narrow furrow . . S 

1. V. Califomicuin, Durand. Stout, 3-7 ft. high: leaves L-12 in. long, sheathing: 
panicle 1-2 ft. long: perianth-segments whitish with a greener brown-edged base. 

2. V. viride, Ait. Flowers green in slender panicles. Oregon, N. 

3. V. fimbriatiun, Gr. Leaves lanceolate, 6-18 in. long, narrowed at base. CaL 

26. ZYGADENTJS, Michaui. 

Flowers all perfect; segments longer than the stamens, the outer ones not clawed 1 

Flowers smaller: stamens equaling or exceeding the perianth, 2 or 3 lines long 2, 8 

1. Z. Fremonti, Torr. From a few inches to 3 or 4 ft. high: raceme simple or com- 
poond: perianth rotate; segments J-§ in. long, rather obtuse. San Diego to Hnmb't. 

2. Z. venenosus, Wats. Leaves rarely over 2 or 3 lines broad, usually folded: 
raceme simple or nearly so. Cent. Cal., N. {Death Camaat.) 

S Z. paniculatus, Wats. Similar, stouter: raceme compoond: lower flowers often 
sterile, short pedioeled; segments 2 lines long, trismgnlar, acute. Cal., K 


L B. occidentala, 6r. Slender, 1-2 ft. high: perianth 4-7 line* long; Mgineato 
Unear-lanoeolate, tips recurved: linear seeds winged. Or., N. 

28. TOLFIELDIA, Hudson. 
L T. occidentalis, Wata. Viscid-pubescent: inyolucre 3-lobed often reddiali. 
1 T. glntinosa, Willd. Involucre scarcely lobed, near the flower. Or., N. A R. 

29. NABTHECIXJM, Moehring. 
1. H. Oalifomlctun, Baker. Raceme loose, 3-5 in. long: perianth 3-4 linea loof: 
capsule bright salmon-color; seeds with tails at both ends. N. CaL 

30. XEBOFKYXXniSI, Michaux. 
1. X tenAX, Nntt. Stem 2-6 ft high: perianth-segments ^-^ in. long. GaL, H. 
t. X X><mglasii, Wats. Smaller in every way. Colombia River. 


*,* The names of orders are in heavy-face type. Figures following names in paren- 
theses denote the numbers of the species to which the common names apply; e.g., Baby- 
Eyes is the common name of the third species of Nemophila. Figures next to the names 
refer to the Popular Flora. 


A.bronl» lOi. ^ 

Acacia 88b. 

AosenaCi 6S 

AcaQthomlntha 107 

Acer87 89 

Achlys 17 

Aconite, AooMltnm 19 17 

Actoa 17 

AdeDostoma 68 61 

Adolphia 17 

.£«ouIub87 89 

Ag:rimoDla. 68 

AlchemiUa64 61 

Alder 105 

Alfalfa (Medicago, 1) 44 48 

Alfllaria(E:rodiam)SS. Sa 

A.Il8maoeaB 109 

Alisma. 110 

Allium 116 

Allotiopa 74 


Alum-root 67 

Alyssum 81 

Amarantaeeao 106 

Amelancbier 64 68 

Ammanla. 69 

Ainorpha47 46 

Amsinclda. 88 

AnacardlaoetB. 89 

Anagallis. 77 

Anemopals lOfl .'.. 

Anemone 10 14 

Antirrhinum 94 

Aphyllon 104 

Aplectnun Ill 

Apocynaoeas, ApooTiiam. . 77 

Aquilegia. 18 

Arabia 22 

Araliaceas, ArsUa 13 

ArbutuB69 72 

Arctomecon 10b 

Arctostaphylos 09 71 

Areneu^ 28. 80 

Argemone 90b 18 

AristolochiaoecB, 104 ... 

Aristolocbia 104 

▲rmerla 76 



Aaarum 104. 

AsclepladaoesB 77 

Asclepiaa 78 

Ash 77 

Astragalus 46 

Athysanua. !6 

Andibertla 100 108 

Azalea 70 

^Saby-eyea (NemophUa, 8) 81 86 

Baneberry (Aotaa) 17 

Barbarea ... 23 

Barberry 19 Berberia 17 

Bayberry lOfl 

Beard-tongue (Pengtemon) 9L 96 

Bed-straw (Galium) 66 68 

Behria (Note) 118 

Bellflower (Campanula) 68 ... . 70 

BerberldacesD 19 17 

Berberiaia 17 

Bergia 88 

BetulacesB 106 

Bill-berry (Vacdnlum, 1) 72 

Big-root (Megarrhiza) 68. 64 

Bind-weed (Convolvulus, 6). . . 91 

Birch 106 

Blackberry 62. 60 

Bladderwort 104 

Bleeding-heart (Dioentra, 1)22 19 

Bloomeria 116 

Blue-curls 102 (Trichostema). . lOd 
Blue-eyed Orasa (Sisyrinchi- 

um, 1) 113 

Boisduvalla 62 63 

Bolandra 65 

Borraginacese. 87 

Boschniakia 104 

Box-Elder 88 

Boykinia 55 

Brasenia IS 

Brassica 23 

Brevoortia. 118 

Brodiaea 116 

Brunella 108 

Bryanthna 78 

Buckbean 76b 80 


Buckeye (^Esculus) 87 89 

Bur-Clover 44 

Burning-bush (Euonvmus) .. 87 

Buttercup (Ranimculua) 17. . . 16 
Butterfly Lily (Calochortusi 2) 121 

Button-buBh(CephalanthuB).. 69 

OactacesB, Cactus 64 

Calamlntha 107 

Calandrinia 29 81 

Cal. Holly (Heteromeles) 54.. 53 

Cal. Ulac (Ceanothns, 1) 86. . . 37 

Cal. Poppy (EschacholtEla) 21. 19 

CalochortuB 121 

Caltha 16 

CalycanthaoesB 66. 68 

CaJjcanthuB 66 53 

Calypso Ill 

Calyptridium 82 

Campanula68. 70 

Campauulaoete 67. 70 

Camagaia 118 

Canbya 20b 

Capparidacea 25 

Caprifoliacesa 64 66 

Capsella 24 S4 

Cardamine23 21 

Carpenteria 66 

Carpet- weed (Mollugo)63.... 65 

Cary opliyllacesB 27 27 

Cascara Sagrada (Rhamuus, 4) 37 

Cassiope 73 

Caatilleia 93 101 

Catchfly (Sileno) 27 27 

CauIanthuB 23 

Ceanothus 36 87 

Celastraceae 35 87 

Centunculus 77 

Cephalanthera 112 

Cephalantbus 65 68 

Uerastium 28 29 

CercisSSb 48 

Cercocarpus 52 50 

Cereus 66 

Chamsebatla 60 

Chamabatiaria 60 

Chamiao (Adenostoma) 6t. . . . 61 


Chelianthof n ..-. CS 

Cbelone 96 

Chencpodlsoeas IM 

Cbenopodium 105 

Cherry 51 49 


Chicalote (Argemont) Mb. . . . 18 

Chick-weed 28 29 

Chlinaphila 71 74 

Chlorog^um 118 

Chorizantbe 106 

Chryaosplenium. 66 

CircaBa62 63 

Cistaceaa 26 20 

Cladothamnua 74 

Clarkiaei 63 

ClaytoniaSO 82 

Cleavers 65 

aematisie 14 

Cleome «5 

ClintOQia67 12S 

Clocks (Erodinm teeda) tS . . . . 86 

Clover (TrUolium) 42. 42 

Cneoridium 86 

Coflee-tree (Rhamnna, 8) 85 

Collin8i»90 96 


Columbine ( Aqal lefU) 18 16 

CumpoBltee 66. 69 

ConTolTulaoeas 88. 91 

Coptis 16 

Corallorhla Ill 

Coral-root (CoraUothln) 111.. 

Cordylanthn* 95 103 

Cornacete 68 66 

Comu863 66 

Com-spurry 39. 80 

Corydalis 19 

Cottonwood 106 

Cotyledon 68 68 

Crab-apple (Pirui) 64 63 

Cranesbill (Qeraniom) SS 86 

Crass ulacea) 53 67 

Cratae^s 68 

Cream-cups (PlAtyBtomon) tO . 18 

CressaST 91 

CruciferaeZa 19 

Cucurbitaceae, CnocniblU 64 

Currant 58 67 

Cuscuta 87 91 

Cypripedium 112 

Cycladenia 77 

Cynoglossum 86. 90 

X>ama8onium. 110 

Darlingtonia 30 18 

Datura 88 92 

Datiscaceae, Datisea 64 

Death-Camass (Zjg»d9BU») ... 123 

Delphinium 18 16 

Dendromecon 21 19 

Dentaria 21 

Dicentra22 19 

DigiUlis 101 

Dlpaaoaoeas, Dipaaooa. 69 


Dirca (Defined In Kay). 11 

Dock 105 

Dodecatheon 72 76 

Dodders? 91 

Dogwood (Cornna, 1) 63 

Downingia 67 70 

Draba 21 

Draperia 85 

Droceraoese, Drocerm. 68 

Durango (Datiaca). 64 

ISar-drops (Dioentra) 32 19 

Echinocactui 66 

Kchinospermum 85 00 

Elatinaceae, Elatina 83 

Elder (Sambucua) 64 67 

EllisiaSl 86 

Emmenanthe 82. . . 87 

Epilobium 59 60 

Epijiactis 112 

]<:ricace8s68 71 

Eriodiotyon 83 86 

Eriogonum 106 

Eriogynia 60 

Eritrichium 85 

ErodiumSS 86 

Erysimum 23 23 

ErythraBa75 79 

Erythronium. 120 

Eschscholtzla 21 19 

Eucharidium 62. 63 

Eulobus 61 

EuoDymaaS5 87 

Evening Prlmroaa 00 

ITatBia 18 

Feverwort (Scrophularla) 90 . . 96 

Fiooide8B68 66 

Figwort (Scropholarla) 90 96 

FilanaorFilaree(Erodiam}83 86 

Flag(lri8). 118 

Flai(Linum)82. 85 

Forget-me-not (Myoaotia) 88 

Foxglove 101 

Fragaria 58 61 

Frankeniaceas. Fnoken- 

ia 20 27 

Firasera 79 

Fraxlnu8 78. 77 

Fremoiitia. 85 

Fringe-pod 26 

Fritillaria 120 

FumariaceaeSS 19 

Q-alium 65 68 

Garrya 64 66 

Gaultheria 70... 73 

Gayophytum 61 

Gentiana 75 79 

Gentianacem 74 78 

GeraniacesB SS 86 

GeraniumSS 86 

Qeum 61 

Gilia 76 80 

Oinsrer 104 


Oithopela <7..... .•*..««. 70 

aiaaswort 106 

01aux73 76 

Glycyrrbiza 47 46 

Qodetiaei 62 

Goldthread (Coptia) U 

Gomphocarpoa 74 78 

Goodyera lU 

Gooseberry 68 67 

Goosefoot 105 

Grape 87 88 

Grauola 101 

Greek Valerian 80 

XXabenaria Ill 

Halorageao 59 

Hastingsia 118 

Hedge Mustard 24 

Helianthemum26 26 

Beliotropium, Hellotropa 84.. 83 

Herpestris 101 

Hesperochiron 87 

Heterocodon 68 71 

Heterodraba. 26 

Heteroifaura 68 

Heteromeles 64 63 

Heuchera57 66 

Hibiscus 86 

Hippnris .. 69 

Holodiscus 60 

Honeysuckle CLonicen) 66.... 67 

Hookera 117 

Horkelia53 52 

Hop-Tree (Ptele*) 84 86 

Hosackia44 43 

Hound's - tongue (Cynogloa- 

Bum) 86 90 

Howellla 13 

Huckleberry 69 72 

HyUrophyllaoeaBSO 84 

Hydrophyllum 84 

Hyperlcaceae 80 83 

Hypericum 80 83 

Ulecehraoeas 81 

Uysantbes 101 

Indian Hemp 73 

Indian .Lettuce (ClaytonU, 1) 

80 82 

Iridacece Ill 

Iris 113 

Isomeris 26 

Isopyrum 16 

Ivesia 62 

Jamestown-Weed (Datura) 88 92 

Jerusalem Oak 105. 

Jussiffia 69 60 


ICalmia. 78 

Kelloggia 68 

Knotgrass 105 

Eqameria S7 

Kryuitzkia 80 



X^ablafeaB.... 106 

Lace-pod 25 

Lady'B mantle (AJobemlUs)... 62 

Lady's-Blipper (Cyp'lp«dlum). 112 

Lamb's-quarten 106 

Larkspur (Delphinium). 18 

LathyruB 47 

Lauracese 106 

Laurel 106 

Laurentia 70 

LarateraSl 84 

Leatherwood (Dirca, In Key). 12 

Ledum 74 

Leek (Allium) 116 

L,egTuiilnoa8B U. 89 

Liennoaceae 75 

Xientlbalarlaoeae 104 

Lepidium24 86 

Lepigonum 30. 80 

Leucocrinum 118 

LewisiaSO 83 

LUlaceae US 

Lilium 119 

Lily 119 

LimoBellaOS 101 

Limsanthes 8i. 86 

L.lnace8a82 86 

LinariaQO 94 

Linnaa 67 

Llstera 112 

Linum82 85 

Lippia 106 

Liquorice (Qlyoyrrhixa) 42 46 

Lithospermum 88 

liOasaceae 68 

LobeliacesB, Lobelia... (18) 69 

LOBfllDgia 81 

LoDicera65 67 

LophanthuB. 108 

Lousewort (pedicnlarlB) 96.. . . 103 

Lovegrove(Nemophila,4J 85 

Lucern (Medicago, 1) 44 43 

Lucothoe 73 

Ludwigla 60 

Lupinus. Lupine 89 40 

Lychnis 29 

Lycopus 98 106 

Lycium 92 

Lysimachia 76 

Lythracese, Lythrum 69... 69 

Afadrono (Arbntoi) 69 72 

Mabonia (Berberis) 19 17 

Maiantbeinum 119 

Mallow, Malva 81 84 

BlalvaceasSl. 8S 

Malvastrum 84 

Uamillaria 66 

Manzaclta 69 

Maple87 89 

Mariposa 121 

Marrubium 108 

Marsh Rosemary (Siatioe) 72. . 76 

May-apple (Achlys) 17 

Meadow Rue (Thaliotnun).... 16 


MeconopeiB 21. ^^ 19 

Medicago44 43 

Megarrhiza 63. 64 

MeUlotU843. 43 

MenthaflS 106 

Mentzelia62 68 

Menyanthea 76. 80 

Menzdesla 78 

Mertensia 88 

MesembryanUtemnm 61 66 


Microcala76 78 

Micromeria99. 107 

Miltweed 73 

Mimulu892 98 

Mint (Mentha) 88 100 

Mitella 66 

Mock-OranKe(PhiUdalphiu)67 66 

Mohavea 96 

Mollugo63 66 

Monardella93 106 

Moneses 74 

Mod key-flower (Mimoltu) 92.. 98 

Monk's noodl9 17 

Monotropa 76 

Montia 82 

Morning-Olory (Genus 1)86... 91 
Mosquito-billa ( Dodecatheon) 76 

Moiiutain Balm 83 

Mountain Laurel (Eaknia). ... 78 

Mountain-Mahogany 52. 60 

Mouse-tail (MyoBurus) 17 16 

Mudwort 93 

Muilla 116 

Mullein (Verbascum) 89 94 

Musk-Plant (Mimolns. 30) 92.. 98 

Mustard (Brassica) 88 23 

Myosotla 88 

Myo8uru9l7 16 

Myrica 105 

MyriophyUam 69 

JXama 87 

Nartheclum 124 

Nasturtium 24 

NegundoSS 89 

Neillia 51, Fhysocarpus. 60 

Nemacladua 69 

NemophilaSl 86 

Newberrya 76 

NicotianaSa 93 

Nightshade (Solannm, 1) 88. . . 92 

Nine-Bark (PhysocarpoB) 61.. 60 

Nuphar20 18 

NuttalliaSl 44 

Nyctaginacem 104 

Nympli8Bao«ea ao. . 17 

Odontostomom. 119 

CEnotheraeO. 61 

01eace8B73 77 

Omphalodes > 90 

Onagrace8s68 S9 

Onion (Allium). 116 

Opnntia 66 


OroUdacesB 110 

Oregon Crab-apple 64 

Oregon-Grape (Berberis, 2) 19 17 

Oreodaphne 106 

Orobanchaceas 96 104 

Orthocarpus 94 102 

Oso Berry (Nuttallia) 61 49 

Oxali884 86 

I»aohy8tima 87 

Pwonia, FsBony 19 17 

Painted-cup (CaatilleU) 93 ... . 101 

Palmerella 70 

Pansy (Viola) 26 26 

Papaverac«8D 80a 13 

Pamassia 66 

PectocaryaSe 91 

Pediculari896 103 

Pentacena 81 

PeDt8temon91 96 

Pepper Tree 88. 

Petunia 93 

PhaceliaSl 85 

Philbertia 78 

PhUadelphu867 56 

Phlox 80 

Pholisma 76 

Photinia (Toyon) 64 

Physalis 98 

Physocarpua (Neillia) 61 60 

Plckeringia 89 40 

Pigweed 105 

Pin-clover (Erodlum) 83 36 

Pimpernel (Anagallls) 73 77 

Pipexaceae 105 

Pipe-vine 104 

Pipsissewa (Chimaphila) 71 . . . 74 

Piru864 53 

Plagiobothrys 89 

Flantaginaceas 103 109 

Plantago, Plantain 103 109 

Platyspermum 21 

Platystemon 20b 18 

Platystigma 21 18 

Plectriti8(Valerianella)6S.... 69 

Pleuricospora 76 

PlumBO 49 

n umbaginaceBB 71 7^ 

Pogogyne 99 107 

Poison Oak 38 89 

Polemoniaceae 75 80 

rolemonium 80 84 

Polycarpon 30 

Polygala27 27 

Polyb'alacese 27 26 

Polygonaceae, Polyeonum lOB 

Pond-Lily (Muphar) 20 18 

Poplar 106 

Portalacaceae 29 31 

Portulaca29 81 

Potentma63 61 

Poterium 68 

Prickly Poppy 20b 

Primula 76 

PrimolacesB 72. H 


Prlncc'B Pln> (Chtwwiplina). . . . 74 

Prosartet 122 

Prunus 60 49 

P8oralea46 46 

Ptelea34 M 

PterosponkTl 76 

Putty-root Ill 

Pycnanthamam W IM 

PjTolaTl 74 

QiuakiDg-A«p IM 

FCadish (Rapbanua) tt Z6 

Uanuncnlaoese 18 14 

Kanunculus 16 16 

Raphanu3 25 26 

Raspberry 62 60 

Battle-weed (Astra^^ai, 7-19) 40 

Rhamnaceaa 86 87 

Rliamnus 35 87 

KbododeDdron 70 74 

RhusSS 89 

Ribes67 67 

Uib-gra8s(Plaiitaeo)10S 109 

RomanzofflaSS 87 

Komiieya20b 18 

K(>Hace8e49 48 

Kosa (Rom) 64. 68 

Rolala 69 

KnbiaceaBe6 68 

Hubus62 60 

Romex 106 

RataceaB84. 86 

eiagina 80 

Sage (SalTl* ft AndlbertU) 100 108 

Bagittarift 110 

Salal (Gaul therla, 1) 70 73 

Salicaceee 100 


Salmon Berry (Bubua, 8) 52. . 50 

SalvialOO 108 

Sambucui64 67 

Samolus 77 

Sand Spurry (Leplgonom) 29.. 80 

Sand Verbena 104 

Sandwort (Arenaria) 28. SO 

SapiDdaceae 87 38 

Baponaria. 29 

Saraceniacese 20 18 

Sarcode8 71 76 

Saxif raga, Saxifrage 66 64 

Saxifragaceae 66 64 

Schiznotus 78 

ScoUopus 123 

Scrophularia 90 00 

Scropliularlaoeas 89 93 

Scutellaria 101 103 

Sea Milkwort (Gl»ux)7i 76 

Sedum B8 68 

Self-heal (BruneUa) 101 108 

Senebiera 26 

Service-berry (Sbftd-b«rry) 64. 

Sesuvium 66 

Ubecp Sorrel 106 


Shepherd's Poiwti.... 

Shooting-Btar(Dodecfttk0OD)71 70 

Sibaldia 62 

Sida 86 

Sidalcea81 84 

Silene27 27 

Silkweed (AaclepiM) 7» 78 

Silver-weed 63 

Sisymbrium 24. 24 

Sisyrinchium 118 

Skullcap (Scutellaria) 101 103 

SkuBk-weed (O. •quanoia) 78 82 

Smartweed 106 

Smllacina. 119 

Snapdragon, Antirrhinom 90. 04 

Snow-Berry 64 

Snow-Plant71 76 

Soap-Root (Chlorogalom).... 118 

Solanaceae, Solanom 83.... 92 

Sorrel (Oxalis) 84 86 

Specularia 07 70 

8pergula29 80 

Sphacele 100 103 

Spikenard 13 

Splraea51 49 

Spiranthee 112 

Spraguea 82 

StachyilOl 108 

Stanleya 23 

Stanford!* 24 

Staphylea 89 

Star-Flower (TrientaUt) 78. . . . 76 

Statice72 76 

Stellaria28 29 

SterooliacesD SO 86 

St. John'8-wort 80 

Stick-seed rEchinoapermmnX . 90 

Stonecrop (Sednm) 68 68 

Stramonium (Datura) 88 92 

Strawberry (Fragaria) 68 61 

Streptanthtu 22 

Streptopua 122 

Stropholirlon 116 

StyracacesB. Stynx SO.... 77 

Subularla 24 

Suksdorfla 65 

Sulivantia 66 

Sun-Dial(LupiDU8)89 40 

Sweet.clover(Melilotu8)43... 43 

Sweet-scented Shrub 65 68 

Sycamore 106 

Symphoricarpos 64 67 

Synthyris 101 

rrare (Vicia satlTa) 48. 47 

TcUimaSe 66 

Thalictruml7 16 

Thelypodium 23 

ThermopsisSO 40 

Thimbleberry (Rubui, 1) 62. . . 60 

Thlaspi 24 

Thrift (Armeria) 73 76 

Thysanocarpua 26. 26 

TiaTelIa67 66 

Tiger Lily (Idlium) U» 


Till»a69 67 

Toad-flax Qiinaria) 90 94 

Tobacco (Nlootiana) 89 93 

Tolmiea 65 

Tolfleldia 124 

Tonella 96 

ToyoQ (Heteromelea) 64 63 

Trautvetteria 16 

Trichostema 102. 106 

Trientali873 76 

Trifolium42 42 

Trillium 123 

TriteUia 117 

Tropidocarpum 24 24 

Twayblade (Llstera) 112 

Twisted-stalk (Streptopua). ... 122 

UmbeIIireraB6S. 66 

Umbellularia 106. 

Utrloularia 104 

■Vacclnlum69 72 

Valeriana 63 

ValerlanacesB 66. 68 

Valerianella 69 

Vancouveria 20, 17 

Veratrum 123 

VerbascumSg 94 

Verbenacece 102 106 

Verbena 103 106 

Veronica 93 101 

Vesicaria 24 

Vetch (Viola) 49 47 

Vibernum 67 

Vicla48 47 

Vine Maple (Acer, 2) 87 39 

Viola, Violet 26 26 

Violace£e25 28 

Virgin's Bower (Clematis) 16. . 14 
Vitaceae, Vitifl 87 88 

■^Vake Itobln (Trillium). . . 123 

Wall-flower (Cheiranthua) 23. . 28 

Walnut 106 

Water Plantain (Aliama) 110 

Water Uorehound 93 

Water-Lily (Nuphar) 18 

Water-shield (Braaenia) 20 ... . 18 

Whipplea67 66 

Willow 106. 

Willow-herb (Epilobium) 69. . 60 

Wood Anemone (3d ap.) 14 

SEerophyllum 124 

■yerba Buena 99 

Verba Mansa 106 

Verba Santa 84 

Yucca 119 

jaSaoschnerU 69 06 

Zizyphoa. 87 

Zygideavm..- ta 

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